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The Governor of Hong Kong was the representative in Hong Kong of the British Crown from 1843 to 1997. In this capacity, the governor was president of the Executive Council and Commander-in-Chief of the British Forces Overseas Hong Kong. The governor's roles were defined in the Hong Kong Letters Patent and Royal Instructions. Upon the end of British rule and the transfer of Hong Kong to the People's Republic of China in 1997, most of the civil functions of this office went to the Chief Executive of Hong Kong, and military functions went to the Commander of the People's Liberation Army Hong Kong Garrison.

Governor of Hong Kong
Flag of the Governor of Hong Kong (1959-1997).svg
Standard of the Governor, 1959–1997
Chris Patten -2008-10-31- (cropped).jpg
Chris Patten, the last Governor of Hong Kong
Style His/Her Excellency
Residence Government House, Hong Kong
Appointer Monarch of the United Kingdom
Formation 26 June 1843
First holder Sir Henry Pottinger
Final holder Chris Patten
Abolished 30 June 1997
Salary HK$3,036,000 per annum (1997)
Governor of Hong Kong
Traditional Chinese 香港總督
Simplified Chinese 香港总督
Cantonese Yale Hēunggóng Júngdūk
Abbreviation
Chinese 港督
Cantonese Yale Góngdūk

Contents

The governorEdit

 
Uniform of the Governor of Hong Kong

Authorities and duties of the governor were defined in the Hong Kong Letters Patent and Royal Instructions in 1843. The governor, appointed by the British monarch (on the advice of the Foreign Secretary), exercised the executive branch of the Government of Hong Kong throughout British sovereignty and, with the exception of a brief experiment after World War II, no serious attempt was made to introduce representative government, until the final years of British rule.

The Governor of Hong Kong chaired the colonial cabinet, the Executive Council (ExCo), and, until 1993, was also the President of the Legislative Council. The governor appointed most, if not all, of the members of the colony's legislature (known colloquially as LegCo), which was largely an advisory body until the first indirect election to LegCo was held in 1985. Initially both Councils were dominated by British expatriates, but this progressively gave way to local Hong Kong Chinese appointees in later years. Historically, the Governors of Hong Kong were either professional diplomats or senior colonial officials, except for the last governor, Chris Patten, who was a career politician. In December 1996, the governor's salary was HK$3,036,000 per annum, tax-free. It was fixed at 125% of the Chief Secretary's salary.[1]

In the absence of the governor, the chief secretary immediately became the acting governor of the colony. The chief secretaries were historically drawn from the Colonial Office or British military. One Royal Navy Vice Admiral served as administrator after World War II. Four Japanese military officers (three Army officers and one naval Vice Admiral) served as administrators during the Japanese occupation of Hong Kong in World War II.

TransportEdit

The Governor of Hong Kong used a Daimler DS420 for day to day transport and a Rolls-Royce Phantom V landaulette for ceremonial occasions. Both vehicles were removed by the Royal Navy immediately following the handover to China on 1 July 1997.

ResidencesEdit

List of governorsEdit

British administrators and governors (1841–1941)Edit

Portrait Name
(Born–Died)
Term of office Origin Background Ref
Took office Left office Duration
  Sir Charles Elliot
義律

(1801–1875)
Administrator

26 January 1841 12 August 1841 198 days Dresden, Saxony Chief Superintendent of British Trade in China [2][3]
  Alexander Robert Johnston
莊士敦

(1812–1888)
Acting Administrator

22 June 1841 1 February 1842 224 days Colombo, Ceylon Deputy Superintendent of British Trade in China [4][5]
  Sir Henry Pottinger, 1st Bt.
砵甸乍

(1789–1856)
Administrator

12 August 1841 26 June 1843 1 year, 318 days County Down, Ireland Lieutenant-General, East India Company [2][6]
  Alexander Robert Johnston
莊士敦

(1812–1888)
Acting Administrator

13 June 1842 2 December 1842 172 days Colombo, Ceylon Assistant and Registrar to the Superintendent of Trade [3][7][8]
1   Sir Henry Pottinger, 1st Bt.
砵甸乍

(1789–1856)

26 June 1843 8 May 1844 317 days County Down, Ireland Lieutenant-General [9]
2   Sir John Francis Davis, 1st Bt.
戴維斯

(1795–1890)

