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Plot of MOS transistor counts for microprocessors against dates of introduction. The curve shows counts doubling every two years, per Moore's law.

The transistor count is the number of transistors on an integrated circuit (IC). It typically refers to the number of MOSFETs (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors) on an IC chip, as all modern ICs use MOSFETs (also called MOS transistors). It is the most common measure of IC complexity (although the majority of transistors in modern microprocessors are contained in the cache memories, which consist mostly of the same memory cell circuits replicated many times). The rate at which MOS transistor counts have increased generally follows Moore's law, which observed that the transistor count doubles approximately every two years.

As of 2017, the largest transistor count in a commercially available single-chip microprocessor is 19.2 billion,[citation needed] in AMD's Zen-based Epyc, which uses Samsung's 14 nm FinFET semiconductor manufacturing process. As of 2018, the highest in a graphics processing unit (GPU) is Nvidia's GV100 Volta with 21.1 billion transistors, and the highest in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is Xilinx's Everest/Versal FPGA with around 50 billion transistors, both manufactured by TSMC with their 12 nm and 7 nm FinFET nodes, respectively.[1][2][3] Note that as of 2019, there is no official statement giving a date of availability for the Versal device with 50 Billion transistors in particular. As of 2019, the highest transistor count in any IC chip is Samsung's eUFS (1 TB) 3D-stacked V-NAND flash memory chip (consisting of 16 stacked V-NAND dies), with 2 trillion transistors (4 bits per transistor).[4] Flash memory chips are commonly stacked up in layers, up to 128-layer in production,[5] and 136-layer managed,[6] and available in end-user devices up to 69-layer from manufacturers.

In terms of computer systems that consist of numerous integrated circuits, the supercomputer with the highest transistor count as of 2016 is the Chinese-designed Sunway TaihuLight, which has for all CPUs/nodes (1012 for the 10 million cores and for RAM 1015 for the 1.3 million GB) combined "about 400 trillion transistors in the processing part of the hardware" and "the DRAM includes about 12 quadrillion transistors, and that’s about 97 percent of all the transistors."[7] To compare, the smallest computer, as of 2018 dwarfed by a grain of sand, has on the order of 100,000 transistors, and the one, fully programmable, with the fewest transistors ever has 130 transistors or fewer.

In terms of the total number of transistors in existence, it has been estimated that a total of 13 sextillion MOS transistors have been manufactured worldwide between 1960 and 2018, accounting for at least 99.9% of all transistors. This makes the MOSFET the most widely manufactured device in history.[8]

Transistor countEdit

 
Part of an IBM 7070 card cage populated with Standard Modular System cards

Among the earliest products to use transistors were portable transistor radios, introduced in 1954, which typically used 4 to 8 transistors, often advertising the number on the radio's case. However, early junction transistors were relatively bulky devices that were difficult to manufacture on a mass-production basis, limiting the transistor counts and restricting their usage to a number of specialised applications.[9] The MOSFET (MOS transistor), invented by Mohamed Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959,[10] was the first truly compact transistor that could be miniaturised and mass-produced for a wide range of uses.[9] The MOS transistor made it possible to build high-density integrated circuits (ICs),[11] enabling Moore's law[12][13] and very large-scale integration.[14] Further large-scale integration was made possible with an improvement in MOS semiconductor device fabrication, the CMOS process, developed by Chih-Tang Sah and Frank Wanlass at Fairchild Semiconductor in 1963.[15]

MicroprocessorsEdit

A microprocessor incorporates the functions of a computer's central processing unit on a single integrated circuit. It is a multi-purpose, programmable device that accepts digital data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory, and provides results as output.

The 20-bit MP944, developed by Garrett AiResearch for the U.S. Navy's F-14 Tomcat fighter in 1970, is considered by its designer Ray Holt to be the first microprocessor.[16] It was fabricated on six MOS integrated circuit chips. However, it was classified by the Navy until 1998. The 4-bit Intel 4004, released in 1971, was the first single-chip microprocessor. It was made possible with an improvement in MOS transistor design, silicon-gate MOS technology, developed in 1968 at Fairchild Semiconductor by Federico Faggin, who went on to develop the 4004 with Marcian Hoff, Stanley Mazor and Masatoshi Shima at Intel.[17]

All chips over e.g. a million transistors have lots of memory, usually cache memories in level 1 and 2 or more levels, accounting for most transistors on microprocessors in modern times, where large caches have become the norm. The level 1 caches of the Pentium Pro die accounted for over 14% of its transistors, while the much larger L2 cache was on a separate die, but on-package, so it's not included in the transistor count. Later chips included more levels, L2 or even L3 on-chip. The last DEC Alpha chip made has 90% of it for cache.[18].

While Intel's i960CA small cache of 1 KB, at about 50,000 transistors, isn't a big part of the chip, it alone would have been very large in early microprocessors. In the ARM 3 chip, with 4 KB, the cache was over 63% of the chip, and in the Intel 80486 its larger cache is only over a third of it because the rest of the chip is more complex. So cache memories are the largest factor, except for in early chips with smaller caches or even earlier chips with no cache at all. Then the inherent complexity, e.g. number of instructions, is the dominant factor, more than e.g. the memory the registers of the chip represent.

