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Semiconductor industry

Electronic Integrated Circuit Export by Country as of 2016, by HS4 trade classification.
Export of discrete semiconductors as of 2016, by United Nations Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding Systems 4

The semiconductor industry is the aggregate collection of companies engaged in the design and fabrication of semiconductors. It formed around 1960, once the fabrication of semiconductor devices became a viable business. The industry's annual semiconductor sales revenue has since grown to over $481 billion, as of 2018.[1] The semiconductor industry is in turn the driving force behind the wider electronics industry,[2] with annual power electronics sales of £135 billion ($218 billion) as of 2011,[3] annual consumer electronics sales expected to reach $2.9 trillion by 2020,[4] tech industry sales expected to reach $5 trillion in 2019,[5] and e-commerce with over $29 trillion in 2017.[6]

The most widely used semiconductor device is the MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor, or MOS transistor),[7] which was invented by Mohamed M. Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959.[8][9] MOSFET scaling and miniaturization has been the primary factor behind the rapid exponential growth of semiconductor technology since the 1960s.[10][11] The MOSFET, which accounts for 99.9% of all transistors, is the driving force behind the semiconductor industry and the most widely manufactured device in history,[12][13] with an estimated total of 13 sextillion (1.3 × 1022) MOSFETs having been manufactured between 1960 and 2018.[12]

Industry structureEdit

The global semiconductor industry is dominated by the United States, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, China, Israel, European Union, Singapore, and Malaysia.

Unique features of the industry include continuous growth but in a cyclical pattern with high volatility. While the current 20 year annual average growth of the semiconductor industry is on the order of 13%, this has been accompanied by equally above-average market volatility, which can lead to significant if not dramatic cyclical swings. This has required the need for high degrees of flexibility and innovation in order to constantly adjust to the rapid pace of change in the market as many products embedding semiconductor devices often have a very short life cycle.

At the same time, the rate of constant price-performance improvement in the semiconductor industry is staggering. As a consequence, changes in the semiconductor market not only occur extremely rapidly but also anticipate changes in industries evolving at a slower pace. The semiconductor industry is widely recognized as a key driver and technology enabler for the whole electronics value chain.[14]

Semiconductor salesEdit

Sales revenueEdit

Annual semiconductor sales (1987–2018)
Year Revenue (nominal) Revenue (inflation) Ref
2018 $481,090,000,000 $481,090,000,000 [1]
2017 $420,390,000,000 $429,690,000,000 [1]
2016 $345,850,000,000 $361,050,000,000 [1]
2015 $335,170,000,000 $354,270,000,000 [15]
2014 $335,840,000,000 $355,430,000,000
2013 $305,580,000,000 $328,670,000,000
2012 $291,560,000,000 $318,180,000,000
2011 $299,520,000,000 $333,590,000,000
2010 $298,320,000,000 $342,750,000,000
2009 $226,310,000,000 $264,290,000,000
2008 $280,000,000,000 $326,000,000,000
2007 $255,600,000,000 $308,800,000,000 [16]
2006 $247,700,000,000 $307,800,000,000
2005 $227,000,000,000 $291,000,000,000 [15]
2004 $213,000,000,000 $283,000,000,000
2000 $204,000,000,000 $297,000,000,000
1995 $144,000,000,000 $237,000,000,000
1992 $60,000,000,000 $107,000,000,000
1990 $51,000,000,000 $98,000,000,000
1987 $33,000,000,000 $73,000,000,000
2017 sales breakdown[1]
Industry sector Revenue Market share Ref
Memory $124 billion 30% [17]
Logic $102.2 billion 25%
Microprocessor $63.9 billion 16%
Power semiconductors $36.8 billion 9% [18]
Total $420.39 billion 100%
2008 sales breakdown
Semiconductor type Revenue Market share Ref
Silicon MOS integrated circuit chip $250 billion 89.3% [19]
Compound semiconductors $20 billion 7.1%
Power transistors $10 billion 3.6% [20]
Total $280 billion 100%

Market shareEdit

Semiconductor market share (1980–2005)
Semiconductor type 2008 2005[21] 2000[22] 1995[21] 1990[21] 1985[21] 1980[21]
Silicon MOSFET >90% 90% 88% 84% 74% 59% 53%
III-V semiconductors <7% 4% 4% 2% 1% 1% 1%
Silicon BJT <3% 6% 8% 14% 25% 40% 46%
MOSFET market share (1985–2000)[21]
MOSFET fabrication process 2000 1990 1985
CMOS 99% 88% 47%
PMOS and NMOS 1% 12% 53%
Microprocessor market share (2005)[22]
Industry sector Market share
Computer and peripheral equipment 32.3%
Consumer electronics 21.2%
Telecommunications equipment 16.5%
Industrial electronics 14.3%
Defense and space industry 11.5%
Transportation technology 4.2%

