Toshiba Corporation (株式会社東芝, Kabushiki gaisha Tōshiba, English: / -, -/,) is a Japanese multinational conglomerate headquartered in Minato, Tokyo. Its diversified products and services include power, industrial and social infrastructure systems, elevators and escalators, electronic components, semiconductors, hard disk drives (HDD), printers, batteries, lighting, as well as IT solutions such as quantum cryptography. It was one of the biggest manufacturers of personal computers, consumer electronics, home appliances, and medical equipment. As a semiconductor company and the inventor of flash memory, Toshiba had been one of the top 10 in the chip industry until its flash memory unit was spun off as Toshiba Memory, later Kioxia, in the late 2010s.
|Kabushiki gaisha Tōshiba|
|Formerly||Tokyo Shibaura Electric Co., Ltd. (English name 1939–1979; Japanese name 1939–1984)|
|Founded||11 July 1875|
|Founder||Tanaka Hisashige (for the Tanaka Seisakusho line)|
|Revenue||¥3.693 trillion (2019)|
|¥35.4 billion (2019)|
|¥1.01 trillion (2019)|
|Total assets||¥4.297 trillion (2019)|
|Total equity||¥1.456 trillion (2019)|
|Owner||Dai-ichi Life (2.54%)|
Tobu Railway (0.02%)
Number of employees
|Subsidiaries||List of Toshiba subsidiaries|
The Toshiba name came to be after the merger of Tokyo Shibaura Denki K.K. (Tokyo Shibaura Electric Co., Ltd) (founded in 1939) and Shibaura Seisaku-sho (founded in 1875) and Tokyo Denki (founded in 1890). The company name was officially changed to Toshiba Corporation in 1978. It is listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange, where it was a constituent of the Nikkei 225 and TOPIX indices (leaving both in August 2018), the Nagoya Stock Exchange, and the London Stock Exchange.
A technology company with a long history and sprawling businesses, Toshiba is a household name in Japan and has long been viewed as a symbol of the country's technological prowess. Its reputation has since been affected following an accounting scandal in 2015 and the bankruptcy of subsidiary energy company Westinghouse in 2017, after which it was forced to shed a number of underperforming businesses, essentially eliminating the company's century-long presence in consumer markets.
Tanaka Seisakusho (田中製作所, Tanaka Engineering Works) was the first company established by Tanaka Hisashige, one of the most original and productive inventor-engineers during the Tokugawa / Edo period. Established in July 11, 1875, it was the first Japanese company to manufacture telegraph equipment. It also manufactured switches, and miscellaneous electrical and communications equipment. The company was inherited by Tanaka's adopted son, and later became half of the present Toshiba company. Several people who worked at Tanaka Seisakusho or who received Tanaka's guidance at a Kubusho (Ministry of Industries) factory later became pioneers themselves. These included Miyoshi Shōichi who helped Fujioka make the first power generator in Japan and to establish a company, Hakunetsusha to make bulbs; Oki Kibatarō, the founder of the present Oki Denki (Oki Electric Industry); and Ishiguro Keizaburō, a co-founder of the present Anritsu.
After the demise of the founder in 1881 Tanaka Seisakusho became partly owned by General Electric and expanded into the production of torpedoes and mines at the request of the Imperial Japanese Navy, to become one of the largest manufacturing companies of the time. However, as the Navy started to use competitive bids and then build its own works, the demand decreased substantially and the company started to lose money. The main creditor to the company, Mitsui Bank, took over the insolvent company in 1893 and renamed it Shibaura Seisakusho (Shibaura Engineering Works).
Shibaura Seisakusho (芝浦製作所, Shibaura Engineering Works) was the new name given to the company Tanaka Seisakusho (Tanaka Engineering Works) after it was declared insolvent in 1893 and taken over by Mitsui Bank.
In 1910, it formed a tie-up with General Electric in the US, which, in exchange for technology acquired about a quarter of the shares of Shibaura. With this investment, GE now had a stake in both Tokyo Denki and Shibaura Seisakusho – two companies that had a complementary line of products in the light as well as heavy electrical equipment. Both companies were merged in 1939 to create Tokyo Shibaura Denki (Tokyo Shibaura Electric Company, now Toshiba). The relation with GE continued until the beginning of the war and, after the war, resumed in 1953 with GE's 24 percent shareholding. This percentage has, however, decreased substantially since then.
Hakunetsusha (Tokyo Denki)Edit
Hakunetsusha (白熱舎) was a company established by Shōichi Miyoshi and Fujioka Ichisuke, two of Japan's industrial pioneers during the Tokugawa / Edo period. It specialized in the manufacture of light bulbs.
The company was established in 1890 and started out by selling bulbs using bamboo filaments. However, following the opening up of trade with the West through the Unequal treaty, Hakunetsusha met with fierce competition from imports. Its bulb cost about 60 percent more than the imports and the quality was poorer. The company managed to survive with the booms after the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894–95 and the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05, but afterward its financial position was precarious.
