Hongkongers (Chinese: 香港人), also known as Hong Kongers, Hong Kongese, Hongkongese, Hong Kong citizen[b] and Hong Kong people, typically refers to legal residents of the city of Hong Kong; although may also refer to others who were born and/or raised in the city.
|c. 7.33 million|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Cantonese (first language),|
Hong Kong English (second language),
Mandarin Chinese (second language)
|Non-religious with ancestral worship, Chinese folk religion, Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Christianity and other faiths|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Cantonese people, Macau people, Hoklo people, Hakka people, Teochew people, Shanghainese people|
The majority of Hongkongers are of Cantonese Han Chinese descent, most of whom trace their ancestral home to the province of Guangdong. However, the city also holds other Han Chinese subgroups including the Hakka, Hoklo, Teochew (Chiuchow), Shanghainese and Taiwanese. Meanwhile, non-Han Chinese Hongkongers such as the British, Filipinos, Indonesians, Japanese, Koreans, South Asians and Vietnamese also make up six per cent of Hong Kong's population.
Mainland China holds the largest number of Hong Kong expatriates, although the Hong Kong diaspora can also be found in several English-speaking countries. Most Hongkongers living outside China form a part of the larger overseas Chinese community. The migration of Hongkongers to other parts of the world accelerated in the years prior to the handover of Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to China in 1997. A second wave of Hongkongers emigrating from the city also occurred during the 2010s, as a result of the Hong Kong–Mainland China conflict.
The terms Hongkonger and Hong Kongese are used to denote a residents of Hong Kong, including permanent and non-permanent residents. Formally speaking, Hong Kong does not confer its own citizenship, although the term Hong Kong citizen is used colloquially to refer to permanent residents of the city.[b] According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word Hongkonger first appeared in the English language in an 1870 edition of The Daily Independent, an American-based newspaper. In March 2014, both the terms Hongkonger and Hong Kongese were added to the Oxford English Dictionary. In contrast, the Merriam-Webster Dictionary of American English adopts the form Hong Konger instead.
The form Hong Konger also seems to be preferred by governments around the world. In 2008, the U.S. Government Publishing Office decided to include Hong Konger as a demonym for Hong Kong in its official Style Manual. The Companies House of the UK government similarly added Hong Konger to its standard list of nationalities in September 2020.
The aforementioned terms all translate to the same term in Cantonese, 香港人 (Cantonese Yale: Hèung Góng Yàhn). The direct translation of this is Hong Kong person, although the term is often translated as Hongkonger instead. The Cantonese term may also be translated as Hongkongan.
The term Hongkongers most often refers to legal residents of Hong Kong, as recognized under Hong Kong Basic Law. Hong Kong Basic Law gives a precise legal definition of a Hong Kong resident. Under Article 24 of the Basic Law, Hong Kong residents can be further classified as permanent or non-permanent residents. Non-permanent residents are those who have the right to hold a Hong Kong Identity Card, but have no right to abode in Hong Kong. Permanent residents are those who have the right to hold a Hong Kong Permanent Identity Card as well as the right of abode.
The Basic Law allows residents to acquire right of abode by birth in Hong Kong, or in some other ways. For example, residents of China may settle in Hong Kong for family reunification purposes if they obtain a one-way permit (for which there may be a waiting time of several years).
Unlike many countries, Hong Kong does not require applicants for naturalisation to take a citizenship or language test to become a permanent resident. However, Hong Kong migrants and residents are assumed to understand their obligation under Article 24 of the Hong Kong Basic Law to abide by the laws of Hong Kong.
Ethnicity and backgroundEdit
According to Hong Kong's 2016 census, 92 per cent of its population is ethnically Chinese, with 32.1 per cent having been born in Mainland China, Taiwan or Macau. Historically, many Chinese people have migrated from areas such as Canton to Hong Kong, for example in the 1850s–60s as a result of the Taiping Rebellion and in the 1940s prior to the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949. Thus, immigrants from Guangdong and their descendants have long constituted the majority of the ethnic Chinese residents of Hong Kong, which accounts for the city's broad Cantonese culture. The Cantonese language, a form of Yue Chinese, is the primary language of Hong Kong and that used in the media and education. For that reason, while there are groups with ancestral roots in more distant parts of China such as Shanghai and Shandong, as well as members of other Han Chinese subgroups such as Hakka, Hokkien, and Teochew, residents who are Hong Kong-born and/or raised often assimilate into the mainstream Cantonese identity of Hong Kong and typically adopt Cantonese as their first language.