Largest companiesEdit

Largest semiconductor companies (annual semiconductor sales leaders)
Rank 2018[23] 2017[23] 2011[24] 2006[25] 2000[25] 1995[25] 1992[26] 1990[25] 1986[27] 1985[25] 1975[27]
1 Samsung Samsung Intel Intel Intel Intel NEC NEC NEC NEC TI
2 Intel Intel Samsung Samsung Toshiba NEC Toshiba Toshiba Toshiba TI Motorola
3 SK Hynix TSMC TSMC TI NEC Toshiba Intel Hitachi Hitachi Motorola Philips
4 TSMC SK Hynix TI Toshiba Samsung Hitachi Motorola Intel ? Hitachi ?
5 Micron Micron Toshiba ST TI Motorola Hitachi Motorola ? Toshiba
6 Broadcom Broadcom Renesas Renesas Motorola Samsung TI Fujitsu ? Fujitsu
7 Qualcomm Qualcomm Qualcomm Hynix ST TI ? Mitsubishi ? Philips
8 Toshiba TI ST Freescale Hitachi IBM Mitsubishi TI ? Intel
9 TI Toshiba Hynix NXP Infineon Mitsubishi ? Philips ? National
10 Nvidia Nvidia Micron NEC Philips Hyundai ? Matsushita ? Matsushita
Major semiconductor companies
Name HQ country Manufacturer type[28] Hardware products
Samsung Electronics South Korea IDM NAND flash memory, DRAM, CMOS sensor, RF transceivers, OLED display, SSD
Intel USA IDM
TSMC Taiwan Pure-play
SK Hynix[a] South Korea IDM
Micron[b] USA IDM DRAM, NAND flash, SSD, NOR flash, Managed NAND, multichip packages
Qualcomm USA Fabless
Broadcom USA Fabless
Toshiba Japan IDM
Texas Instruments (TI) USA IDM
Analog Devices USA IDM Amplifiers, data converters, audio & video products, RF & microwave, sensors, MEMS
Microchip USA IDM Microcontroller and analog semiconductors
NXP Netherlands IDM
MediaTek Taiwan Fabless
Infineon Germany IDM
STMicroelectronics Switzerland IDM
Sony Japan IDM
ARM United Kingdom Fabless
AMD USA Fabless
Nvidia USA Fabless
Renesas[c] Japan IDM
GlobalFoundries[d] USA Pure-play
ON Semiconductor USA IDM
UMC Taiwan Pure-play
Apple USA Fabless
Fujitsu Japan IDM
Hitachi Japan IDM
IBM USA Fabless
Mitsubishi Electric Japan IDM
Panasonic Japan IDM

Notes:

  • Pure-play foundries – They specialize in foundry services. They may or may not offer design services to third parties, as well as mask (photomask) making, semiconductor packaging and testing services, which can also be outsourced to other companies. An example is TSMC, which offers design, testing and packaging services, TCE phtomasks, which offers only mask making services, and ChipMOS, which offers only packaging and testing services.
  • IDMs (integrated device manufacturers) – They may or may not offer foundry services.
  • Fabless suppliers – They do not offer foundry services. They may or may not offer design services to third parties.

Device shipmentsEdit

Semiconductor devices (est. million manufactured units)[29]
Year Optoelectronics Sensor / Actuator MOSFET[12]
1960–2001 ? ? 2,900,000,000,000,000
2002 23,164 1,654
2003 28,955 2,482
2004 38,056 3,310
2005 44,675 4,137
2006[30] 55,429 4,137
2007[31] 67,839 4,136
2008 76,939 4,964
2009 91,003 4,964
2010 97,622 6,619
2011 110,031 8,273
2012 129,886 11,583
2013 131,541 14,064
2014–2015 ? ? 10,100,000,000,000,000
2016[32][33] 217,200 17,376
2017–2018 ? ?
1960–2018 1,112,340+ 87,699+ 13,000,000,000,000,000