In 1905 the company was renamed Tokyo Denki (Tokyo Electric) and entered into a financial and technological collaboration with General Electric of the US. General Electric acquired 51 percent share of ownership, sent a vice president, and provided the technology for bulb-making. Production equipment was bought from GE and Tokyo Denki soon started selling its products with GE's trademark.
In 1939, Tokyo Denki and Shibaura Seisakusho were merged to form Tokyo Shibaura Denki (Tokyo Shibaura Electric Company, now Toshiba).
1939 to 2000Edit
Toshiba was founded in 1939 by the merger of Shibaura Seisakusho (Shibaura Engineering Works) and Tokyo Denki (Tokyo Electric). Shibaura Seisakusho had been founded as Tanaka Seisakusho by Tanaka Hisashige in July 1875 as Japan's first manufacturer of telegraph equipment. In 1904, it was renamed Shibaura Seisakusho. Through the first decades of the 20th century, Shibaura Seisakusho had become a major manufacturer of heavy electrical machinery as Japan modernized during the Meiji Era and became a world industrial power. Tokyo Denki was founded as Hakunetsusha in 1890 and had been Japan's first producer of incandescent electric lamps. It later diversified into the manufacture of other consumer products and in 1899 had been renamed Tokyo Denki. The merger of Shibaura and Tokyo Denki created a new company called Tokyo Shibaura Denki (Tokyo Shibaura Electric) (東京 芝浦 電気). It was soon nicknamed Toshiba, but it was not until 1978 that the company was officially renamed Toshiba Corporation.
The group expanded rapidly, driven by a combination of organic growth and by acquisitions, buying heavy engineering, and primary industry firms in the 1940s and 1950s. Groups created include Toshiba Music Industries/Toshiba EMI (1960), Toshiba International Corporation (the 1970s) Toshiba Electrical Equipment (1974), Toshiba Chemical (1974), Toshiba Lighting and Technology (1989), Toshiba America Information Systems (1989) and Toshiba Carrier Corporation (1999).
Toshiba is responsible for a number of Japanese firsts, including radar (1912), the TAC digital computer (1954), transistor television, color CRTs and microwave oven (1959), color video phone (1971), Japanese word processor (1978), MRI system (1982), laptop personal computer (1986), NAND EEPROM (1991), DVD (1995), the Libretto sub-notebook personal computer (1996) and HD DVD (2005).
In 1977, Toshiba acquired the Brazilian company Semp (Sociedade Eletromercantil Paulista), subsequently forming Semp Toshiba through the combination of the two companies' South American operations.
In 1987, Tocibai Machine, a subsidiary of Toshiba, was accused of illegally selling CNC milling machines used to produce very quiet submarine propellers to the Soviet Union in violation of the CoCom agreement, an international embargo on certain countries to COMECON countries. The Toshiba-Kongsberg scandal involved a subsidiary of Toshiba and the Norwegian company Kongsberg Vaapenfabrikk. The incident strained relations between the United States and Japan, and resulted in the arrest and prosecution of two senior executives, as well as the imposition of sanctions on the company by both countries. Senator John Heinz of Pennsylvania said "What Toshiba and Kongsberg did was ransom the security of the United States for $517 million."
2000 to 2010Edit
In 2001, Toshiba signed a contract with Orion Electric, one of the world's largest OEM consumer video electronic makers and suppliers, to manufacture and supply finished consumer TV and video products for Toshiba to meet the increasing demand for the North American market. The contract ended in 2008, ending seven years of OEM production with Orion.
In December 2004, Toshiba quietly announced it would discontinue manufacturing traditional in-house cathode-ray tube (CRT) televisions. In 2005, Matsushita Toshiba Picture Display Co. Ltd. (a joint venture between Panasonic and Toshiba created in 2002) stopped production of CRTs at its factory in Horseheads, New York. A year later, in 2006, it stopped production at its Malaysian factory, following heavy losses. In 2006, Toshiba terminated sales of CRT TVs in Japan and production of in-house plasma TVs. To ensure its future competitiveness in the flat-panel digital television and display market, Toshiba has made a considerable investment in a new kind of display technology called SED. This technology, however, was never sold to the public, as it was not price-competitive with LCDs. Before World War II, Toshiba was a member of the Mitsui Group zaibatsu (family-controlled vertical monopoly). Today Toshiba is a member of the Mitsui keiretsu (a set of companies with interlocking business relationships and shareholdings), and still has preferential arrangements with Mitsui Bank and the other members of the keiretsu. Membership in a keiretsu has traditionally meant loyalty, both corporate and private, to other members of the keiretsu or allied keiretsu. This loyalty can extend as far as the beer the employees consume, which in Toshiba's case is Asahi.
