Taipei 101 (Chinese: 臺北101; pinyin: Táiběi yī líng yī; stylized as TAIPEI 101),[1] formerly known as the Taipei World Financial Center, is a supertall skyscraper in Taipei, Taiwan. This building was officially classified as the world's tallest from its opening in 2004 until the 2009 completion of the Burj Khalifa in Dubai, UAE. Upon completion, it became the world's first skyscraper to exceed a height of half a kilometer. Taipei 101 is the tallest building of Taiwan.[11]

Taipei 101
Taipei 101 logo.svg
Tower of Taipei 101(cropped).jpg
Former namesTaipei World Financial Center
Record height
Tallest in the world from 2004 to 2009[I]
Preceded byPetronas Towers
Surpassed byBurj Khalifa
General information
Architectural stylePostmodernism
AddressNo. 7, Section 5, Xinyi Road, Xinyi District
Town or cityTaipei
Coordinates25°2′1″N 121°33′54″E / 25.03361°N 121.56500°E / 25.03361; 121.56500Coordinates: 25°2′1″N 121°33′54″E / 25.03361°N 121.56500°E / 25.03361; 121.56500
Groundbreaking31 January 1999 (1999-01-31)
Construction started31 July 1999 (1999-07-31)[1]
Topped-outMall: 13 June 2001 (2001-06-13) Tower: 1 July 2003 (2003-07-01)
CompletedMall: 14 November 2003 (2003-11-14) Tower: 31 December 2004 (2004-12-31)[1]
CostNT$58 billion (US$1.895 billion)
OwnerTaipei Financial Center Corporation[2]
LandlordTaipei City Government
Architectural508.2 m (1,667 ft)
Tip508.2 m (1,667 ft)
Roof449.2 m (1,474 ft)
Top floor438.0 m (1,437 ft)
Observatory449.2 m (1,474 ft)
Technical details
Floor count101[2]
Floor area412,500 m2 (4,440,100 sq ft)[3]
Lifts/elevators61 installed by Toshiba with KONE EcoDisc motors
Design and construction
Architect(s)C.Y. Lee & C.P. Wang
Structural engineerThornton Tomasetti
Main contractorKTRT Joint Venture[4]
Awards and prizesExisting Buildings, LEED Platinum O+M
Taipei 101
Literal meaning"Tai[wan] North 101"
Taipei World Financial Center
Traditional Chinese臺北國際金融中心
Simplified Chinese台北国际金融中心

The elevators of Taipei 101 that transport passengers from the 5th to the 89th floor in 37 seconds (attaining 60.6 km/h (37.7 mph)) set speed records.[11] In 2011, Taipei 101 was awarded a Platinum certificate rating under the LEED certification system for energy efficiency and environmental design, becoming the tallest and largest green building in the world.[12][13] The structure regularly appears as an icon of Taipei in international media, and the Taipei 101 fireworks displays are a regular feature of New Year's Eve broadcasts and celebrations.

Taipei 101's postmodernist architectural style evokes traditional Asian aesthetics in a modern structure employing industrial materials. Its design incorporates a number of features that enable the structure to withstand the Pacific Ring of Fire's earthquakes and the region's tropical storms. The tower houses offices, restaurants, shops, and indoor and outdoor observatories. The tower is adjoined by a multilevel shopping mall that has the world's largest ruyi symbol as an exterior feature.

Taipei 101 is owned by Taipei Financial Center Corporation. The skyscraper opened on 31 December 2004 to celebrate New Year's Eve.



In 1997, led by developer Harace Lin, the Taipei Financial Center Corporation, a team of several Taiwan banks and insurance companies, won the rights to lease the site for 70 years and develop a building, placing the winning bid of NT$20,688,890,000 for the Build Operate Transfer agreement with the city government.[14] The property will return to the city in 2067.[15]

The Taipei Financial Center Corporation (TFCC) announced plans on 2 November 2009 to make Taipei 101 "the world's tallest green building" by summer of 2011 as measured by LEED standards. The structure is already designed to be energy-efficient, with double-pane windows blocking external heat by 50 percent and recycled water meeting 20–30 percent of the building's needs. LEED certification would entail inspections and upgrades in wiring, water and lighting equipment at a cost of NT$60 million (US$1.8 million). Estimates show the savings resulting from the modifications would pay for the cost of making them within three years.[16] The project was carried out under the guidance of an international team composed of Siemens Building Technologies, architect and interior designer Steven Leach Group and the LEED advisory firm EcoTech International.[17] The company applied for a platinum-degree certification with LEED in early 2011.[18] On 28 July 2011, Taipei 101 received LEED platinum certification under "Existing Buildings: Operations and Maintenance". It displaced the Bank of America Tower in Manhattan as the world's tallest and highest-use green building in addition to the Environmental Protection Agency building in Florida as the world's largest green building. Although the project cost NT$60 million (US$2.08 million), it is expected to save 14.4 million kilowatt-hours of electricity, or an 18 percent energy-saving, equivalent to NT$36 million (US$1.2 million) in energy costs each year.[12][19] In 2012, the shopping center at the base is expected to be remodeled.[20][needs update] In 2019, it was named among the 50 most influential skyscrapers in the world by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat.[21]