8 May 1844 18 March 1848 3 years, 315 days London, England Factor/President, East India Company; Second Superintendent of British Trade in China [10]
  William Staveley
士他花利

(1784–1854)
Administrator

18 March 1848 21 March 1848 3 days York, England Commander and lieutenant governor, British Army
3   Sir George Bonham
文咸

(1803–1863)

21 March 1848 13 April 1854 6 years, 23 days London, England East India Company [11]
4   Sir John Bowring
寶靈

(1792–1872)

13 April 1854 2 May 1859 5 years, 19 days Exeter, England Member of Parliament [12]
  William Caine

(1799–1871)
Acting Governor

2 May 1859 9 September 1859 130 days England Colonial Secretary [13]
5   Sir Hercules Robinson
羅士敏

(1824–1897)

9 September 1859 15 March 1865 5 years, 187 days London, England Colonial administrator [14][15]
  William Thomas Mercer
孖沙

(1821–1879)
Acting Governor

15 March 1865 12 March 1866 362 days London, England Colonial Secretary [15]
6   Sir Richard Graves MacDonnell
麥當奴

(1814–1881)

12 March 1866 11 April 1872 6 years, 30 days Dublin, Ireland Colonial administrator [16][17][18]
  Henry Wase Whitfield
威非路

(1814–1877)
Lieutenant-Governor

11 April 1872 16 April 1872 5 days England Commander and lieutenant governor [18]
7   Sir Arthur Kennedy
堅尼地

(1809–1883)

16 April 1872 1 March 1877 4 years, 319 days County Down, Ireland Colonial administrator [19][20]
  John Gardiner Austin
柯士甸

(1811–1900)
Administrator

1 March 1877 23 April 1877 53 days Lowlands Plantation, Demerara Colonial administrator [20]
8   Sir John Pope Hennessy
軒尼詩

(1834–1891)

23 April 1877 7 March 1882 4 years, 318 days County Cork, Ireland Colonial administrator [21][22]
  Malcolm Struan Tonnochy
杜老誌

(1841–1882)
Administrator

7 March 1882 28 March 1882 21 days Uttar Pradesh, Bengal, India Colonial administrator [22]
  Sir William Henry Marsh
馬殊

(1827–1906)
Administrator

28 March 1882 30 March 1883 1 year, 2 days England Colonial administrator [23]
9   Sir George Bowen
寶雲

(1821–1899)

30 March 1883 21 December 1885 2 years, 266 days County Donegal, Ireland Colonial administrator [24]
  Sir William Henry Marsh
馬殊

(1827–1906)
Officer Administrating the Government

21 December 1885 25 April 1887 1 year, 125 days England Colonial administrator [25]
  William Gordon Cameron
金馬倫

(1827–1913)
Officer Administering the Government

25 April 1887 6 October 1887 164 days France Commander and lieutenant governor, British Army [26]
10   Sir William Des Vœux
德輔

(1834–1909)

6 October 1887 7 May 1891 3 years, 213 days Baden-Baden, German Confederation Colonial administrator [27]
  Sir George Digby Barker
白加

(1833–1914)
Officer Administering the Government

7 May 1891 10 December 1891 217 days Unknown Commander and lieutenant governor, British Army [28]
11   Sir William Robinson
羅便臣

(1836–1912)

10 December 1891 1 February 1898 6 years, 53 days Wetherden, England Colonial administrator [29][30]
  Sir Wilsone Black
布力

(1837–1909)
Officer Administering the Government

1 February 1898 25 November 1898 297 days Glasgow, Scotland Commander and lieutenant governor [30]
12   Sir Henry Arthur Blake
卜力

(1840–1918)

25 November 1898 21 November 1903 4 years, 361 days Limerick, Ireland Colonial administrator [31][32]
  Sir Francis Henry May
梅含理

(1860–1922)
Officer Administering the Government

21 November 1903 29 July 1904 251 days Dublin, Ireland Colonial Secretary [32]
13   Sir Matthew Nathan
彌敦

(1862–1939)