In addition to the Han Chinese majority, Hong Kong's minority population also comprises many other different ethnic and national groups, with the largest non-Chinese groups being Filipinos (1.9 per cent) and Indonesians (also 1.9 per cent). There are long-established South Asian communities, which comprise both descendants of 19th and early 20th-century migrants as well as more recent short-term expatriates. South Asians include Indian, Pakistani, and Nepalese, who respectively made up 0.4 per cent, 0.3 per cent, and 0.2 per cent of Hong Kong's population in 2011. Smaller groups include Americans, Britons, Canadians, Australians, New Zealanders, Japanese, Koreans, Russians, Vietnamese and Thais. In 2011, 0.8 per cent of Hong Kong's population were European, many (53.5 per cent) of whom resided on Hong Kong Island, where they constitute 2.3 per cent of the population.
|Guangzhou and Macau||1,521,715||48.6||2,072,083||52.6||2,455,749||49.2|
|Other parts of Guangdong||244,237||7.8||250,215||6.4||470,288||9.4|
|Fujian, Taiwan, Jiangsu, Zhejiang||178,626||5.7||235,872||6.0||351,454||7.0|
|Other parts of China||43,644||1.4||48,921||1.2||103,531||2.1|
- Hong Kong includes:：Indigenous inhabitants of the New Territories, Tanka people, Hakka people
- Guangzhou and Macau includes: Humen, Cixi, Zhongshan, Hua County, Wanshan Archipelago, (担桿山群島)、Nanhai, 南頭, Bao'an County, Panyu, Sanshui, Shenzhen, Shilong Shunde, Dapeng[which?], Zengcheng, Conghua, Dongguan, Huiyang
- Sze Yap incldes：Kaiping, Heshan, Jiangmen, Xinhui, Taishan, Enping
- Chaozhou includes: Shantou, Chenghai, Chao'an, Chaoyang, Fengshun, Jieyang, Nan'ao District, Nanshan[clarification needed], Puning, Huilai, Raoping
- Other places in Guangdong include: Hainan administrative region and other places。
Hong Kong's cultural identity emerged prior to the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949. As a result, several major distinctions exist between Hongkongers and other residents from Mainland China; including in areas of language, judicial system, street naming system, culture, customs area, international border control, system of governance, direction of driving, social attitudes and values and legal currency.
From 1841 to 30 June 1997, Hong Kong was formally a British Dependent Territory.[c] English was introduced as an official language of Hong Kong during British colonial rule, alongside the indigenous Chinese language, notably Cantonese. While it was an overseas territory, Hong Kong participated in a variety of organisations from the Commonwealth Family network. Hong Kong ended its participation with most Commonwealth Family organisations after the handover of Hong Kong in 1997; although still participates in the Association of Commonwealth Universities and the Commonwealth Lawyers Association.
A poll from 2014 found that approximately 38 per cent of Hong Konger residents identified solely as Hong Kong citizens, 25 per cent identified as Chinese Hong Kong citizens, 18% as Hong Kong Chinese citizens, and 17 per cent as Chinese citizens.
The identity crisis is further heightened by demographic changes, in which Mainland China immigrants made up of a considerable portion of the migrant population post-1997.
Some Hong Kong independence supporters reject the term "Hongkongers" as a subordinate of the Greater Chinese ethnic group and attempt to define the concept of "Hong Kong nation" which is completely separate from Chinese nationality. Some of the major advocates are Hong Kong National Party and Hong Kong Independence Party.
2020 Nobel Peace Prize nominationEdit
On 15 October 2019, Norwegian lawmaker Guri Melby announced that she nominated the people of Hong Kong "who risk their lives and security every day to stand up for freedom of speech and basic democracy" for the Nobel Peace Prize for 2020. Several months later, on 8 February 2020, eight U.S. lawmakers nominated the pro-democracy movement of Hong Kong to receive the 2020 Nobel Peace Prize in recognition of their efforts to protect Hong Kong’s autonomy, human rights, and the rule of law as guaranteed in the Sino-British Declaration and Hong Kong’s Basic Law.
Hong Kong diaspora:
Expatriates living in Hong Kong:
- The following figure is the number of Hong Kong-born Canadians living in Canada, as reported in the 2016 Canadian Census. However in 2001, it was estimated that there were 616,000 Hong Kong Canadians residing in Canada, Hong Kong, or elsewhere.
- Formally, there is no "Hong Kong citizen", with the terminology being used to denote a permanent resident of Hong Kong. Permanent residents of Hong Kong typically hold citizenship from China or from another sovereign state.
- From the 19th century to 1983, British Dependent Territories were referred to as Crown Colonies. Several years after the handover of Hong Kong, British Dependent Territories were renamed British Overseas Territories.
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