Processor Transistor count Date of introduction Designer MOS process Area
MP944 (20-bit, 6-chip) 1970[16] (declassified 1998) Garrett AiResearch
Intel 4004 (4-bit, 16-pin) 2,250 1971 Intel 10,000 nm 12 mm²
Intel 8008 (8-bit, 18-pin) 3,500 1972 Intel 10,000 nm 14 mm²
NEC μCOM-4 (4-bit, 42-pin) 2,500[19][20] 1973 NEC 7,500 nm[21] ?
Toshiba TLCS-12 (12-bit) over 11,000[22] 1973 Toshiba 6,000 nm 32 mm²
Intel 4040 (4-bit, 16-pin) 3,000 1974 Intel 10,000 nm 12 mm²
Motorola 6800 (8-bit, 40-pin) 4,100 1974 Motorola 6,000 nm 16 mm²
Intel 8080 (8-bit, 40-pin) 6,000 1974 Intel 6,000 nm 20 mm²
TMS 1000 (4-bit, 28-pin) 8,000 1974[23] Texas Instruments 8,000 nm 11 mm²
MOS Technology 6502 (8-bit, 40-pin) 4,528[a][24] 1975 MOS Technology 8,000 nm 21 mm²
Intersil IM6100 (12-bit, 40-pin; clone of PDP-8) 4,000 1975 Intersil
CDP 1801 (8-bit, 2-chip; 40-pin) 5,000 1975 RCA
RCA 1802 (8-bit, 40-pin) 5,000 1976 RCA 5,000 nm 27 mm²
Zilog Z80 (8-bit, 4-bit ALU, 40-pin) 8,500[b] 1976 Zilog 4,000 nm 18 mm²
Intel 8085 (8-bit, 40-pin) 6,500 1976 Intel 3,000 nm 20 mm²
TMS9900 (16-bit) 8,000 1976 Texas Instruments
MC14500B (1-bit, 16-pin) 1977 Motorola
Bellmac-8 (8-bit) 7,000 1977 Bell Labs 5,000 nm
Motorola 6809 (8-bit with some 16-bit features, 40-pin) 9,000 1978 Motorola 5,000 nm 21 mm²
Intel 8086 (16-bit, 40-pin) 29,000 1978 Intel 3,000 nm 33 mm²
Zilog Z8000 (16-bit) 17,500[25] 1979 Zilog
Intel 8088 (16-bit, 8-bit data bus) 29,000 1979 Intel 3,000 nm 33 mm²
Motorola 68000 (16/32-bit, 32-bit registers, 16-bit ALU) 68,000[26] 1979 Motorola 3,500 nm 44 mm²
Intel 8051 (8-bit, 40-pin) 50,000 1980 Intel
WDC 65C02 11,500[27] 1981 WDC 3,000 nm 6 mm²
ROMP (32-bit) 45,000 1981 IBM 2,000 nm
Intel 80186 (16-bit, 68-pin) 55,000 1982 Intel 3,000 nm 60 mm²
Intel 80286 (16-bit, 68-pin) 134,000 1982 Intel 1,500 nm 49 mm²
WDC 65C816 (8/16-bit) 22,000[28] 1983 WDC 3,000 nm[29] 9 mm²
NEC V20 63,000 1984 NEC
Motorola 68020 (32-bit; 114 pins used) 190,000[30] 1984 Motorola 2,000 nm 85 mm²
Intel 80386 (32-bit, 132-pin; no cache) 275,000 1985 Intel 1,500 nm 104 mm²
ARM 1 (32-bit; no cache) 25,000[30] 1985 Acorn 3,000 nm 50 mm²
Novix NC4016 (16-bit) 16,000[31] 1985[32] Harris Corporation 3,000 nm[33]
SPARC MB86900 (32-bit; no cache) 110,000[34] 1986 Fujitsu 1,200 nm
NEC V60[35] (32-bit; no cache) 375,000 1986 NEC 1,500 nm
ARM 2 (32-bit, 84-pin; no cache) 27,000[36][30] 1986 Acorn 2,000 nm 30.25 mm²
Z80000 (32-bit; very small cache) 91,000 1986 Zilog
NEC V70[35] (32-bit; no cache) 385,000 1987 NEC 1,500 nm
Hitachi Gmicro/200[37] 730,000 1987 Hitachi 1,000 nm
Motorola 68030 (32-bit, very small caches) 273,000 1987 Motorola 800 nm 102 mm²
TI Explorer's 32-bit Lisp machine chip 553,000[38] 1987 Texas Instruments 2,000 nm[39]
DEC WRL MultiTitan 180,000[40] 1988 DEC WRL 1,500 nm 61 mm²
Intel i960 (32-bit, 33-bit memory subsystem, no cache) 250,000[41] 1988 Intel 1,500 nm[42]
Intel i960CA (32-bit, cache) 600,000[42] 1989 Intel 800 nm 143 mm²
Intel i860 (32/64-bit, 128-bit SIMD, cache, VLIW) 1,000,000[43] 1989 Intel
Intel 80486 (32-bit, 4 KB cache) 1,180,235 1989 Intel 1000 nm 173 mm²
ARM 3 (32-bit, 4 KB cache) 310,000 1989 Acorn 1,500 nm 87 mm²
68040 (32-bit, 8 KB caches) 1,200,000 1990 Motorola 650 nm 152 mm²
R4000 (64-bit, 16 KB of caches) 1,350,000 1991 MIPS 1,000 nm 213 mm²
ARM 6 (32-bit, no cache for this 60 variant) 35,000 1991 ARM 800 nm
Hitachi SH-1 (32-bit, no cache) 600,000[44] 1992[45] Hitachi 800 nm 10 mm²
Intel i960CF (32-bit, cache) 900,000[42] 1992 Intel 125 mm²
DEC Alpha 21064 (64-bit, 290-pin; 16 KB of caches) 1,680,000 1992 DEC 750 nm 233.52 mm²
Hitachi HARP-1 (32-bit, cache) 2,800,000[46] 1993 Hitachi 500 nm 267 mm²
Pentium (32-bit, 16 KB of caches) 3,100,000 1993 Intel 800 nm 294 mm²
ARM700 (32-bit; 8 KB cache) 578,977[47] 1994 ARM 700 nm 68.51 mm²
MuP21 (21-bit,[48] 40-pin; includes video) 7,000[49] 1994 Offete Enterprises 1200 nm
68060 (32-bit, 16 KB of caches) 2,500,000 1994 Motorola 600 nm 218 mm²
SA-110 (32-bit, 32 KB of caches) 2,500,000[30] 1995 Acorn/DEC/Apple 350 nm 50 mm²
Pentium Pro (32-bit, 16 KB of caches;[50] L2 cache on-package, but on separate die) 5,500,000[51] 1995 Intel 500 nm 307 mm²
AMD K5 (32-bit, caches) 4,300,000 1996 AMD 500 nm 251 mm²
Hitachi SH-4 (32-bit, caches) 10,000,000[52] 1997 Hitachi 200 nm[53] 42 mm²[54]
Pentium II Klamath (32-bit, 64-bit SIMD, caches) 7,500,000 1997 Intel 350 nm 195 mm²
AMD K6 (32-bit, caches) 8,800,000 1997 AMD 350 nm 162 mm²
F21 (21-bit; includes e.g. video) 15,000 1997[49] Offete Enterprises
AVR (8-bit, 40-pin; w/memory) 140,000 (48,000 excl. the memory[55]) 1997 Nordic VLSI/Atmel
Pentium II Deschutes (32-bit, large cache) 7,500,000 1998 Intel 250 nm 113 mm²
ARM 9TDMI (32-bit, no cache) 111,000[30] 1999 Acorn 350 nm 4.8 mm²
Pentium III Katmai (32-bit, 128-bit SIMD, caches) 9,500,000 1999 Intel 250 nm 128 mm²
Emotion Engine (64-bit, 128-bit SIMD, cache) 13,500,000[56] 1999 Sony/Toshiba 180 nm[57] 240 mm²[58]
Pentium II Mobile Dixon (32-bit, caches) 27,400,000 1999 Intel 180 nm 180 mm²