29 July 1904 20 April 1907 2 years, 265 days London, England Colonial administrator [33][34]
  Sir Francis Henry May
梅含理

(1860–1922)
Officer Administering the Government

20 April 1907 29 July 1907 100 days Dublin, Ireland Colonial Secretary [34]
14   Sir Frederick Lugard
盧吉

(1858–1945)

29 July 1907 16 March 1912 4 years, 231 days Madras, India Colonial administrator [35]
  Claud Severn
施勳

(1869–1933)
Officer Administering the Government

16 March 1912 4 July 1912 110 days Adelaide, South Australia Colonial administrator [35]
15   Sir Francis Henry May
梅含理

(1860–1922)

4 July 1912 12 September 1918 6 years, 70 days Dublin, Ireland Colonial Secretary [36][37][38]
  Claud Severn
施勳

(1869–1933)
Officer Administering the Government

12 September 1918 30 September 1919 1 year, 18 days Adelaide, South Australia Colonial administrator [38]
16   Sir Reginald Edward Stubbs
司徒拔

(1876–1947)

30 September 1919 31 October 1925 6 years, 31 days Oxford, England Colonial administrator [39][40][41]
17   Sir Cecil Clementi
金文泰

(1875–1947)

1 November 1925 1 February 1930 4 years, 92 days Cawnpore, India Colonial administrator [42][43]
  Thomas Southorn
修頓

(1879–1957)
Officer Administering the Government

1 February 1930 9 May 1930 97 days Durham, England Colonial Secretary [43]
18   Sir William Peel
貝璐

(1875–1945)

9 May 1930 17 May 1935 5 years, 8 days Hexham, England Colonial administrator [44][45]
  Thomas Southorn
修頓

(1879–1957)
Officer Administering the Government

17 May 1935 13 September 1935 119 days Leamington Spa, England Colonial Secretary [45][46]
  Norman Lockhart Smith
史美

(1887–1968)
Officer Administering the Government

13 September 1935 1 November 1935 49 days Durham, England Colonial administrator [46][47]
  Thomas Southorn
修頓

(1879–1957)
Officer Administering the Government

1 November 1935 12 December 1935 41 days Leamington Spa, England Colonial Secretary [47]
19   Sir Andrew Caldecott
郝德傑

(1884–1951)

12 December 1935 16 April 1937 1 year, 125 days Kent, England Colonial administrator [48][49]
  Norman Lockhart Smith
史美

(1887–1968)
Officer Administering the Government

16 April 1937 28 October 1937 195 days Durham, England Colonial Secretary [49]
20   Sir Geoffry Northcote
羅富國

(1881–1948)

28 October 1937 6 September 1941 3 years, 313 days London, England Colonial administrator [50]
  Norman Lockhart Smith
史美

(1887–1968)
Officer Administering the Government

6 September 1941 10 September 1941 4 days Durham, England Colonial Secretary [51]
21   Sir Mark Aitchison Young
楊慕琦

(1886–1974)

10 September 1941 25 December 1941 106 days India Colonial administrator [52]

Japanese occupation (1941–1945)Edit

Portrait Name
(Born–Died)
Term of office Ref
Took office Left office Duration
  Takashi Sakai
酒井隆

(1886–1967)
Administrator

25 December 1941 20 February 1942 57 days
  Masaichi Niimi
新見政一

(1887–1993)
Administrator

1   Rensuke Isogai
磯谷廉介
(1886–1967)
20 February 1942 24 December 1944 2 years, 308 days
2   Hisakazu Tanaka
田中久一
(1889–1947)
1 February 1945 16 August 1945 196 days

British administrators and governors (1945–1997)Edit

Portrait Name
(Born–Died)
Term of office Origin Background Ref
Took office Left office Duration
  Sir Franklin Charles Gimson
詹遜

(1890–1975)
Provisional governor

28 August 1945 30 August 1945 2 days Leicestershire, England Colonial Secretary
  Sir Cecil Harcourt
夏愨

(1892–1959)
Military administration

1 September 1945 1 May 1946 242 days London, England Admiral (Royal Navy)
21   Sir Mark Aitchison Young
楊慕琦

(1886–1974)

1 May 1946 17 May 1947 1 year, 16 days India Colonial administrator
  David Mercer MacDougall
麥道高

(1904–1991)
Administrator

17 May 1947 25 July 1947 69 days Scotland Colonial Secretary
22   Sir Alexander Grantham
葛量洪

(1899–1978)