On 4 January 2020, the building had a condolence message in lights for the victims of a helicopter crash, which included a number of senior government officials.[22] On 8 February 2020, the press said that some passengers of the Diamond Princess cruise liner, quarantined for an outbreak of Covid-19, had visited Taipei 101 on 31 January at which point none exhibited symptoms.[23] On 1 April 2020, the Taipei 101 shopping center said it was reducing business hours due to the Coronavirus pandemic, making the "nation's first to cut back operations due to the pandemic."[24] It had started checking shopper's temperatures in February.[24][25] On 21 May the building said it would resume normal business hours in June, as the country had effectively limited the spread of COVID-19.[26]


Important dates in the planning and construction of Taipei 101 include:[27]

Date Event
20 October 1997 Development and operation rights agreement signed with Taipei City government.
13 January 1999 Ground-breaking ceremony.
7 June 2000 First tower column erected.
13 April 2001 Design change to 508.2 m height approved by Taipei City government.
13 June 2001 Taipei 101 Mall topped out.
10 August 2001 Construction license awarded for 101 stories.
31 March 2002 Partially constructed building survives 6.8 magnitude earthquake undamaged.
13 May 2003 Taipei 101 Mall obtains occupancy permit.
1 July 2003 Taipei 101 Tower roof completed.
17 October 2003 Pinnacle placed.
14 November 2003 Taipei 101 Mall opens.[2]
15 April 2004 Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) certifies Taipei 101 as world's tallest building.
12 November 2004 Tower obtains occupancy permit.
31 December 2004 Tower opens to the public.[2]
1 January 2005 First New Year fireworks show begins at midnight.


Taipei 101 near the end of construction during 2003, showing the concrete tower at the top still incomplete. The height of the building was still 449.2 meters at the time.

Planning for Taipei 101 began in July 1997[2] during Chen Shui-bian's term as Taipei mayor. Talks between merchants and city government officials initially centered on a proposal for a 66-story tower to serve as an anchor for new development in Taipei's 101 business district. Planners were considering taking the new structure to a more ambitious height only after an expat suggested it, along with many of the other features used in the design of the building. It was not until the summer of 2001 that the city granted a license for the construction of a 101-story tower on the site. In the meantime, construction proceeded and the first tower column was erected in the summer of 2000.[2][28]

A major earthquake took place in Taiwan during 31 March 2002 destroying a construction crane at the rooftop, which was at floor number 56. The crane fell down onto the Xinyi Road beneath the tower, crushing several vehicles and causing five deaths—two crane operators and three workers who were not properly harnessed.[duplication?] However, an inspection showed no structural damage to the building, and construction work was able to restart within a week.[29]

Taipei 101's roof was completed three years later on 1 July 2003. Ma Ying-jeou, in his first term as Taipei mayor, fastened a golden bolt to signify the achievement.[8] The formal opening of the tower took place on New Year's Eve 2004. President Chen Shui-bian, Taipei Mayor Ma Ying-jeou and Legislative Speaker Wang Jin-pyng cut the ribbon. Open-air concerts featured a number of popular performers, including singers A-Mei and Stefanie Sun. Visitors rode the elevators to the Observatory for the first time. A few hours later the first fireworks show at Taipei 101 heralded the arrival of a new year.[30][31][32][33]


Events and celebrity appearances

E=mc2 lighting on 19 April 2005

Taipei 101 is the site of many special events. Art exhibits, as noted above, regularly take place in the Observatory. A few noteworthy dates since the tower's opening include these below:

On 28 February 2005, former President of the United States Bill Clinton visited and signed copies of his autobiography.[34] On 19 April 2005, the tower displayed the formula "E=mc2" in lights to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the publication of Einstein's theory of relativity. The display, the largest of 65,000 such displays in 47 countries, was part of the international celebration Physics Enlightens the World.[35] On 20 October 2006, the tower displayed a pink ribbon in lights to promote breast cancer awareness. The ten-day campaign was sponsored by Taipei 101's ownership and Estée Lauder.[35]