AMD K6-III (32-bit, caches) 21,300,000 1999 AMD 250 nm 118 mm²
AMD K7 (32-bit, caches) 22,000,000 1999 AMD 250 nm 184 mm²
Gekko (32-bit, large cache) 21,000,000[59] 2000 IBM/Nintendo 180 nm 43 mm²
Pentium III Coppermine (32-bit, large cache) 21,000,000 2000 Intel 180 nm 80 mm²
Pentium 4 Willamette (32-bit, large cache) 42,000,000 2000 Intel 180 nm 217 mm²
SPARC64 V (64-bit, large cache) 191,000,000[60] 2001 Fujitsu 130 nm[61] 290 mm²
Pentium III Tualatin (32-bit, large cache) 45,000,000 2001 Intel 130 nm 81 mm²
Pentium 4 Northwood (32-bit, large cache) 55,000,000 2002 Intel 130 nm 145 mm²
Itanium 2 McKinley (64-bit, large cache) 220,000,000 2002 Intel 180 nm 421 mm²
DEC Alpha 21364 (64-bit, 946-pin, SIMD, very large caches) 152,000,000[18] 2003 DEC 180 nm 397 mm²
Barton (32-bit, large cache) 54,300,000 2003 AMD 130 nm 101 mm²
AMD K8 (64-bit, large cache) 105,900,000 2003 AMD 130 nm 193 mm²
Itanium 2 Madison 6M (64-bit) 410,000,000 2003 Intel 130 nm 374 mm²
Pentium 4 Prescott (32-bit, large cache) 112,000,000 2004 Intel 90 nm 110 mm²
SPARC64 V+ (64-bit, large cache) 400,000,000[62] 2004 Fujitsu 90 nm 294 mm²
Itanium 2 (64-bit;9 MB cache) 592,000,000 2004 Intel 130 nm 432 mm²
Pentium 4 Prescott-2M (32-bit, large cache) 169,000,000 2005 Intel 90 nm 143 mm²
Pentium D Smithfield (32-bit, large cache) 228,000,000 2005 Intel 90 nm 206 mm²
Xenon (64-bit, 128-bit SIMD, large cache) 165,000,000 2005 IBM 90 nm
Cell (32-bit, cache) 250,000,000[63] 2005 Sony/IBM/Toshiba 90 nm 221 mm²
Pentium 4 Cedar Mill (32-bit, large cache) 184,000,000 2006 Intel 65 nm 90 mm²
Pentium D Presler (32-bit, large cache) 362,000,000 2006 Intel 65 nm 162 mm²
Core 2 Duo Conroe (dual-core 64-bit, large caches) 291,000,000 2006 Intel 65 nm 143 mm²
Dual-core Itanium 2 (64-bit, SIMD, large caches) 1,700,000,000[64] 2006 Intel 90 nm 596 mm²
AMD K10 quad-core 2M L3 (64-bit, large caches) 463,000,000[65] 2007 AMD 65 nm 283 mm²
ARM Cortex-A9 (32-bit, (optional) SIMD, caches) 26,000,000[66] 2007 ARM 45 nm 31 mm²
Core 2 Duo Wolfdale (dual-core 64-bit, SIMD, caches) 411,000,000 2007 Intel 45 nm 107 mm²
POWER6 (64-bit, large caches) 789,000,000 2007 IBM 65 nm 341 mm²
Core 2 Duo Allendale (dual-core 64-bit, SIMD, large caches)) 169,000,000 2007 Intel 65 nm 111 mm²
Uniphier 250,000,000[67] 2007 Matsushita 45 nm ?
SPARC64 VI (64-bit, SIMD, large caches) 540,000,000 2007[68] Fujitsu 90 nm 421 mm²
Core 2 Duo Wolfdale 3M (dual-core 64-bit, SIMD, large caches) 230,000,000 2008 Intel 45 nm 83 mm²
Core i7 (quad-core 64-bit, SIMD, large caches) 731,000,000 2008 Intel 45 nm 263 mm²
AMD K10 quad-core 6M L3 (64-bit, SIMD, large caches) 758,000,000[65] 2008 AMD 45 nm 258 mm²
Atom (32-bit, large cache) 47,000,000 2008 Intel 45 nm 24 mm²
SPARC64 VII (64-bit, SIMD, large caches) 600,000,000 2008[69] Fujitsu 65 nm 445 mm²
Six-core Xeon 7400 (64-bit, SIMD, large caches) 1,900,000,000 2008 Intel 45 nm 503 mm²
Six-core Opteron 2400 (64-bit, SIMD, large caches) 904,000,000 2009 AMD 45 nm 346 mm²
SPARC64 VIIIfx (64-bit, SIMD, large caches) 760,000,000[70] 2009 Fujitsu 45 nm 513 mm²
16-core SPARC T3 (64-bit, SIMD, large caches) 1,000,000,000[71] 2010 Sun/Oracle 40 nm 377 mm²
Six-core Core i7 (Gulftown) 1,170,000,000 2010 Intel 32 nm 240 mm²
8-core POWER7 32M L3 (64-bit, SIMD, large caches) 1,200,000,000 2010 IBM 45 nm 567 mm²
Quad-core z196[72] (64-bit, very large caches) 1,400,000,000 2010 IBM 45 nm 512 mm²
Quad-core Itanium Tukwila (64-bit, SIMD, large caches) 2,000,000,000[73] 2010 Intel 65 nm 699 mm²
8-core Xeon Nehalem-EX (64-bit, SIMD, large caches) 2,300,000,000[74] 2010 Intel 45 nm 684 mm²
SPARC64 IXfx (64-bit, SIMD, large caches) 1,870,000,000[75] 2011 Fujitsu 40 nm 484 mm²
Quad-core + GPU Core i7 (64-bit, SIMD, large caches) 1,160,000,000 2011 Intel 32 nm 216 mm²
Six-core Core i7/8-core Xeon E5
(Sandy Bridge-E/EP) (64-bit, SIMD, large caches)
2,270,000,000[76] 2011 Intel 32 nm 434 mm²
10-core Xeon Westmere-EX (64-bit, SIMD, large caches) 2,600,000,000 2011 Intel 32 nm 512 mm²
Atom "Medfield" (64-bit) 432,000,000[77] 2012 Intel 32 nm 64 mm²
SPARC64 X (64-bit, SIMD, caches) 2,990,000,000[78] 2012 Fujitsu 28 nm 600 mm²
8-core AMD Bulldozer (64-bitSIMD, caches) 1,200,000,000[79] 2012 AMD 32 nm 315 mm²
Quad-core + GPU AMD Trinity (64-bit, SIMD, caches) 1,303,000,000 2012 AMD 32 nm 246 mm²
Quad-core + GPU Core i7 Ivy Bridge (64-bit, SIMD, caches) 1,400,000,000 2012 Intel 22 nm 160 mm²
8-core POWER7+ (64-bit, SIMD), 80 MB L3 cache) 2,100,000,000 2012 IBM 32 nm 567 mm²
Six-core zEC12 (64-bit, SIMD, large caches) 2,750,000,000 2012 IBM 32 nm 597 mm²
8-core Itanium Poulson (64-bit, SIMD, caches) 3,100,000,000 2012 Intel 32 nm 544 mm²
61-core Xeon Phi (32-bit, 512-bit SIMD, caches) 5,000,000,000[80] 2012 Intel 22 nm 720 mm²
Apple A7 (dual-core 64/32-bit ARM64, "mobile SoC", SIMD, caches) 1,000,000,000 2013 Apple 28 nm 102 mm²
Six-core Core i7 Ivy Bridge E (64-bit, SIMD, caches) 1,860,000,000 2013 Intel 22 nm 256 mm²
12-core POWER8 (64-bit, SIMD, caches) 4,200,000,000 2013 IBM 22 nm 650 mm²