25 July 1947 31 December 1957 10 years, 159 days London, England Colonial administrator
  Edgeworth Beresford David
戴維德

(1908–1965)
Administrator

31 December 1957 23 January 1958 23 days Dulwich, England Colonial Secretary
23   Sir Robert Brown Black
柏立基

(1906–1999)

23 January 1958 31 March 1964 6 years, 68 days Edinburgh, Scotland Colonial administrator
  Edmund Brinsley Teesdale
戴斯德

(1915–1997)
Administrator

31 March 1964 14 April 1964 14 days Shanghai, China Colonial Secretary
24   Sir David C.C. Trench
戴麟趾

(1915–1988)

14 April 1964 19 October 1971 7 years, 188 days Quetta, India Colonial administrator
  Sir Hugh Norman-Walker
羅樂民

(1916–1985)
Administrator

19 October 1971 19 November 1971 31 days London, England Colonial Secretary
25   Sir Murray MacLehose
麥理浩

(1917–2000)

19 November 1971 8 May 1982 10 years, 170 days Glasgow, Scotland UK Ambassador to Denmark
  Sir Philip Haddon-Cave
夏鼎基

(1925–1999)
Acting governor

8 May 1982 20 May 1982 12 days Hobart, Australia Chief Secretary
26   Sir Edward Youde
尤德

(1924–1986)

20 May 1982 4 December 1986 4 years, 198 days Penarth, Wales UK Ambassador to China
  Sir David Akers-Jones
鍾逸傑

(1929–present)
Acting governor

4 December 1986 9 April 1987 126 days Sussex, England Chief Secretary
27   Sir David Wilson
衛奕信

(1936–present)

9 April 1987 3 July 1992 5 years, 91 days Clackmannanshire, Scotland Diplomat
  Sir David Ford
霍德

(1935–2017)
Acting governor

3 July 1992 9 July 1992 6 days England Chief Secretary
28   Chris Patten
彭定康

(1944–present)

9 July 1992 30 June 1997 4 years, 356 days Lancashire, England Chairman of Conservative Party

TimelineEdit

Chris PattenDavid Clive WilsonEdward YoudeMurray MacLehoseDavid TrenchRobert Brown BlackAlexander GranthamMark Aitchison YoungMark Aitchison YoungGeoffry NorthcoteAndrew CaldecottWilliam Peel (colonial administrator)Cecil ClementiReginald Edward StubbsFrancis Henry MayFrederick LugardMatthew NathanHenry Arthur BlakeWilliam Robinson (governor)William Des VœuxGeorge BowenJohn Pope HennessyArthur KennedyRichard Graves MacDonnellHercules RobinsonJohn BowringGeorge BonhamJohn Francis DavisHenry Pottinger 