In July 2005, BNFL confirmed it planned to sell Westinghouse Electric Company, then estimated to be worth $1.8 billion (£1 billion). The bid attracted interest from several companies including Toshiba, General Electric and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and when the Financial Times reported on 23 January 2006 that Toshiba had won the bid, it valued the company's offer at $5 billion (£2.8 billion). The sale of Westinghouse by the Government of the United Kingdom surprised many industry experts, who questioned the wisdom of selling one of the world's largest producers of nuclear reactors shortly before the market for nuclear power was expected to grow substantially; China, the United States and the United Kingdom are all expected to invest heavily in nuclear power. The acquisition of Westinghouse for $5.4 billion was completed on 17 October 2006, with Toshiba obtaining a 77 percent share, and partners The Shaw Group a 20 percent share and Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. a 3 percent share.
In late 2007, Toshiba took over from Discover Card as the sponsor of the top-most screen of One Times Square in New York City. It displays the iconic 60-second New Year's countdown on its screen, as well as messages, greetings, and advertisements for the company. The sponsor of the New Year's countdown was taken over by Capital One on 31 December 2018.
2010 to 2014Edit
Toshiba announced on 16 May 2011, that it had agreed to acquire all of the shares of the Swiss-based advanced-power-meter maker Landis+Gyr for $2.3 billion. In 2010 the company released a series of television models including the WL768, YL863, VL963 designed in collaboration with Danish designer Timothy Jacob Jensen. In April 2012, Toshiba agreed to acquire IBM's point-of-sale business for $850 million, making it the world's largest vendor of point-of-sale systems.
In July 2012, Toshiba was accused of fixing the prices of LCD panels in the United States at a high level. While such claims were denied by Toshiba, they have agreed to settle alongside several other manufacturers for a total of $571 million.
In December 2013, Toshiba completed its acquisition of Vijai Electricals Limited plant at Hyderabad and set up its own base for manufacturing of transmission and distribution products (transformers and switchgears) under the Social Infrastructure Group in India as Toshiba Transmission & Distribution Systems (India) Private Limited. In January 2014, Toshiba completed its acquisition of OCZ Storage Solutions. OCZ Technology stock was halted on 27 November 2013. OCZ then stated they expected to file a petition for bankruptcy and that Toshiba Corporation had expressed interest in purchasing its assets in a bankruptcy proceeding. On 2 December 2013, OCZ announced Toshiba had agreed to purchase nearly all of OCZ's assets for $35 million. The deal was completed on 21 January 2014 when the assets of OCZ Technology Group became a new independently operated subsidiary of Toshiba named OCZ Storage Solutions. OCZ Technology Group then changed its name to ZCO Liquidating Corporation; on 18 August 2014, ZCO Liquidating Corporation and its subsidiaries were liquidated. OCZ Storage Solutions was dissolved on 1 April 2016 and absorbed into Toshiba America Electronic Components, Inc., with OCZ becoming a brand of Toshiba.
In March 2014, Toshiba sued SK Hynix, accusing the company of stealing technology of its NAND flash memory. In the late same year, the two companies settled with a deal in which SK Hynix pays US$278 million to Toshiba. Toshiba had sued Hynix in the early 2000s for patent infringement.
2015 accounting scandalEdit
Toshiba first announced in May 2015 that it was investigating an accounting scandal and it might have to revise its profits for the previous three years. On 21 July 2015, CEO Hisao Tanaka announced his resignation amid an accounting scandal that he called "the most damaging event for our brand in the company's 140-year history". Profits had been inflated by $1.2 billion over the previous seven years. Eight other senior officials also resigned, including the two previous CEOs. Chairman Masashi Muromachi was appointed acting CEO. Following the scandal, Toshiba Corp. was removed from a stock index showcasing Japan's best companies. That was the second reshuffle of the index, which picks companies with the best operating income, return on equity and market value.
Toshiba announced in early 2015 that they would stop making televisions in its own factories. From 2015 onward, Toshiba televisions will be made by Compal for the U.S., or by Vestel and other manufacturers for the European market.
In September 2015, Toshiba shares fell to their lowest point in two and a half years. The firm said in a statement that its net losses for the quarterly period were 12.3 billion yen ($102m; £66m). The company noted poor performances in its televisions, home appliances and personal computer businesses.
In December 2015, Muromachi said the episode had wiped about $8 billion off Toshiba's market value. He forecast a record 550 billion yen (about US$4.6 billion) annual loss and warned the company would have to overhaul its TV and computer businesses. Toshiba would not be raising funds for two years, he said. The next week, a company spokesperson announced Toshiba would in early 2016 seek 300 billion yen ($2.5 billion), taking the company's indebtedness to more than 1 trillion yen (about $8.3 billion).
In January 2016, Toshiba's security division unveiled a new bundle of services for schools that use its surveillance equipment. The program, which is intended for both K-12 and higher education, includes education discounts, alerts, and post-warranty support, among other features, on its IP-based security gear.
As of March 2016, Toshiba is preparing to start construction on a cutting-edge new semiconductor plant in Japan that will mass-produce chips based on the ultra-dense flash variant. Toshiba expects to spend approximately 360 billion yen, or $3.2 billion, on the project through May 2019.
In April 2016, Toshiba recalled 100,000 faulty laptop lithium-ion batteries, which are made by Panasonic, that can overheat, posing burn and fire hazards to consumers, according to the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. Toshiba first announced the recall in January and said it was recalling the batteries in certain Toshiba Notebook computers sold since June 2011.