Xbox One main SoC (64-bit, SIMD, caches) 5,000,000,000 2013 Microsoft/AMD 28 nm 363 mm²
Quad-core + GPU Core i7 Haswell (64-bit, SIMD, caches) 1,400,000,000[81] 2014 Intel 22 nm 177 mm²
Apple A8 (dual-core 64/32-bit ARM64 "mobile SoC", SIMD, caches) 2,000,000,000 2014 Apple 20 nm 89 mm²
8-core Core i7 Haswell-E (64-bit, SIMD, caches) 2,600,000,000[82] 2014 Intel 22 nm 355 mm²
Apple A8X (tri-core 64/32-bit ARM64 "mobile SoC", SIMD, caches) 3,000,000,000[83] 2014 Apple 20 nm 128 mm²
15-core Xeon Ivy Bridge-EX (64-bit, SIMD, caches) 4,310,000,000[84] 2014 Intel 22 nm 541 mm²
18-core Xeon Haswell-E5 (64-bit, SIMD, caches) 5,560,000,000[85] 2014 Intel 22 nm 661 mm²
Quad-core + GPU GT2 Core i7 Skylake K (64-bit, SIMD, caches) 1,750,000,000 2015 Intel 14 nm 122 mm²
Dual-core + GPU Iris Core i7 Broadwell-U (64-bit, SIMD, caches) 1,900,000,000[86] 2015 Intel 14 nm 133 mm²
Apple A9 (dual-core 64/32-bit ARM64 "mobile SoC", SIMD, caches) > 2,000,000,000 2015 Apple 14 nm (Samsung) 96 mm² (Samsung)
16 nm (TSMC) 104.5 mm² (TSMC)
Apple A9X (dual core 64/32-bit ARM64 "mobile SoC", SIMD, caches) > 3,000,000,000 2015 Apple 16 nm 143.9 mm²
IBM z13 (64-bit, caches) 3,990,000,000 2015 IBM 22 nm 678 mm²
IBM z13 Storage Controller 7,100,000,000 2015 IBM 22 nm 678 mm²
32-core SPARC M7 (64-bit, SIMD, caches) 10,000,000,000[87] 2015 Oracle 20 nm
Qualcomm Snapdragon 835 (octa-core 64/32-bit ARM64 "mobile SoC", SIMD, caches) 3,000,000,000[88][89] 2016 Qualcomm 10 nm 72.3 mm²
10-core Core i7 Broadwell-E (64-bit, SIMD, caches) 3,200,000,000[90] 2016 Intel 14 nm 246 mm²[91]
Apple A10 Fusion (quad-core 64/32-bit ARM64 "mobile SoC", SIMD, caches) 3,300,000,000 2016 Apple 16 nm 125 mm²
HiSilicon Kirin 960 (octa-core 64/32-bit ARM64 "mobile SoC", SIMD, caches) 4,000,000,000[92] 2016 Huawei 16 nm 110.00 mm2
22-core Xeon Broadwell-E5 (64-bit, SIMD, caches) 7,200,000,000[93] 2016 Intel 14 nm 456 mm²
72-core Xeon Phi (64-bit, 512-bit SIMD, caches) 8,000,000,000 2016 Intel 14 nm 683 mm²
Zip CPU (32-bit, for FPGAs) 1,286 6-LUTs[94] 2016 Gisselquist Technology
Qualcomm Snapdragon 845 (octa-core 64/32-bit ARM64 "mobile SoC", SIMD, caches) 5,300,000,000[95] 2017 Qualcomm 10 nm 94 mm²
Qualcomm Snapdragon 850 (octa-core 64/32-bit ARM64 "mobile SoC", SIMD, caches) 5,300,000,000[96] 2017 Qualcomm 10 nm 94 mm²
Apple A11 Bionic (hexa-core 64/32-bit ARM64 "mobile SoC", SIMD, caches) 4,300,000,000 2017 Apple 10 nm 89.23 mm²
Zeppelin SoC Ryzen (64-bit, SIMD, caches) 4,800,000,000[97] 2017 AMD 14 nm 192 mm²
Ryzen 5 1600 Ryzen (64-bit, SIMD, caches) 4,800,000,000[98] 2017 AMD 14 nm 213 mm²
Ryzen 5 1600 X Ryzen (64-bit, SIMD, caches) 4,800,000,000[99] 2017 AMD 14 nm 213 mm²
IBM z14 (64-bit, SIMD, caches) 6,100,000,000 2017 IBM 14 nm 696 mm²
HiSilicon Kirin 970 (octa-core 64/32-bit ARM64 "mobile SoC", SIMD, caches) 5,500,000,000[100] 2017 Huawei 10 nm 96.72 mm2
Xbox One X (Project Scorpio) main SoC (64-bit, SIMD, caches) 7,000,000,000[101] 2017 Microsoft/AMD 16 nm 360 mm²[101]
28-core Xeon Platinum 8180 (64-bit, SIMD, caches) 8,000,000,000[102][disputed ] 2017 Intel 14 nm
POWER9 (64-bit, SIMD, caches) 8,000,000,000 2017 IBM 14 nm 695 mm²
IBM z14 Storage Controller (64-bit) 9,700,000,000 2017 IBM 14 nm 696 mm²
Freedom U500 Base Platform Chip (E51, 4×U54) RISC-V (64-bit, caches) 250,000,000[103] 2017 SiFive 28 nm ~30 mm²
SPARC64 XII (12-core 64-bit, SIMD, caches) 5,450,000,000[104] 2017 Fujitsu 20 nm 795 mm2
Apple A10X Fusion (hexa-core 64/32-bit ARM64 "mobile SoC", SIMD, caches) 4,300,000,000[105] 2017 Apple 10 nm 96.40 mm2
Centriq 2400 (64/32-bit, SIMD, caches) 18,000,000,000[106] 2017 Qualcomm 10 nm 398 mm2
32-core AMD Epyc (64-bit, SIMD, caches) 19,200,000,000 2017 AMD 14 nm 768 mm2
Qualcomm Snapdragon 710 (octa-core ARM64 "mobile SoC", SIMD, caches) 2018 Qualcomm 10 nm
Qualcomm Snapdragon 675 (octa-core ARM64 "mobile SoC", SIMD, caches) 2018 Qualcomm 11 nm
Qualcomm Snapdragon 855 (octa-core ARM64 "mobile SoC", SIMD, caches) 2018 Qualcomm 7 nm 73.27 mm²
Qualcomm Snapdragon 8cx / SCX8180 (octa-core ARM64 "mobile SoC", SIMD, caches) 8,500,000,000[107] 2018 Qualcomm 7 nm 112 mm²
Apple A12 Bionic (hexa-core ARM64 "mobile SoC", SIMD, caches) 6,900,000,000[108][109] 2018 Apple 7 nm 83.27 mm2
HiSilicon Kirin 980 (octa-core ARM64 "mobile SoC", SIMD, caches) 6,900,000,000[110] 2018 Huawei 7 nm 74.13 mm2
HiSilicon Kirin 710 (octa-core ARM64 "mobile SoC", SIMD, caches) 5,500,000,000[111] 2018 Huawei 12 nm
Apple A12X Bionic (octa-core 64/32-bit ARM64 "mobile SoC", SIMD, caches) 10,000,000,000[112] 2018 Apple 7 nm 122 mm2
Apple A13 (iPhone 11 Pro) 8,500,000,000[113][114] 2019 Apple 7 nm
Fujitsu A64FX (64/32-bit, SIMD, caches) 8,786,000,000[115] 2018[116] Fujitsu 7 nm
GC2 IPU 23,600,000,000 2018 Graphcore 16 nm 825 mm2
Tegra Xavier SoC (64/32-bit) 9,000,000,000[117] 2018 Nvidia 12 nm 350 mm²
Samsung Exynos 9820 (octa-core ARM64 "mobile SoC", SIMD, caches) 2019 Samsung 8 nm 127 mm²
AMD Epyc Rome (64-bit, SIMD, caches) 32,000,000,000 2019 AMD 7 nm (TSMC)