On 25 December 2004, French rock and urban climber Alain Robert made an authorized climb to the top of the pinnacle in four hours.[36] On 12 December 2007, Austrian base jumper Felix Baumgartner survived an unauthorized parachute jump from the 91st floor.[37] On 20 November 2005, the First annual Taipei 101 Run Up featured a race up the 2,046 steps from floors 1 to 91. Proceeds were to benefit Taiwan's Olympic teams. The men's race was won by Paul Crake of Australia (10 minutes, 29 seconds), and the women's race by Andrea Mayr of Austria (12 minutes, 38 seconds).[35] On 15 June 2008, Taipei 101 Run Up featured 2,500 participants. The men's race was won by Thomas Dold of Germany (10 minutes, 53 seconds); 2007 champion Marco De Gasperi of Italy finished second and Chen Fu-tsai of Taiwan finished third. The women's race was won by Lee Hsiao-yu of Taiwan (14 minutes, 53 seconds).[38][39] On 6 December 2014, Japanese idol group HKT48 held a small concert on the 91st-floor observatory as the premiere of their tour in Taiwan.[40][41]

Eve fireworks displays

What the tower looks like in New Year's Eve 2008. Note the "2008 TAIWAN" symbol image

The New Year's Eve show in Taipei [zh] is hosted at the Taipei City Hall, which also provides a full view of Taipei 101 which is lit up with fireworks. Another popular location for crowds to gather to see the fireworks display is the public square of Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall. For the first three years (2004–2006), the annual fireworks show at Taipei 101 was preceded by the sequential display of numerals in lights on each section on huge panels displays to count down the last eight seconds to midnight. Since 2007 the building has been completely darkened, then fireworks begin to launch sequentially from the lower to upper sections.

  • 2003–2004: Building still under construction. Spinning lights on the Outdoor Observatory (floor 91) provided a display of sound and lights, but no fireworks were launched.
  • 2004–2005: Grand opening of Taipei 101 celebrated with the first fireworks display. The show lasted 35 seconds. Rockets were launched from section balconies. Festivities included all-day performances by famous entertainers and ceremonial visits by national dignitaries.
  • 2005–2006: Show extended to 128 seconds. Sony sponsored the show, which concluded with a display of the brand name in lights.
  • 2006–2007: Show extended to 188 seconds; 9,000 rockets were launched. This was Sony's second time sponsoring the event.
  • 2007–2008: Show same length but featuring 12,000 rockets. Event Sponsor Taiwan Tourism Bureau ended the show with a display, in lights, of a heart over the word 'Taiwan'.
  • 2008–2009: A conspicuously more modest show than those which preceded it. The theme was "Love Taiwan With Your Heart in 2009". The show ended with the four sides of the building displaying lights in four colors (red, blue, green, and yellow) to represent happiness, vision, sustainability and passion.
  • 2009–2010: The display regained some of the dazzle of 2005–2008 shows but remained more brief in duration. The theme was "Taiwan Up".
  • 2010–2011: Show extended to 288 seconds (100 sec. for flash effects and 188 sec. for fireworks), and designed by Cai Guo-Qiang, the artist also responsible for Beijing Olympics and World Expo Shanghai's fireworks. The theme was "100 ROC" (100th anniversary of the Republic of China) which extended on the "Love Taiwan" theme. 2010 was also the year the Floral Expo was held in Taipei, and at Dajia Riverside Park there was another New Year's Eve event. It was a VIP event, but was broadcast simultaneously with the City Hall event. The display on the building was accompanied by fireworks going off other buildings in the Xinyi financial district. One concept was for fireworks to spiral up and down the building like dragon crawling, but technical difficulties caused some disappointment with what was anticipated (reported by the media to be more like "a worm"). It also took 30 seconds for the host to realize the fireworks were over.[clarification needed]
  • 2011–2012: The show was shortened to 202 seconds and was considered to be more conservative than that of the previous year, but featuring the largest number of rockets launched to date, totaling 30,000. The theme coincided with the 101st anniversary of the ROC. It also gained attention on YouTube, where viewers noticed an apparent "UFO" in the seconds before the fireworks started, later determined to be a radio-controlled glider with flashing lights.
  • 2012–2013: The show was designed by the French pyrotechnics company Groupe F and was 198 seconds in length, featuring 22,000 rockets launched to an adaptation of Igor Stravinsky's The Firebird. The theme was "Swing for the Future". The words "Time for Taiwan" (both in English and Mandarin Chinese) were displayed in lights at the building to promote Taiwan Tourism Bureau's current advertising campaign.
  • 2013–2014: The show lasted 218 seconds and a thematic music was created for the first time by local musicians to commemorate Taipei 101's 10th anniversary.
  • 2014–2015: Marked 10th anniversary since the official opening on 31 December 2004. The show performed for 218 seconds. iSee Taiwan Foundation sponsored the fireworks to promote the beauty of Taiwanese culture and creativity. The firework music was arranged by Taiwanese Golden Melody award winner—Mr. Lee, Che-Yi, blended with the famous classical song The four seasons by Vivaldi and many Taiwanese folk music. Performed and recorded by Taipei Symphony Orchestra.
  • 2015–2016: It is the fourth time Group F designed the firework show for Taipei 101, with a green theme "Nature is Future" this year. The 238-second display was considered the longest performance ever. In addition to the most various and natural patterns of flowers, birds, seahorses, fish, etc. were projected, 30,000 effects were one of the most to show. It is also the first time to have professional climbers to settle the firework racks onto the building façades. Mr. Lee, Chi-Yi once again arranged the music mixed with international and Taiwanese rhythms reflecting the nature-related theme and Evergreen Symphony Orchestra played the role of performance. A young Taiwanese IT design company BungBungame became the exclusive sponsor supporting a symbolic event showing Taiwan to the world.
  • 2020: Taipei 101 displayed a show with the theme of "Light of Hope, Taiwan", launching 16,000 fireworks at midnight.[42]