2017 US nuclear construction liabilitiesEdit
In late December 2016, the management of Toshiba requested an "urgent press briefing" to announce that the newly-found losses in the Westinghouse subsidiary from Vogtle Electric Generating Plant nuclear plant construction would lead to a write-down of several billion dollars, bankrupting Westinghouse and threatening to bankrupt Toshiba. The exact amount of the liabilities was unavailable.
In January 2017, a person with direct knowledge of the matter reported that the company plans on making its memory chip division a separate business, to save Toshiba from bankruptcy.
In February 2017, Toshiba revealed unaudited details of a 390 billion yen ($3.4 billion) corporate wide loss, mainly arising from its majority owned US based Westinghouse nuclear construction subsidiary which was written down by 712 billion yen ($6.3 billion). On 14 February 2017, Toshiba delayed filing financial results, and chairman Shigenori Shiga, formerly chairman of Westinghouse, resigned.
Construction delays, regulatory changes and cost overruns at Westinghouse built nuclear facilities Vogtle units 3 and 4 in Waynesboro, Georgia and VC Summer units 2 and 3 in South Carolina, are cited as the main causes of the dramatic fall in Toshiba's financial performance and collapse in the share price. Fixed priced construction contracts negotiated by Westinghouse with Georgia Power have left Toshiba with uncharted liabilities that will likely result in the sale of key Toshiba operating subsidiaries to secure the company's future.
On 11 April 2017, Toshiba filed unaudited quarterly results. Auditors PricewaterhouseCoopers had not signed of the accounts because of uncertainties at Westinghouse. Toshiba stated that "substantial doubt about the company's ability to continue as a going concern exists". On 25 April 2017, Toshiba announced its decision to replace its auditor after less than a year. Earlier in April, the company filed twice-delayed business results without an endorsement from auditor PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC).
On 20 September 2017, Toshiba's board approved a deal to sell its memory chip business to a group led by Bain Capital for US$18 billion, with financial backing by companies such as Apple, Dell Technologies, Hoya Corporation, Kingston Technology, Seagate Technology, and SK Hynix. The newly independent company was named Toshiba Memory Corporation, and then renamed Kioxia.
Later that month, the company announced that it would pull out of its long-standing sponsorships of the Japanese television programs Sazae-san, Nichiyō Gekijo, and the video screens topping out One Times Square in New York City. The company cited that the value of these placements were reduced by its exit from consumer-oriented lines of business.
In June 2018, Toshiba sold 80.1% of its Client Solutions (personal computers) business unit to Sharp for $36m, with an option allowing Sharp to buy the remaining 19.9% share. Sharp renamed the business to Dynabook, a brand name Toshiba had used in Japan, and started releasing products under that name. On June 30, 2020, Sharp exercised its option to acquire the remaining 19.9% percent of Dynabook shares from Toshiba.
In May 2019, Toshiba announced that it would put non-Japanese investors on its board for the first time in nearly 80 years. In November, the company transferred its logistics service business to SBS Group.
In January 2020, Toshiba unveiled its plan to launch quantum cryptography services by September the same year. It also announced a number of other technologies waiting for commercialization, including an affordable solid-state Lidar based on silicon photomultiplier, high-capacity hydrogen fuel cells, and a proprietary computer algorithm named Simulated Bifurcation Algorithm that mimics quantum computing, of which it plans to sell access to other parties such as financial institutions, social networking services, etc. The company claims the algorithm running on a desktop PC at room temperature environment is capable of surpassing the performance of similar algorithms running on existing supercomputers, even that of laser-based quantum computer when a specialized setting is given. It has been added to quantum computing services offered by major cloud platforms including Microsoft Azure.
In October 2020, Toshiba made a decision to pull out of the system LSI business citing mounted losses while reportedly mulling on the sale of its semiconductor fabs as well. In April 2021, CVC Capital Partners made a takeover offer.
The Toshiba research and development facility in Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan
As of 2012, Toshiba had 39 R&D facilities worldwide, which employed around 4,180 people, and was organized into four main business groupings: the Digital Products Group, the Electronic Devices Group, the Home Appliances Group and the Social Infrastructure Group. In the year ended 31 March 2012, Toshiba had total revenues of ¥6,100.3 billion, of which 25.2 percent was generated by the Digital Products Group, 24.5 percent by the Electronic Devices Group, 8.7 percent by the Home Appliances Group, 36.6 percent by the Social Infrastructure Group and 5 percent by other activities. In the same year, 45 percent of Toshiba's sales were generated in Japan and 55 percent in the rest of the world.
Toshiba invested a total of ¥319.9 billion in R&D in the year ended 31 March 2012, equivalent to 5.2 percent of sales. Toshiba registered a total of 2,483 patents in the United States in 2011, the fifth-largest number of any company (after IBM, Samsung Electronics, Canon and Panasonic).
Toshiba had around 141,256 employees as of 31 March 2018.