GPUsEdit

A graphics processing unit (GPU) is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the building of images in a frame buffer intended for output to a display.

The designer refers to the technology company that designs the logic of the integrated circuit chip (such as Nvidia and AMD). The manufacturer refers to the semiconductor company that fabricates the chip using its semiconductor manufacturing process at a foundry (such as TSMC and Samsung Semiconductor). The transistor count in a chip is dependent on a manufacturer's fabrication process, with smaller semiconductor nodes typically enabling higher transistor density and thus higher transistor counts.

The random-access memory (RAM) that comes with GPUs (such as VRAM, SGRAM or HBM) greatly increase the total transistor count, which can be ten times as much, e.g. 150 billion transistors.[118] The following table does not include the memory. For memory transistor counts, see the Memory section below.

Processor Transistor count Date of introduction Designer(s) Manufacturer(s) MOS process Area Ref
µPD7220 GDC 40,000 1982 NEC NEC 5,000 nm [119]
ARTC HD63484 60,000 1984 Hitachi Hitachi [120]
YM7101 VDP 100,000 1988 Sega Yamaha [121]
Tom & Jerry 750,000 1993 Flare IBM [121]
VDP1 1,000,000 1994 Sega Hitachi 500 nm [122][123]
Sony GPU 1,000,000 1994 Toshiba LSI 500 nm [124][125][126]
NV1 1,000,000 1995 Nvidia, Sega SGS 500 nm 90 mm² [122]
Reality Coprocessor 2,600,000 1996 SGI NEC 350 nm 81 mm² [127]
PowerVR 1,200,000 1996 VideoLogic NEC 350 nm [128]
Voodoo Graphics 1,000,000 1996 3dfx TSMC 500 nm [129][130]
Voodoo Rush 1,000,000 1997 3dfx TSMC 500 nm [129][130]
NV3 3,500,000 1997 Nvidia SGS, TSMC 350 nm 90 mm² [131][132]
PowerVR2 CLX2 10,000,000 1998 VideoLogic NEC 250 nm 116 mm² [52][133][134][54]
i740 3,500,000 1998 Intel, Real3D Real3D 350 nm [129][130]
Voodoo 2 4,000,000 1998 3dfx TSMC 350 nm
Voodoo Rush 4,000,000 1998 3dfx TSMC 350 nm
Riva TNT 7,000,000 1998 Nvidia TSMC 350 nm [129][132]
PowerVR2 PMX1 6,000,000 1999 VideoLogic NEC 250 nm [135]
Rage 128 8,000,000 1999 ATI TSMC, UMC 250 nm 70 mm² [130]
Voodoo 3 8,100,000 1999 3dfx TSMC 250 nm [136]
Graphics Synthesizer 43,000,000 1999 Sony, Toshiba Sony, Toshiba 180 nm 279 mm² [59][57][56][58]
NV5 15,000,000 1999 Nvidia TSMC 250 nm [130]
NV10 17,000,000 1999 Nvidia TSMC 220 nm 111 mm² [137][132]
Voodoo 4 14,000,000 2000 3dfx TSMC 220 nm [129][130]
NV11 20,000,000 2000 Nvidia TSMC 180 nm 65 mm² [130]
NV15 25,000,000 2000 Nvidia TSMC 180 nm 81 mm² [130]
Voodoo 5 28,000,000 2000 3dfx TSMC 220 nm [129][130]
R100 30,000,000 2000 ATI TSMC 180 nm 97 mm² [130]
Flipper 51,000,000 2000 ArtX NEC 180 nm 106 mm² [59][138]
PowerVR3 KYRO 14,000,000 2001 Imagination ST 250 nm [129][130]
PowerVR3 KYRO II 15,000,000 2001 Imagination ST 180 nm [129][130]
NV2A 60,000,000 2001 Nvidia TSMC 150 nm [129][139]
NV20 57,000,000 2001 Nvidia TSMC 150 nm 128 mm² [130]
R200 60,000,000 2001 ATI TSMC 150 nm 68 mm²
NV25 63,000,000 2002 Nvidia TSMC 150 nm 142 mm²
R300 107,000,000 2002 ATI TSMC 150 nm 218 mm²
R360 117,000,000 2003 ATI TSMC 150 nm 218 mm²
NV38 135,000,000 2003 Nvidia TSMC 130 nm 207 mm²
R480 160,000,000 2004 ATI TSMC 130 nm 297 mm²
NV40 222,000,000 2004 Nvidia IBM 130 nm 305 mm²
Xenos 232,000,000 2005 ATI TSMC 90 nm 182 mm² [140][141]
RSX Reality Synthesizer 300,000,000 2005 Nvidia, Sony Sony 90 nm 186 mm² [142][143]
G70 303,000,000 2005 Nvidia TSMC, Chartered 110 nm 333 mm² [130]
R520 321,000,000 2005 ATI TSMC 90 nm 288 mm²
R580 384,000,000 2006 ATI TSMC 90 nm 352 mm²
G80 681,000,000 2006 Nvidia TSMC 90 nm 480 mm²
G86 Tesla 210,000,000 2007 Nvidia TSMC 80 nm 127 mm²
G84 Tesla 289,000,000 2007 Nvidia TSMC 80 nm 169 mm²
R600 700,000,000 2007 ATI TSMC 80 nm 420 mm²
G92 754,000,000 2007 Nvidia TSMC, UMC 65 nm 324 mm²
G98 Tesla 210,000,000 2008 Nvidia TSMC 65 nm 86 mm²
RV710 242,000,000 2008 ATI TSMC 55 nm 73 mm²
G96 Tesla 314,000,000 2008 Nvidia TSMC 55 nm 121 mm²
G94 Tesla 505,000,000 2008 Nvidia TSMC 65 nm 240 mm²
RV730 514,000,000 2008 ATI TSMC 55 nm 146 mm²
RV670 666,000,000 2008 ATI TSMC 55 nm 192 mm²
RV770 956,000,000 2008 ATI TSMC 55 nm 256 mm²
RV790 959,000,000 2008 ATI TSMC 55 nm 282 mm² [144][130]
GT200b Tesla 1,400,000,000 2008 Nvidia TSMC, UMC 55 nm 470 mm² [130]
GT200 Tesla 1,400,000,000 2008 Nvidia TSMC 65 nm 576 mm² [145][130]
GT218 Tesla 260,000,000 2009 Nvidia TSMC 40 nm 57 mm² [130]
GT216 Tesla 486,000,000 2009 Nvidia TSMC 40 nm 100 mm²
GT215 Tesla 727,000,000 2009 Nvidia TSMC 40 nm 144 mm²
RV740 826,000,000 2009 ATI TSMC 40 nm 137 mm²
Juniper RV840 1,040,000,000 2009 ATI TSMC 40 nm 166 mm²
Cypress RV870 2,154,000,000 2009 ATI TSMC 40 nm 334 mm² [146]
Cedar RV810 292,000,000 2010 AMD (formerly ATI) TSMC 40 nm 59 mm² [130]
Redwood RV830 627,000,000 2010 AMD TSMC 40 nm 104 mm²
GF106 Fermi 1,170,000,000 2010 Nvidia TSMC 40 nm 238 mm²
Barts RV940 1,700,000,000 2010 AMD TSMC 40 nm 255 mm²
Cayman RV970 2,640,000,000 2010 AMD TSMC 40 nm 389 mm²
GF100 Fermi 3,200,000,000 March 2010 Nvidia TSMC 40 nm 526 mm² [147]
GF110 Fermi 3,000,000,000 November 2010 Nvidia TSMC 40 nm 520 mm² [147]
GF119 Fermi 292,000,000 2011 Nvidia TSMC 40 nm 79 mm² [130]
Caicos RV910 370,000,000 2011 AMD TSMC 40 nm 67 mm²
GF108 Fermi 585,000,000 2011 Nvidia TSMC 40 nm 116 mm²
Turks RV930 716,000,000 2011 AMD TSMC 40 nm 118 mm²
GF104 Fermi 1,950,000,000 2011 Nvidia TSMC 40 nm 332 mm²
Tahiti 4,312,711,873 2011 AMD TSMC 28 nm 365 mm² [148]
GK107 Kepler 1,270,000,000 2012 Nvidia TSMC 28 nm 118 mm² [130]
Cape Verde 1,500,000,000 2012 AMD TSMC 28 nm 123 mm²
GK106 Kepler 2,540,000,000 2012 Nvidia TSMC 28 nm 221 mm²
Pitcairn 2,800,000,000 2012 AMD TSMC 28 nm 212 mm²
GK104 Kepler 3,540,000,000 2012 Nvidia TSMC 28 nm 294 mm² [149]
GK110 Kepler 7,080,000,000 2012 Nvidia TSMC 28 nm 561 mm² [150][151]
Oland 1,040,000,000 2013 AMD TSMC 28 nm 90 mm² [130]
Bonaire 2,080,000,000 2013 AMD TSMC 28 nm 160 mm²
Hawaii 6,300,000,000 2013 AMD TSMC 28 nm 438 mm²
GM107 Maxwell 1,870,000,000 2014 Nvidia TSMC 28 nm 148 mm²
GM206 Maxwell 2,940,000,000 2014 Nvidia TSMC 28 nm 228 mm²
Tonga 5,000,000,000 2014 AMD TSMC, GlobalFoundries 28 nm 366 mm²
GM204 Maxwell 5,200,000,000 2014 Nvidia TSMC 28 nm 398 mm²
GM200 Maxwell 8,000,000,000 2015 Nvidia TSMC 28 nm 601 mm²
Fiji 8,900,000,000 2015 AMD TSMC 28 nm 596 mm²
Polaris 11 "Baffin" 3,000,000,000 2016 AMD Samsung, GlobalFoundries 14 nm 123 mm² [130][152]
GP106 Pascal 4,400,000,000 2016 Nvidia TSMC 16 nm 200 mm² [130]
Polaris 10 "Ellesmere" 5,700,000,000 2016 AMD Samsung, GlobalFoundries 14 nm 232 mm² [153]
GP104 Pascal 7,200,000,000 2016 Nvidia TSMC 16 nm 314 mm² [130]
GP100 Pascal 15,300,000,000 2016 Nvidia TSMC, Samsung 16 nm 610 mm² [154]
GP108 Pascal 1,850,000,000 2017 Nvidia Samsung 14 nm 74 mm² [130]
Polaris 12 "Lexa" 2,200,000,000 2017 AMD Samsung, GlobalFoundries 14 nm 101 mm² [130][152]
GP107 Pascal 3,300,000,000 2017 Nvidia Samsung 14 nm 132 mm² [130]
GP102 Pascal 11,800,000,000 2017 Nvidia TSMC, Samsung 16 nm 471 mm²
Vega 10 12,500,000,000 2017 AMD Samsung, GlobalFoundries 14 nm 484 mm² [155]
GV100 Volta 21,100,000,000 2017 Nvidia TSMC 12 nm 815 mm² [1]
TU106 Turing 10,800,000,000 2018 Nvidia TSMC 12 nm 445 mm²
Vega 20 13,230,000,000 2018 AMD TSMC 7 nm 331 mm² [130]
TU104 Turing 13,600,000,000 2018 Nvidia TSMC 12 nm 545 mm²
TU102 Turing 18,600,000,000 2018 Nvidia TSMC 12 nm 754 mm² [156]
TU117 Turing 4,700,000,000 2019 Nvidia TSMC 12 nm 200 mm²
TU116 Turing 6,600,000,000 2019 Nvidia TSMC 12 nm 284 mm²
Navi 10 10,300,000,000 2019 AMD TSMC 7 nm 251 mm²

FPGAEdit

A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is an integrated circuit designed to be configured by a customer or a designer after manufacturing.