FirstsEdit

StandardsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ House of Commons Hansard Written Answers for 17 Dec 1996 (pt 3) Archived 16 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ a b Civil and Miscellaneous Lists: Hong Kong Government. Hong Kong: Government Printer. 1973. p. 101.
  3. ^ a b Endacott, G. B. (2005) [1962]. A Biographical Sketch-book of Early Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. pp. 56–58. ISBN 962-209-742-1.
  4. ^ The Chinese Repository. Volume 10. Canton. 1841. pp. 351–352.
  5. ^ The Chinese Repository. Volume 11. Canton. 1842. p. 674.
  6. ^ Norton-Kyshe, James William (1898). The History of the Laws and Courts of Hongkong. Volume 1. London: T. Fisher Unwin. p. 10.
  7. ^ The Chinese Repository, vol. 11, p. 676
  8. ^ The Chinese Repository, vol. 11, p. 685
  9. ^ "Proclamation" (PDF). The Friends of China Hongkong Gazette Government Extraordinary. 30 June 1853.
  10. ^ "Notice" (PDF). The Friends of China Hongkong Gazette Government. 11 May 1844.
  11. ^ "Government Notifications" (PDF). The Friends of China Hongkong Gazette. 25 March 1854.
  12. ^ "Government Notification" (PDF). The Hongkong Government Gazette. 13 April 1854.
  13. ^ "Government Notification No. 46" (PDF). The Hongkong Government Gazette. 2 May 1859.
  14. ^ "Government Notification No. 77 of 1859" (PDF). The Hongkong Government Gazette. 9 September 1859.
  15. ^ a b "Government Notification No. 38 of 1865" (PDF). The Hongkong Government Gazette. 15 March 1865.
  16. ^ "Swearing in the Governor". Hong Kong Daily Press. 13 March 1866. p. 2. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
  17. ^ "Government Notification No. 40 of 1866" (PDF). The Hongkong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 12 March 1866.
  18. ^ a b "Government Notification No. 73 of 1877" (PDF). The Hongkong Government Gazette. 11 April 1872.
  19. ^ "Government Notification No. 80 of 1877" (PDF). The Hongkong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 16 April 1872.
  20. ^ a b "Government Notification No. 47 of 1877" (PDF). The Hongkong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 2 March 1877.
  21. ^ "Government Notification No. 103 of 1877" (PDF). The Hongkong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 23 April 1877.
  22. ^ a b "Government Notification No. 95 of 1882" (PDF). The Hongkong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 7 March 1882.
  23. ^ "Government Notification No. 147 of 1882" (PDF). The Hongkong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 28 March 1882.
  24. ^ "Government Notification No. 118 of 1883" (PDF). The Hongkong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 31 March 1883.
  25. ^ "Government Notification No. 198 of 1885" (PDF). The Hongkong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 21 December 1885.
  26. ^ "Government Notification No. 165 of 1887" (PDF). The Hongkong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 25 April 1887.
  27. ^ "Government Notification No. 403 of 1887" (PDF). The Hongkong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 6 October 1887.
  28. ^ "Government Notification No. 215 of 1891" (PDF). The Hongkong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 7 May 1891.
  29. ^ "Government Notification No. 515 of 1891" (PDF). The Hongkong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 10 December 1891.
  30. ^ a b "Government Notification No. 44 of 1898" (PDF). The Hongkong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 25 February 1898.
  31. ^ "Government Notification No. 528 of 1898" (PDF). The Hongkong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 25 November 1898.
  32. ^ a b "No.788 of 1903" (PDF). The Hongkong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 21 November 1903.
  33. ^ "No.518 of 1904" (PDF). The Hongkong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 29 July 1904.
  34. ^ a b "No.288 of 1907" (PDF). The Hongkong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 20 April 1907.
  35. ^ a b "No.81 of 1912" (PDF). The Hongkong Government Gazette. 16 March 1912.
  36. ^ "No.218 of 1912" (PDF). The Hongkong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 4 July 1912.
  37. ^ "No.219 of 1912" (PDF). The Hongkong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 4 July 1912.
  38. ^ a b "No.346 of 1918" (PDF). The Hongkong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 12 September 1918.
  39. ^ "No. 454 of 1919" (PDF). The Hongkong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 30 September 1919.
  40. ^ "Hong Kong Hansard" (PDF). 23 November 1925.
  41. ^ "No. 627 of 1925" (PDF). The Hongkong Government Gazette. 23 November 1925.
  42. ^ "No. 624 of 1925" (PDF). The Hongkong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 1 November 1925.
  43. ^ a b "No. 70 of 19305" (PDF). The Hong Kong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 1 February 1930.
  44. ^ "No. 275 of 1930" (PDF). The Hong Kong Government Gazette. 9 May 1930.
  45. ^ a b "No. 381 of 1935" (PDF). The HongKong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 17 May 1935.
  46. ^ a b "No. 681 of 1935" (PDF). The Hong Kong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 13 September 1935.
  47. ^ a b "No. 836 of 1935" (PDF). The Hong Kong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 1 November 1935.
  48. ^ "No. 966 of 1935" (PDF). The Hong Kong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 12 December 1935.
  49. ^ a b "No. 260 of 1937" (PDF). The Hong Kong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 16 April 1937.
  50. ^ "No. 755 of 1937" (PDF). The Hong Kong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 28 October 1937.
  51. ^ "No. 1079 of 1941" (PDF). The Hong Kong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 6 September 1941.
  52. ^ "No. 1085 of 1941" (PDF). The Hong Kong Government Gazette Extraordinary. 10 September 1941.

External linksEdit