Products, services, and standardsEdit
Toshiba has had a range of products and services, including air conditioners, consumer electronics (including televisions and DVD and Blu-ray players), control systems (including air-traffic control systems, railway systems, security systems and traffic control systems), electronic point of sale equipment, elevators and escalators, home appliances (including refrigerators and washing machines), IT services, lighting, materials and electronic components, medical equipment (including CT and MRI scanners, ultrasound equipment and X-ray equipment), office equipment, business telecommunication equipment personal computers, semiconductors, power systems (including electricity turbines, fuel cells and nuclear reactors) power transmission and distribution systems, and TFT displays.
Toshiba Qosmio notebook
Toshiba Satellite A300 notebook
Toshiba SCiB rechargeable battery
Toshiba elevator in Taipei 101
Toshiba had played a critical role in the development and proliferation of DVD. On 19 February 2008, Toshiba announced that it would be discontinuing its HD DVD storage format, the successor of DVD, following defeat in a format "war" against Blu-ray. The HD DVD format had failed after most of the major US film studios backed the Blu-ray format, which was developed by Sony, Panasonic, Philips and Pioneer Corporation. Conceding the abandonment of HD DVD, Toshiba's president, Atsutoshi Nishida said "We concluded that a swift decision would be best [and] if we had continued, that would have created problems for consumers, and we simply had no chance to win".
Toshiba continued to supply retailers with machines until the end of March 2008, and continued to provide technical support to the estimated one million people worldwide who owned HD DVD players and recorders. Toshiba announced a new line of stand-alone Blu-ray players as well as drives for PCs and laptops, and subsequently joined the BDA, the industry body which oversees the development of the Blu-ray format.
REGZA (Real Expression Guaranteed by Amazing Architecture) is a unified television brand owned and manufactured by Toshiba. In 2010 REGZA name disappeared from the North American market, and from March 2015 new TVs carrying the Toshiba name are designed and produced by Compal Electronics, a Taiwanese company, to which Toshiba has licensed its name. REGZA is also used in Android-based smartphones that were developed by Fujitsu Toshiba Mobile Communications.
In October 2010, Toshiba unveiled the Toshiba Regza GL1 21" LED-backlit LCD TV glasses-free 3D prototype at CEATEC 2010. This system supports 3D capability without glasses (utilizing an integral imaging system of 9 parallax images with a vertical lenticular sheet). The retail product was released in December 2010.
4K Ultra HD televisionsEdit
In October 2014, Toshiba released the Chromebook 2, a new version with a thinner profile and a much-improved display. The Chromebook runs exclusively on Chrome OS and gives users free Google Drive storage and access to a collection of apps and extensions at the Chrome Web Store. Toshiba has fully exited the personal computer and laptop business in June 2020, transferring the remaining 19.9% shares to Sharp.
In the 1980s, a Toshiba team led by Fujio Masuoka invented flash memory, both NOR and NAND types. In March 2015, Toshiba announced the development of the first 48-layer, three-dimensional flash memory. The new flash memory is based on a vertical stacking technology that Toshiba calls BiCS (Bit Cost Scaling), stores two bits of data per transistor, and can store 128Gbits (16GB) per chip. This allowed flash memory to keep scaling up the capacity as Moore's Law was considered to be obsolete. Toshiba's memory division was spun off as Toshiba Memory Corporation, now Kioxia.
Toshiba has been judged as making "low" efforts to lessen its impact on the environment. In November 2012, they came second from the bottom in Greenpeace's 18th edition of the Guide to Greener Electronics that ranks electronics companies according to their policies on products, energy, and sustainable operations. Toshiba received 2.3 of a possible 10 points, with the top company (WIPRO) receiving 7.1 points. "Zero" scores were received in the categories "Clean energy policy advocacy", "Use of recycled plastics in products" and "Policy and practice on sustainable sourcing of fibres for paper".
Toshiba also partnered with China's Tsinghua University in 2008 in order to form a research facility to focus on energy conservation and the environment. The new Toshiba Energy and Environment Research Center is located in Beijing where forty students from the university will work to research electric power equipment and new technologies that will help stop the global warming process. Through this partnership, Toshiba hopes to develop products that will better protect the environment and save China. This contract between Tsinghua University and Toshiba originally began in October 2007 when they signed an agreement on joint energy and environment research. The projects that they conduct work to reduce car pollution and to create power systems that don't negatively affect the environment.
On 28 December 1970 Toshiba began the construction of unit 3 of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant which was damaged in the Fukushima I nuclear accidents on 14 March 2011. In April 2011, CEO Norio Sasaki declared nuclear energy would "remain as a strong option" even after the Fukushima I nuclear accidents.
In late 2013, Toshiba (Japan) entered the solar power business in Germany, installing PV systems on apartment buildings.