FPGA Transistor count Date of introduction Date of first shipment General availability Designer Manufacturer MOS process Area Ref
Virtex 70,000,000 1997 Xilinx
Virtex-E 200,000,000 1998 Xilinx
Virtex-II 350,000,000 2000 Xilinx 130 nm
Virtex-II PRO 430,000,000 2002 Xilinx
Virtex-4 1,000,000,000 2004 Xilinx 90 nm
Virtex-5 1,100,000,000 2006 Xilinx TSMC 65 nm [157]
Stratix IV 2,500,000,000 2008 Altera TSMC 40 nm [158]
Stratix V 3,800,000,000 2011 Altera TSMC 28 nm [159]
Arria 10 5,300,000,000 2014 Altera TSMC 20 nm [160]
Virtex-7 2000T 6,800,000,000 2011 Xilinx TSMC 28 nm [161]
Stratix 10 17,000,000,000 2017 cancelled Intel Intel 14 nm 560 mm² [162][163]
Virtex-Ultrascale VU440 20,000,000,000 2014 Q1 2015 Xilinx TSMC 20 nm [164][165]
Virtex-Ultrascale+ VU19P 35,000,000,000 2019 Fall 2020 Xilinx TSMC 16 nm 900 mm² [c] [166][167]
Versal/Everest 50,000,000,000 2018 2019 Xilinx TSMC 7 nm [168][169][170][171]

MemoryEdit

Semiconductor memory is an electronic data storage device, often used as computer memory, implemented on integrated circuits. Nearly all semiconductor memory since the 1970s have used MOSFET (MOS) transistors, replacing earlier bipolar junction transistors. There are two major types of semiconductor memory, random-access memory (RAM) and non-volatile memory (NVM). In turn, there are two major RAM types, dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) and static random-access memory (SRAM), as well as two major NVM types, flash memory and read-only memory (ROM).

Typical CMOS SRAM consists of six transistors per cell. For DRAM, 1T1C, which means one transistor and one capacitor structure, is common. Capacitor charged or not is used to store 1 or 0. For flash memory, the data is stored in floating gate, and the resistance of the transistor is sensed to interpret the data stored. Depending on how fine scale the resistance could be separated, one transistor could store up to 3-bits, meaning eight distinctive level of resistance possible per transistor. However, the fine the scale comes with cost of repeatability therefore reliability. Typically, low grade 2-bits MLC flash is used for flash drives, so a 16 GB flash drive contains roughly 64 billion transistors.

For SRAM chips, six-transistor cells (six transistors per bit) was the standard.[172] DRAM chips during the early 1970s had three-transistor cells (three transistors per bit), before single-transistor cells (one transistor per bit) became standard since the era of 4 Kb DRAM in the mid-1970s.[173][174] In single-level flash memory, each cell contains one floating-gate transistor (one transistor per bit),[175] whereas multi-level flash contains 2, 3 or 4 bits per transistor.

Random-access memory (RAM)
Chip name Capacity (bits) RAM type Transistor count Date of introduction Manufacturer(s) MOS process Area Ref
N/A 1-bit SRAM (cell) 6 1963 Fairchild N/A N/A [176]
N/A 1-bit DRAM (cell) 1 1965 Toshiba N/A N/A [177][178]
? 8-bit SRAM (bipolar) 48 1965 SDS, Signetics ? ? [176]
SP95 16-bit SRAM (bipolar) 80 1965 IBM ? ? [179]
TMC3162 16-bit SRAM (TTL) 96 1966 Transitron ? ? [174]
? ? SRAM (MOS) ? 1966 NEC ? ? [173]
? 256-bit DRAM (IC) 256 1968 Fairchild ? ? [174]
? 64-bit SRAM (PMOS) 384 1968 Fairchild ? ? [173]
? 144-bit SRAM (NMOS) 864 1968 NEC ? ? [173]
1101 256-bit SRAM (PMOS) 1,536 1969 Intel 12,000 nm ? [180][181][182]
1102 1 Kb DRAM (PMOS) 3,072 1970 Intel, Honeywell ? ? [173]
1103 1 Kb DRAM (PMOS) 3,072 1970 Intel 8,000 nm 10 mm² [183][172][184][174]
μPD403 1 Kb DRAM (NMOS) 3,072 1971 NEC ? ? [185]
? 2 Kb DRAM (PMOS) 6,144 1971 General Instrument ? 12.7 mm² [186]
2102 1 Kb SRAM (NMOS) 6,144 1972 Intel ? ? [180][187]
? 8 Kb DRAM (PMOS) 8,192 1973 IBM ? 18.8 mm² [186]
5101 1 Kb SRAM (CMOS) 6,144 1974 Intel ? ? [180]
2116 16 Kb DRAM (NMOS) 16,384 1975 Intel ? ? [188][174]
2114 4 Kb SRAM (NMOS) 24,576 1976 Intel ? ? [180][189]
? 4 Kb SRAM (CMOS) 24,576 1977 Toshiba ? ? [181]
? 64 Kb DRAM (NMOS) 65,536 1977 NTT ? 35.4 mm² [186]
? 64 Kb DRAM (VMOS) 65,536 1979 Siemens ? 25.2 mm² [186]
? 16 Kb SRAM (CMOS) 98,304 1980 Hitachi, Toshiba ? ? [190]
? 256 Kb DRAM (NMOS) 262,144 1980 NEC 1,500 nm 41.6 mm² [186]
? 256 Kb DRAM (NMOS) 262,144 1980 NTT 1,000 nm 34.4 mm² [186]
? 64 Kb SRAM (CMOS) 393,216 1980 Matsushita ? ? [190]
? 288 Kb DRAM 294,912 1981 IBM ? 25 mm² [191]
? 64 Kb SRAM (NMOS) 393,216 1982 Intel 1,500 nm ? [190]
? 256 Kb SRAM (CMOS) 1,572,864 1984 Toshiba 1,200 nm ? [190][182]
? 8 Mb DRAM 8,388,608 January 5, 1984 Hitachi ? ? [192][193]
? 16 Mb DRAM (CMOS) 16,777,216 1987 NTT 700 nm 148 mm² [186]
? 4 Mb SRAM (CMOS) 25,165,824 1990 NEC, Toshiba, Hitachi, Mitsubishi ? ? [190]
? 64 Mb DRAM (CMOS) 67,108,864 1991 Matsushita, Mitsubishi, Fujitsu, Toshiba 400 nm ? [190]
KM48SL2000 16 Mb SDRAM 16,777,216 1992 Samsung ? ? [194][195]
? 16 Mb SRAM (CMOS) 100,663,296 1992 Fujitsu, NEC 400 nm ? [190]
? 256 Mb DRAM (CMOS) 268,435,456 1993 Hitachi, NEC 250 nm ? [190]
? 1 Gb DRAM 1,073,741,824 January 9, 1995 NEC 250 nm ? [196][197]
? 1 Gb DRAM 1,073,741,824 January 9, 1995 Hitachi 160 nm ? [196][197]
? 1 Gb SDRAM 1,073,741,824 1996 Mitsubishi 150 nm ? [190]
? 1 Gb SDRAM (SOI) 1,073,741,824 1997 Hyundai ? ? [198]
? 4 Gb DRAM (4-bit) 1,073,741,824 1997 NEC 150 nm ? [190]
? 4 Gb DRAM 4,294,967,296 1998 Hyundai ? ? [198]
? 8 Gb SDRAM (DDR3) 8,589,934,592 April 2008 Samsung 50 nm ? [199]
? 16 Gb SDRAM (DDR3) 17,179,869,184 2008 Samsung 50 nm ?
? 32 Gb SDRAM (HBM2) 34,359,738,368 2016 Samsung 20 nm ? [200]
? 64 Gb SDRAM (HBM2) 68,719,476,736 2017 Samsung 20 nm ?
? 128 Gb SDRAM (DDR4) 137,438,953,472 2018 Samsung 10 nm ? [201]
Flash memory
Chip name Capacity (bits) Flash type Transistor count Date of introduction Manufacturer(s) MOS process Area Ref
? 256 Kb NOR 262,144 1985 Toshiba 2,000 nm ? [190]
? 1 Mb NOR 1,048,576 1989 Seeq, Intel ? ? [190]
? 4 Mb NAND 4,194,304 1989 Toshiba 1,000 nm ? [190]
? 16 Mb NOR 16,777,216 1991 Mitsubishi 600 nm ? [190]
DD28F032SA 32 Mb NOR 33,554,432 1993 Intel ? 280 mm² [180][202]
? 64 Mb NOR 67,108,864 1994 NEC 400 nm ? [190]
? 64 Mb NAND 67,108,864 1996 Hitachi 400 nm ? [190]
? 128 Mb NAND 134,217,728 1996 Samsung, Hitachi ? ? [190]
? 256 Mb NAND 268,435,456 1999 Hitachi, Toshiba 250 nm ? [190]
? 512 Mb NAND 536,870,912 2000 Toshiba ? ? [203]
? 1 Gb 2-bit NAND 536,870,912 2001 Samsung ? ? [190]
? 1 Gb 2-bit NAND 536,870,912 2001 Toshiba, SanDisk 160 nm ? [204]
? 2 Gb NAND 2,147,483,648 2002 Samsung, Toshiba ? ? [205][206]
? 8 Gb NAND 8,589,934,592 2004 Samsung 60 nm ? [205]
? 16 Gb NAND 17,179,869,184 2005 Samsung 50 nm ? [207]
? 32 Gb NAND 34,359,738,368 2006 Samsung 40 nm ? [207]
THGAM 128 Gb Stacked NAND 128,000,000,000 April 2007 Toshiba 56 nm 252 mm² [208]
THGBM 256 Gb Stacked NAND 256,000,000,000 2008 Toshiba 43 nm 353 mm² [209]
THGBM2 1 Tb Stacked 4-bit NAND 256,000,000,000 2010 Toshiba 32 nm 374 mm² [210]
KLMCG8GE4A 512 Gb Stacked 2-bit NAND 256,000,000,000 2011 Samsung ? 192 mm² [211]
KLUFG8R1EM 4 Tb Stacked 3-bit V-NAND 1,365,333,333,504 2017 Samsung ? 150 mm² [212]
eUFS (1 TB) 8 Tb Stacked 4-bit V-NAND 2,048,000,000,000 2019 Samsung ? 150 mm² [4][213]
? a layer of CMOS carbon nanotube transistors and a layer of RRAM memory cells built atop one another[214] 3DSoC[215] 2019 Skywater[216] 90 nm ?
Read-only memory (ROM)
Chip name Capacity (bits) ROM type Transistor count Date of introduction Manufacturer(s) MOS process Area Ref
? ? PROM ? 1956 Arma ? ? [217][218]
? 1 Kb ROM (MOS) 1,024 1965 General Microelectronics ? ? [219]
3301 1 Kb ROM (bipolar) 1,024 1969 Intel ? ? [219]
1702 2 Kb EPROM 2,048 1971 Intel ? 15 mm² [220]
? 4 Kb ROM 4,096 1974 AMD, General Instrument ? ? [219]
2708 8 Kb EPROM 8,192 1975 Intel ? ? [180]
? 2 Kb EEPROM 2,048 1976 Toshiba ? ? [221]
µCOM-43 ROM 16 Kb PROM 16,000 1977 NEC ? ? [222]
2716 16 Kb EPROM (TTL) 16,384 1977 Intel ? ? [183][223]
EA8316F 16 Kb ROM (NMOS) 16,384 1978 Electronic Arrays ? 436 mm² [219][224]
2732 32 Kb EPROM 32,768 1978 Intel ? ? [180]
2364 64 Kb ROM 65,536 1978 Intel ? ? [225]
2764 64 Kb EPROM 65,536 1981 Intel 3,500 nm ? [180][190]
27128 128 Kb EPROM 131,072 1982 Intel ? ? [180][190]
27256 256 Kb EPROM (HMOS) 262,144 1983 Intel ? ? [180][226]
? 256 Kb EPROM (CMOS) 262,144 1983 Fujitsu ? ? [227]
? 512 Kb EPROM (NMOS) 524,288 1984 AMD 1,700 nm ? [190]
27512 512 Kb EPROM (HMOS) 524,288 1984 Intel ? ? [180][228]
? 1 Mb EPROM (CMOS) 1,048,576 1984 NEC 1,200 nm ? [190]
? 4 Mb EPROM (CMOS) 4,194,304 1987 Toshiba 800 nm ? [190]
? 16 Mb EPROM (CMOS) 16,777,216 1990 NEC 600 nm ? [190]
? 16 Mb MROM 16,777,216 1995 AKM, Hitachi ? ? [197]