Integrated circuitsEdit

Integrated circuit chips (est. million manufactured units)[29]
Year MOS memory MPU / MCU Analog Logic ASIC ASSP Total
1960–1991 ? 15,000[34] ? ? ? ? 350,000[34]
1992[35] 3,706
1993[35] 4,060
1994[35] 4,938
1995[35] 6,092
1996[35] 6,206
1997 7,155[36] ? ? ? ? ? 60,100[31]
1998–1999 ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
2000[37] ? ? ? ? ? ? 89,100
2001 ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
2002 9,100 6,619 24,819 11,582 2,482 23,992 78,594
2003 10,755 6,618 30,611 14,064 1,655 25,646 89,349
2004 13,237 9,100 33,092 14,064 1,654 33,092 104,239
2005 15,719 8,273 37,229 14,891 2,481 38,056 116,649
2006[30] 18,201 10,755 43,020 18,200 2,482 45,501 141,600
2007[31] 23,992 12,409 48,811 18,201 3,309 45,502 156,000
2008 25,646 12,410 49,639 18,200 1,655 47,156 154,706
2009 28,128 11,582 43,020 14,892 2,482 43,847 143,951
2010[37] 33,919 16,546 57,084 19,028 1,654 57,911 189,800
2011 33,919 17,374 56,256 19,028 1,655 58,738 186,970
2012 34,747 17,373 57,084 17,373 1,655 57,083 185,315
2013 33,919 16,546 67,839 18,201 2,481 64,530 203,516
2014 ? 18,600[38] ? ? ? ? ?
2015 ? 22,058[39] ? ? ? ? 235,600[37]
2016[32][33] 43,440 21,174[39] 130,320 52,128 ? ? 342,416
2017 ? 25,797[39] ? ? ? ? 581,321[40]
2018 ? ? ? ? ? ? 634,700[40]
1960–2018 356,879+ 274,298+ 635,804+ 249,852+ 25,645+ 541,054+ 4,043,926+

Discrete devicesEdit

Discrete devices (est. million manufactured units)[41][29]
Year Discrete transistors Diode Total
Power Small-signal Total
1954–1956[42] ? ? 28 ? 28+
1957[42] ? ? 30 ? 30+
1958–1962 ? ? ? ? ?
1963[42] ? ? 303 ? 303+
1964–1965 ? ? ? ? ?
1966[43] ? ? 968 ? 968+
1967[43] ? ? 881 ? 881+
1968[43] ? ? 997 ? 997+
1969[42] ? ? 1,249 ? 1,249+
1970[43] ? ? 914 ? 914+
1971[42] ? ? 881 ? 881+
1972–2001 ? ? ? ? ?
2002 ? ? ? ? 232,472
2003 ? ? ? ? 245,708
2004 ? ? ? ? 287,901
2005 ? ? ? ? 290,382
2006[30] ? ? ? ? 321,820
2007[31] ? ? ? ? 356,566
2008 ? ? ? ? 324,301
2009 ? ? ? ? 289,555
2010 53,000[44] ? 53,000+ ? 371,458
2011 45,000 110,000 155,000 143,000 356,000
2012 ? ? ? ? 345,812
2013 44,000 103,000 147,000 146,000 358,000
2014 48,000 109,000 157,000 154,000 380,000
2015[37] 52,000 107,000 159,000 150,000 372,000
2016[32] 53,300 ? 53,300+ ? 382,272
2017 58,100 ? 58,100+ ? 58,100+
2018 62,800 ? 62,800+ ? 62,800+
1954–2018 416,200+ 429,000+ 851,451+ 593,000+ 5,041,398+

RegionsEdit

SalesEdit

Manufacturers headquartered in the following regions are the sales leaders in the pure-play foundry, IDM (integrated device manufacturing), fabless manufacturing and OSAT (outsourced semiconductor assembly and testing) sectors of the industry.[28]

Rank Foundry IDM Fabless OSAT
1 Taiwan United States United States Taiwan
2 United States South Korea Taiwan United States
3 China Japan China China
4 Israel European Union European Union Singapore
5 South Korea Taiwan Japan Japan

Note that manufacturers headquartered in the United States have fabrication plants across the world, including over 50% in the Americas, 39% in the Asia-Pacific region (including 9% in Japan), and 9% in Europe.[28]

PatentsEdit

Patent holders from the following countries produced the highest number of annual semiconductor patents worldwide, as of 2005.[45]

Rank Country Patents (est.)
1 Japan 30,500
2 South Korea 13,500
3 United States 9,500
4 Taiwan 4,000
5 China 3,500
6 Germany 2,500

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

ReferencesEdit

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