- "Ello Tosh, Gotta Toshiba?" (1985 - UK)
- "In Touch With Tomorrow" (1984–2006)
- "Dunia Mengakuinya" (1991-2006, Indonesia Only)
- Leading Innovation (2006–2019)
- Feel The Power (2019 - only for laptops)
- Committed to People, Committed to the Future (2011 – current)
- "Toshiba Financial Statements" (PDF). Toshiba Corporation. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
- Jones, Daniel (2003) , Peter Roach; James Hartmann; Jane Setter (eds.), English Pronouncing Dictionary, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 3-12-539683-2
- "TOSHIBA GROUP MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION CHART" (PDF). Toshiba Corp. 1 April 2020.
- "Toshiba to launch quantum cryptography services this year". Nikkei Asian Review. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
- Walton, Justin. "The world's top 10 semiconductor companies". Investopedia. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
- "Toshiba Science Museum : World's First NAND Flash Memory". toshiba-mirai-kagakukan.jp. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
- "The History Of Our Memory｜Innovation story｜KIOXIA #FutureMemories". KIOXIA #FutureMemories. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
- "Toshiba files unaudited results and says future is in doubt". BBC News. 11 April 2017. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
- Soble, Jonathan (21 July 2015). "Scandal Upends Toshiba's Lauded Reputation". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
- Mochizuki, Takashi (5 June 2018). "Toshiba to Close the Book on Its Laptop Unit". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
- "Toshiba chief executive resigns over scandal". BBC News. 21 July 2015. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
- "Toshiba Science Museum : Tokyo Period". toshiba-mirai-kagakukan.jp. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
- Odagiri, Hiroyuki (1996). Technology and Industrial Development in Japan. Clarendon Press, Oxford. p. 158. ISBN 0-19-828802-6.
- Corporate History | Shibaura Mechatronics Corporation. Shibaura.co.jp. Retrieved on 26 July 2013.
- "Toshiba : Press Releases 21 December, 1995". www.toshiba.co.jp.
- "Toshiba : History of Toshiba's Corporate Logo". www.toshiba.co.jp. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
- "Toshiba : History of Toshiba's Corporate Logo". www.toshiba.co.jp. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
- Seeman, Roderick (April 1987). "Toshiba Case—CoCom – Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Control Revision". The Japan Lawletter. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 18 September 2007.
- Administrator, System (13 October 2002). "Consolidating CRTs".
- Williams, Martyn (27 July 2006). "Panasonic-Toshiba venture to shut Malaysia CRT plant". Network World.
- Staff, C. I. O. (27 July 2006). "Panasonic-Toshiba Venture to Shutter Malaysia CRT Plant". CIO.
- "Hitachi, Matsushita, Toshiba cement LCD venture plan | ITworld". www.itworld.com.
- "Toshiba to end CRT TV sales in Japan, rebrand LCD range". ARN.
- "BNFL plans to sell Westinghouse". BBC News. 1 July 2004. Retrieved 11 June 2007.
- "BNFL to sell US power plant arm". BBC News. 23 January 2004. Retrieved 11 June 2007.
- "Back in Times Square, Toshiba Stands Tall". The New York Times. 3 December 2007. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- "Toshiba and Fujitsu reach HDD deal: Nikkei" (Press release). Reuters. 14 January 2009. Retrieved 14 January 2009.
- "Toshiba to Acquire Fujitsu's Hard-disk Drive Business". PC World. 17 February 2009. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
- "Toshiba to Buy Swiss Power Meter Maker". The Wall Street Journal. 20 May 2011. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
- "Toshiba's Jacob Jensen Design TVs". Flat Panel.
- "Toshiba in $850m deal to buy IBM's point-of-sale unit". BBC News. 18 April 2012. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
- "Toshiba to buy IBM's point-of-sale terminal business". Reuters. 16 April 2012. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
- "Toshiba". 4 July 2012.
- "Toshiba". 12 July 2012.
- Martyn Williams @martyn_williams. "It's official: Toshiba owns OCZ's SSD business". PCWorld. Retrieved 20 March 2014.
- Kristian Vättö (27 November 2013). "OCZ Files for Bankruptcy – Toshiba Offers to Buy the Assets". Anand Tech. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- "OCZ Filing for Bankruptcy, Announces Offer From Toshiba to Purchase Assets". Press release. 27 November 2013. Archived from the original on 30 November 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- "OCZ Reaches Agreement With Toshiba Corporation to Acquire Solid State Drive Business" (Press release). San Jose, California: OCZ Technology. 2 December 2013. Archived from the original on 4 December 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- "Toshiba Corporation Completes Acquisition of OCZ Technology Group's Assets and Launches New Subsidiary, OCZ Storage Solutions". Financial Post. 21 January 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- "Form 8-K". 21 January 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
- "Form 8-K". 30 July 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
- "OCZ Storage Solutions – A Toshiba Group Company". Retrieved 26 April 2016.
- Valich, Theo (6 April 2016). "Toshiba Rebrands OCZ Storage Solutions". VR-World. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
- "Toshiba Sues SK Hynix Over Chip Secrets". The Wall Street Journal. 13 March 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
- "SK Hynix to pay Toshiba $278M in flash memory suit". Nikkei Asian Review. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
- "Toshiba wins chip patent suit against Hynix". www.ft.com. 24 March 2006. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
- "Toshiba and United Technologies ink deal to expand outside Japan" (Press release). Reuters. 16 October 2014.