Transistor computersEdit

Before transistors where invented, relays were used in early computers. The world's first working programmable, fully automatic digital computer,[229] the 1941 Z3 22-bit word length computer, had 2,600 relays, and operated at a clock frequency of about 4–5 Hz. The 1940 Complex Number Computer had fewer than 500 relays,[230] but it was not fully programmable.

The second generation of computers were transistor computers that featured boards filled with discrete transistors and magnetic memory cores. The experimental 1953 48-bit Transistor Computer, developed at the University of Manchester, is widely believed to be the first transistor computer to come into operation anywhere in the world (the prototype had 92 point-contact transistors and 550 diodes).[231] A later version the 1955 machine had a total of 250 junction transistors and 1300 point diodes. The Computer also used a small number of tubes in its clock generator, so it was not the first fully transistorized. The ETL Mark III, developed at the Electrotechnical Laboratory in 1956, may have been the first transistor-based electronic computer using the stored program method. It had about "130 point-contact transistors and about 1,800 germanium diodes were used for logic elements, and these were housed on 300 plug-in packages which could be slipped in and out.[232] The 1958 decimal architecture IBM 7070 was the first transistor computer to be fully programmable. It had about 30,000 alloy-junction germanium transistors and 22,000 germanium diodes, on approximately 14,000 Standard Modular System (SMS) cards. The 1959 MOBIDIC, short for "MOBIle DIgital Computer", at 12,000 pounds (6.0 short tons) mounted in the trailer of a semi-trailer truck, was a transistorized computer for battlefield data.

The third generation of computers used integrated circuits (ICs).[233] The 1962 15-bit Apollo Guidance Computer used "about 4,000 "Type-G" (3-input NOR gate) circuits" for about 12,000 transistors plus 32,000 resistors.[234] The first commercial IC-based computer was the IBM System/360 in 1964.[233] The 1965 12-bit PDP-8 CPU had 1409 transistors and over 10,000 diodes. It was not a microprocessor, as it used discrete transistors on many cards; but later microprocessors, such as the Intersil 6100 reimplemented it, see below.[235]

The next generation of computers were the microcomputers, also known as home computers or personal computers (PC), which used MOS microprocessors, in the 1970s. This list includes early transistorized computers (second generation) and IC-based computers (third generation) from the 1950s and 1960s.

Computer Transistor count Year Manufacturer Notes Ref
Transistor Computer 92 1953 University of Manchester Point-contact transistors [231]
TRADIC 700 1954 Bell Labs Point-contact transistors [231]
Transistor Computer (full size) 250 1955 University of Manchester Discrete point-contact transistors [231]
ETL Mark III 130 1956 Electrotechnical Laboratory Point-contact transistors [231][232]
Metrovick 950 200 1956 Metropolitan-Vickers Discrete junction transistors
NEC NEAC-2201 600 1958 NEC Germanium transistors [236]
Hitachi MARS-1 1,000 1958 Hitachi [237]
IBM 7070 30,000 1958 IBM Alloy-junction germanium transistors [238]
Matsushita MADIC-I 400 1959 Matsushita Bipolar transistors [239]
NEC NEAC-2203 2,579 1959 NEC [240]
Toshiba TOSBAC-2100 5,000 1959 Toshiba [241]
IBM 7090 50,000 1959 IBM Discrete germanium transistors [242]
PDP-1 2,700 1959 Digital Equipment Corporation Discrete transistors
Mitsubishi MELCOM 1101 3,500 1960 Mitsubishi Germanium transistors [243]
M18 FADAC 1,600 1960 Autonetics Discrete transistors
D-17B 1,521 1962 Autonetics Discrete transistors
NEC NEAC-L2 16,000 1964 NEC Ge transistors [244]
IBM System/360 ? 1964 IBM Integrated circuits
PDP-8/I 1409 1968 Digital Equipment Corporation 74 series TTL circuits
Apollo Guidance Computer Block II 12,300 1966 Raytheon / MIT Instrumentation Laboratory 4,100 ICs, each containing a 3-transistor, 3-input NOR gate

Logic functionsEdit

Transistor count for generic logic functions is based on static CMOS implementation.[245]