Architecture and design


Taipei 101 comprises 101 floors above ground, as well as five basement levels. The first building to break the half-kilometer mark in height,[8] it was the world's tallest building from 31 March 2004 to 10 March 2010.[43][44] As of 18 April 2019, it is still the world's largest and tallest green building.[12][13]

Taipei 101 was the world's tallest building, at 508.2 m (1,667 ft) as measured to its architectural top (spire), exceeding that of the Petronas Towers, which were previously the tallest skyscraper at 451.9 m (1,483 ft). The height to the top of the roof, at 449.2 m (1,474 ft), and highest occupied floor, at 439.2 m (1,441 ft), surpassed the previous records of the Willis Tower: 442 m (1,450 ft) and 412.4 m (1,353 ft), respectively.[8][45][46][47][48] It also surpassed the 85-story, 347.5 m (1,140 ft) Tuntex Sky Tower in Kaohsiung as the tallest building in Taiwan and the 51-story, 244.15 m (801 ft) Shin Kong Life Tower as the tallest building in Taipei.[49][50] Taipei 101 claimed the official records for the world's tallest sundial and the world's largest New Year's Eve countdown clock.[31]

Various sources, including the building's owners, give the height of Taipei 101 as 508 m (1,667 ft), roof height and top floor height as 448 m (1,470 ft) and 438 m (1,437 ft). This lower figure is derived by measuring from the top of a 1.2 m (3 ft 11 in) platform at the base.[1][8] CTBUH standards, though, include the height of the platform in calculating the overall height, as it represents part of the man-made structure and is above the level of the surrounding pavement.[45][47][46][48] Taipei 101 displaced the Petronas Towers as the tallest building in the world by 57.3 m (188 ft).[47][51] The record it claimed for greatest height from ground to pinnacle was surpassed by the Burj Khalifa in Dubai, which is 829.8 m (2,722 ft) in height. Taipei 101's records for roof height and highest occupied floor briefly passed to the Shanghai World Financial Center in 2008, which in turn yielded these records as well to the Burj.[45][47]

Overall, Taipei 101 was the tallest building in the world for six years, being surpassed by the Burj Khalifa in 2010. For 12 years it also had the fastest elevator, at 38 miles per hour. It also has the largest wind damper in the world, at 18 feet across.[52] Taipei 101 is currently the eleventh-tallest building in the world, according to the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat's official rankings.[53]

Structural design

Location of Taipei 101's largest tuned mass damper

The Taipei 101 is designed to withstand typhoon winds and earthquake tremors that are common in the area in the east of Taiwan. Evergreen Consulting Engineering, the structural engineer, designed Taipei 101 to withstand gale winds of 60 meters per second (197 ft/s), (216 km/h or 134 mph), as well as the strongest earthquakes in a 2,500-year cycle.[54]

Taipei 101 was designed to be flexible as well as structurally resistant, because while flexibility prevents structural damage, resistance ensures comfort both for the occupants and for the protection of the glass, curtain walls, and other features.[55] Most designs achieve the necessary strength by enlarging critical structural elements such as bracing. Because of the height of Taipei 101, combined with the surrounding area's geology—the building is located just 660 ft (200 m) away from a major fault line[56]—Taipei 101 used high-performance steel construction and 36 columns, including eight "mega-columns" packed with 10,000 psi (69 MPa) concrete.[27] Outrigger trusses, located at eight-floor intervals, connect the columns in the building's core to those on the exterior.[29]