- Ando, Ritsuko; Gallagher, Chris (8 May 2015). "Toshiba cancels dividend, pulls outlook in accounting scandal". Reuters. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
- Ando, Ritsuko; Sano, Hideyuki; Desai, Umesh (14 May 2015). "Toshiba eyes three-year profit markdown in accounts probe; impact seen limited, shares up". Reuters. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
- "Toshiba CEO quits over $1.2 billion accounting scandal". CNN. 22 July 2015.
- "Toshiba CEO resigns over faked profits". CNN Money. 21 July 2015. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
- Ritsuko Ando (21 July 2015). "Toshiba CEO quits over accounting scandal". Reuters. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
- Kitanaka, Anna; Sano, Nao (7 August 2015). "Japan Shame Index Dumps Toshiba After Scandal, Adds Olympus". Bloomberg Business. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- BBC News. "Toshiba troubles continue with new losses and falling sales". 14 September 2015. 22 September 2015.
- "Toshiba sells sensor business to Sony, overhauls chip unit". CNBC. 28 October 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
- Alpeyev, Pavel; Amano, Takashi (29 December 2015). "Toshiba Seeks $2.5 Billion Credit Line to Pay for Reforms". Bloomberg. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- Dian Schaffhauser, The Journal. "Toshiba Launches Surveillance Education Program." 19 January 2016. 19 January 2016.
- Maria Deutscher, Silicon Angle. "Toshiba to spend $3.2BN on cutting-edge new 3D flash plant." 17 March 2016. 18 March 2016.
- Aaron Smith, CNN Money. "Toshiba recalls 100,000 batteries that can melt your laptop." 1 April 2016. 1 April 2016.
- "Toshiba nominates new CEO in bid to put accounting scandal behind it". Business Insider. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
- Mochizuki, Takashi; Fukase, Atsuko (6 May 2016). "Toshiba Announces New Chief Executive After Accounting Scandal". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
- "Toshiba Announces Industry's First Qi v1.2 Certified 15W Wireless Power Receiver IC". Business Wire. 16 September 2016. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
- "Canon Inc. to acquire Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation shares and make it a subsidiary". Canon Global. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
- "Toshiba and Midea Complete the Transfer of Toshiba's Home Appliances Business". 30 June 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
- "China's Midea Buys Majority of Toshiba's Home Appliance Business". Bloomberg. 17 March 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
- Smith, Rebecca; Narioka, Kosaku (29 December 2016). "Toshiba Shares Plunge Further Over Problems at Nuclear-Power Subsidiary". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
- "How two cutting edge U.S. nuclear projects bankrupted Westinghouse" – via mobile.reuters.com.
- "Toshiba board to approve plans to split off chip business on Friday: source". Reuters. 24 January 2017. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
- "Toshiba completes $18bn sale of flash memory unit". Nikkei Asian Review.
- "Former Toshiba memory business to rebrand as Kioxia | ZDNet". www.zdnet.com.
- "Toshiba has no immediate plans to sell memory chip stake: CEO" – via mobile.reuters.com.
- Tallis, Billy. "Toshiba Memory To Rebrand As Kioxia". www.anandtech.com.
- "Toshiba net profit up 26% in fiscal 2018 after selling chip unit". The Japan Times. 13 May 2019.
- "Toshiba completes $18B sale of memory business to consortium including Apple". 2 June 2018.
- Makiko Yamazaki, Taiga Uranaka (14 February 2017). "Delays, confusion as Toshiba reports $6.3 billion nuclear hit and slides to loss". Reuters. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
- "Toshiba chairman quits over nuclear loss". BBC News. 14 February 2017. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
- Karishma Vaswani (14 February 2017). "Toshiba: Why troubled Japanese firms survive". BBC News. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
- Crooks, Ed (17 February 2016). "Toshiba brought to its knees by two US nuclear plants". Financial Times. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- Tom Hals, Makiko Yamazaki, Tim Kelly (30 March 2017). "Huge nuclear cost overruns push Toshiba's Westinghouse into bankruptcy". Reuters. Retrieved 31 March 2017.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- http://www.westinghousenuclear.com 29 March 2017: Westinghouse announces strategic restructuring (press release)
- "Toshiba to drop its auditor: Nikkei". Reuters. 25 April 2017. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
- "Toshiba files earnings without auditor endorsement, delisting risk rises". NASDAQ. Reuters. 11 April 2017. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
- "Toshiba Is Replacing Its Auditor PwC Over Irreconcilable Differences". Fortune. 26 April 2017. Retrieved 27 April 2017.
- "Bain-Led Group to Buy Toshiba Chip Unit in $18 Billion Deal". Bloomberg.com. 20 September 2017. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
- Mochizuki, Takashi; Landers, Peter; Cimilluca, Dana (20 September 2017). "Toshiba Decides on Bain-Apple Group in Chip-Business Sale". The Wall Street Journal. New York City, New York, United States. Retrieved 21 September 2017.