Function Transistor count Ref
NOT 2
Buffer 4
NAND 2-input 4
NOR 2-input 4
AND 2-input 6
OR 2-input 6
NAND 3-input 6
NOR 3-input 6
XOR 2-input 6
XNOR 2-input 8
MUX 2-input with TG 6
MUX 4-input with TG 18
NOT MUX 2-input 8
MUX 4-input 24
1-bit adder full 28
1-bit adder–subtractor 48
AND-OR-INVERT 6 [246]
Latch, D gated 8
Flip-flop, edge triggered dynamic D with reset 12
8-bit multiplier 3,000
16-bit multiplier 9,000
32-bit multiplier 21,000 [247]
small-scale integration 2–100 [248]
medium-scale integration 100–500 [248]
large-scale integration 500–20,000 [248]
very-large-scale integration 20,000–1,000,000 [248]
ultra-large scale integration >1,000,000

Parallel systemsEdit

Historically, each processing element in earlier parallel systems—like all CPUs of that time—was a serial computer built out of multiple chips. As transistor counts per chip increases, each processing element could be built out of fewer chips, and then later each multi-core processor chip could contain more processing elements.[249]

Goodyear MPP: (1983?) 8 pixel processors per chip, 3,000 to 8,000 transistors per chip.[249]

Brunel University Scape (single-chip array-processing element): (1983) 256 pixel processors per chip, 120,000 to 140,000 transistors per chip.[249]

Cell Broadband Engine: (2006) with 9 cores per chip, had 234 million transistors per chip.[250]

Transistor densityEdit

The transistor density is the number of transistors that are fabricated per unit area, typically measured in terms of the number of transistors per square millimeter (mm²). The transistor density usually correlates with the gate length of a semiconductor node (also known as a semiconductor manufacturing process), typically measured in nanometers (nm). As of 2019, the semiconductor node with the highest transistor density is TSMC's 5 nanometer node, with 171.3 million transistors per square millimeter.[251]

Semiconductor nodesEdit

Semiconductor nodes
Node name Transistor density (transistors/mm2) Production year Process MOSFET Manufacturer(s) Ref
? ? 1960 20,000 nm PMOS Bell Labs [252][253]
? ? 1960 20,000 nm NMOS
? ? 1963 ? CMOS Fairchild [15]
? ? 1964 ? PMOS General Microelectronics [254]
? ? 1968 20,000 nm CMOS RCA [255]
? ? 1969 12,000 nm PMOS Intel [190][182]
? ? 1970 10,000 nm CMOS RCA [255]
? 300 1970 8,000 nm PMOS Intel [184][174]
? ? 1971 10,000 nm PMOS Intel [256]
? 480 1971 ? PMOS General Instrument [186]
? ? 1973 ? NMOS Texas Instruments [186]
? 220 1973 ? NMOS Mostek [186]
? ? 1973 7,500 nm NMOS NEC [21][20]
? ? 1973 6,000 nm PMOS Toshiba [22][257]
? ? 1976 5,000 nm NMOS Hitachi, Intel [186]
? ? 1976 5,000 nm CMOS RCA
? ? 1976 4,000 nm NMOS Zilog
? ? 1976 3,000 nm NMOS Intel [258]
? 1,850 1977 ? NMOS NTT [186]
? ? 1978 3,000 nm CMOS Hitachi [259]
? ? 1978 2,500 nm NMOS Texas Instruments [186]
? ? 1978 2,000 nm NMOS NEC, NTT
? 2,600 1979 ? VMOS Siemens
? 7,280 1979 1,000 nm NMOS NTT
? 7,620 1980 1,000 nm NMOS NTT
? ? 1983 2,000 nm CMOS Toshiba [190]
? ? 1983 1,500 nm CMOS Intel [186]
? ? 1983 1,200 nm CMOS Intel
? ? 1984 800 nm CMOS NTT
? ? 1987 700 nm CMOS Fujitsu
? ? 1989 600 nm CMOS Mitsubishi, NEC, Toshiba [190]
? ? 1989 500 nm CMOS Hitachi, Mitsubishi, NEC, Toshiba
? ? 1991 400 nm CMOS Matsushita, Mitsubishi, Fujitsu, Toshiba
? ? 1993 350 nm CMOS Sony
? ? 1993 250 nm CMOS Hitachi, NEC
3LM 32,000 1994 350 nm CMOS NEC [127]
? ? 1995 160 nm CMOS Hitachi [190]
? ? 1996 150 nm CMOS Mitsubishi
TSMC 180 nm ? 1998 180 nm CMOS TSMC [260]
CS80 ? 1999 180 nm CMOS Fujitsu [261]
? ? 1999 180 nm CMOS Intel, Sony, Toshiba [180][57]
CS85 ? 1999 170 nm CMOS Fujitsu [262]
Samsung 140 nm ? 1999 140 nm CMOS Samsung [190]
? ? 2001 130 nm CMOS Fujitsu, Intel [261][180]
Samsung 100 nm ? 2001 100 nm CMOS Samsung [190]
? ? 2002 90 nm CMOS Sony, Toshiba, Samsung [57][205]
CS100 ? 2003 90 nm CMOS Fujitsu [261]
Intel 90 nm 1,450,000 2004 90 nm CMOS Intel [263][180]
Samsung 80 nm ? 2004 80 nm CMOS Samsung [264]
? ? 2004 65 nm CMOS Fujitsu, Toshiba [265]
Samsung 60 nm ? 2004 60 nm CMOS Samsung [205]
TSMC 45 nm ? 2004 45 nm CMOS TSMC
Elpida 90 nm ? 2005 90 nm CMOS Elpida Memory [266]
CS200 ? 2005 65 nm CMOS Fujitsu [267][261]
Samsung 50 nm ? 2005 50 nm CMOS Samsung [207]
Intel 65 nm 2,080,000 2006 65 nm CMOS Intel [263]
Samsung 40 nm ? 2006 40 nm CMOS Samsung [207]
Toshiba 56 nm ? 2007 56 nm CMOS Toshiba [268]
Matsushita 45 nm ? 2007 45 nm CMOS Matsushita [67]
Intel 45 nm 3,300,000 2008 45 nm CMOS Intel [269]
Toshiba 43 nm ? 2008 43 nm CMOS Toshiba [270]
TSMC 40 nm ? 2008 40 nm CMOS TSMC [271]
Toshiba 32 nm ? 2009 32 nm CMOS Toshiba [272]
Intel 32 nm 7,500,000 2010 32 nm CMOS Intel [269]
? ? 2010 20 nm CMOS Hynix, Samsung [273][207]
Intel 22 nm 15,300,000 2012 22 nm CMOS Intel [269]
IMFT 20 nm ? 2012 20 nm CMOS IMFT [274]
Toshiba 19 nm ? 2012 19 nm CMOS Toshiba
Hynix 16 nm ? 2013 16 nm FinFET SK Hynix [275]
TSMC 16 nm 28,880,000 2013 16 nm FinFET TSMC [276][277]
Samsung 10 nm 51,820,000 2013 10 nm FinFET Samsung [278][279]
Intel 14 nm 37,500,000 2014 14 nm FinFET Intel [269]
14LP 32,940,000 2015 14 nm FinFET Samsung [278]
TSMC 10 nm 52,510,000 2016 10 nm FinFET TSMC [276][280]
12LP 36,710,000 2017 12 nm FinFET GlobalFoundries, Samsung [152]
N7FF 96,500,000 2017 7 nm FinFET TSMC [281][282][283]
8LPP 61,180,000 2018 8 nm FinFET Samsung [278]
7LPE 95,300,000 2018 7 nm FinFET Samsung [282]
Intel 10 nm 100,760,000 2018 10 nm FinFET Intel [284]
5LPE 126,530,000 2018 5 nm FinFET Samsung [285][286]
N7FF+ 113,900,000 2019 7 nm FinFET TSMC [281][282]
CLN5FF 171,300,000 2019 5 nm FinFET TSMC [251]
TSMC 3 nm ? ? 3 nm ? TSMC [287]
Samsung 3 nm ? ? 3 nm GAAFET Samsung [288]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ 3,510 without depletion mode pull-up transistors
  2. ^ 6,813 without depletion mode pull-up transistors
  3. ^ estimate

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