- "Toshiba sells its electronics department to Hisense". The Verge. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
- "Cash-strapped Toshiba bids farewell to Times Square and 'Sazae-san'". The Japan Times. 22 November 2017. ISSN 0447-5763. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
- "Toshiba sells Westinghouse-related assets in USA". World Nuclear News. 6 April 2018. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
- Osborne, Charlie. "Toshiba formally leaves the laptop business". ZDNet. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
- "Toshiba formally and finally exits laptop business". www.theregister.com. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
- Narioka, Kosaku (13 May 2019). "Toshiba's Board Move Will Give Foreigners a Greater Voice". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
- "News Release" (PDF).
- "Toshiba's megawatt fuel cells have enough juice to power a factory". Nikkei Asian Review. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
- "Toshiba's Light Sensor Paves the Way for Cheap Lidar". IEEE Spectrum: Technology, Engineering, and Science News. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
- January 2020, Lucian Armasu 18. "Toshiba Claims New Algorithm Runs Faster on Desktop PCs than Similar Algorithms on Supercomputers". Tom's Hardware. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
- "Microsoft's Azure Quantum Platform Now Offers Toshiba's 'Simulated Bifurcation Machine'". HPCwire. 22 September 2020. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
- "Toshiba to quit system LSI business". DIGITIMES. Retrieved 23 November 2020.
- "Toshiba says no decision yet for fab sale". DIGITIMES. Retrieved 23 November 2020.
- Toshiba confirms $20bn takeover bid from British fund BBC News 7 April 2021
- "Annual Report 2012: Operational Review" (PDF). Toshiba. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
- "Toshiba Basic Corporate Data". Toshiba. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
- "Toshiba Consumer Electronics Holdings Corporation". Toshiba Corporation. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
- "Digital Products & Services Company". Toshiba Corporation. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
- "Social Infrastructure Systems Company". Toshiba Corporation. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
- "Toshiba TEC Corporation". Toshiba Corporation. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
- "Toshiba Elevator and Building Systems Corporation". Toshiba Corporation. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
- "Toshiba Solutions Corporation". Toshiba Corporation. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
- "New Lighting Systems Division". Toshiba Corporation. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
- "Materials & Devices Division". Toshiba Corporation. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
- "Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation". Toshiba Corporation. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
- "Multifunction Toshiba Printers, Business Scanner, Copiers & Fax". www.opusdigital.co.uk. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
- JDA, Inc. Retail Ready Design www.jdainc.com. "Business Phone Systems- VoIP, IP Telephone Systems for SMB & Enterprises". Telecom.toshiba.com. Retrieved 20 March 2014.
- "Semiconductor & Storage Products Company". Toshiba Corporation. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
- "Power Systems Company". Toshiba Corporation. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
- "Toshiba Mobile Display Co., Ltd". Toshiba Corporation. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
- "History of DVD". didyouknow.org. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
- "Toshiba Announces Discontinuation of HD DVD Businesses" (Press release). Toshiba. 19 February 2008. Retrieved 15 April 2008.
- "Toshiba Gives Up On HD DVD; To Be Out By End Of March". Forbes. 19 February 2008. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
- "Toshiba joins Blu-ray disc camp". BBC News. 10 August 2009. Retrieved 6 January 2010.
- Vlad Savov. "Toshiba Regza GL1 wants you to put down the glasses, enjoy the 3D". Engadget.
- "Loading site please wait..." www.toshiba.com.
- By Sara Angeles, BusinessNewsDaily. "Toshiba Chromebook 2: A Better Chromebook for Business? Archived 30 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine." 28 October 2014. 29 October 2014.
- "Toshiba shuts the lid on laptops after 35 years". BBC News. 10 August 2020. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
- By Lucas Mearian, ComputerWorld. "Toshiba announces industry's densest 3D flash memory." 26 March 2015. 21 April 2015.
- "Guide to Greener Electronics". Greenpeace. November 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
- "Development of Environmentally Conscious Products: Toshiba Visual Products Company / Toshiba Storage Products Company Environmental Conservation Activities". Toshiba. Archived from the original on 29 January 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2010.
- "Japan's Corporate Network". 14 April 2008. Archived from the original on 12 August 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2008.
- "Nuclear Reactor Maps: Fukushima-Daiichi". Nuclear Transparency in the Asia Pacific. Archived from the original on 15 February 2005. Retrieved 21 March 2011.
- Yasu, Mariko; Maki Shiraki (22 April 2011). "Silver lining in sight for makers of solar panels". The Japan Times online. Archived from the original on 26 April 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
For Toshiba, Japan's biggest maker of nuclear reactors, atomic energy still has the edge over other power sources. "Even if we hypothetically say an accident occurs once in every 30 years and that we need to consider the cost for radiation leak problems, we're also left with an issue of reducing carbon dioxide", Toshiba President Norio Sasaki said in Tokyo last week. "Nuclear power will remain as a strong option."
- "Renewables 2014 Global Status Report, page 50" (PDF). Retrieved 30 December 2016.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Toshiba.|