These features, combined with the solidity of its foundation, made Taipei 101 one of the most stable buildings ever constructed.[citation needed] The foundation is reinforced by 380 piles driven 80 m (262 ft) into the ground, extending as far as 30 m (98 ft) into the bedrock. Each pile is 1.5 m (4 ft 11 in) in diameter and can bear a load of 1,000–1,320 metric tons (1,100–1,460 short tons).[27] During construction, on 31 March 2002, a 6.8-magnitude earthquake rocked Taipei; two construction cranes from the 56th floor, the highest floor at the time, toppled. Five people died in the accident, but an inspection showed no structural damage to the building, and construction soon resumed.[duplication?][29]

RWDI designed a 660-metric-ton (728-short-ton)[57][58][59] steel pendulum that serves as a tuned mass damper, at a cost of NT$132 million (US$4 million).[60] Suspended from the 92nd to the 87th floor, the pendulum sways to offset movements in the building caused by strong gusts.[duplication?][citation needed] Its ball, the largest damper ball in the world, consists of 41 circular steel plates of varying diameters, each 125 mm (4.92 in) thick, welded together to form a 5.5-meter-diameter (18 ft) ball. Two additional tuned mass dampers, each weighing 6 metric tons (7 short tons), are installed at the tip of the spire which help prevent damage to the structure due to strong wind loads.[60][61] On 8 August 2015, strong winds from Typhoon Soudelor swayed the main damper by 1 meter (39 in)—the largest movement ever recorded by the damper.[62][63]

The damper has become such a popular tourist attraction that the city contracted Sanrio to create a mascot: the Damper Baby. Four versions of the Damper Baby ("Rich Gold", "Cool Black", "Smart Silver" and "Lucky Red") were designed and made into figurines and souvenirs sold in various Taipei 101 gift shops. Damper Baby has become a popular local icon, with its own comic book and website.[64][65][66]

Structural facade

Taipei 101 during a typhoon
View from the base of the tower, looking up
Ruyi figure over one of the building's entrances
Shadow of the tower in the late afternoon; the adjoining park (circular feature, bottom) acts as the face of a sundial.
Feng shui fountain outside Taipei 101

Taipei 101's characteristic blue-green glass curtain walls are double paned and glazed, offer heat and UV protection sufficient to block external heat by 50 percent, and can sustain impacts of 7 metric tons (8 short tons).[54] The facade system of glass and aluminum panels installed into an inclined movement-resisting lattice contributes to overall lateral rigidity by tying back to the mega-columns with one-story high trusses at every eighth floor. This facade system is, therefore, able to withstand up to 95 mm (4 in) of seismic lateral displacements without damage.[67] The facade system is also known as a Damper.

The original corners of the facade were tested at RWDI in Ontario, Canada. A simulation of a 100-year storm at RWDI revealed a vortex that formed during a 3-second 105-mile-per-hour (169 km/h) wind at a height of 10 meters, or equivalent to the lateral tower sway rate causing large crosswind oscillations. A double chamfered step design was found to dramatically reduce this crosswind oscillation, resulting in the final design's "double stairstep" corner facade.[68] Architect C.Y. Lee also used extensive facade elements to represent the symbolic identity he pursued. These facade elements included the green tinted glass for the indigenous slender bamboo look, eight upper outwards inclined tiers of pagoda each with eight floors, a Ruyi and a money box symbol between the two facade sections among others.[69]

Taipei 101's own roof and facade recycled water system meets 20 to 30 percent of the building's water needs. In July 2011, Taipei 101 was certified "the world's tallest green building" under LEED standards.[70]


The height of 101 floors commemorates the renewal of time: the new century that arrived as the tower was built (100+1) and all the new years that follow (1 January = 1-01). It symbolizes lofty ideals by going one better on 100, a traditional number of perfection. The number also evokes the binary numeral system used in digital technology.[27]

The main tower features a series of eight segments of eight floors each. In Chinese-speaking cultures the number eight is associated with abundance, prosperity and good fortune.[71][72]

The repeated segments simultaneously recall the rhythms of an Asian pagoda (a tower linking earth and sky, also evoked in the Petronas Towers), a stalk of bamboo (an icon of learning and growth), and a stack of ancient Chinese ingots or money boxes (a symbol of abundance). Popular humor sometimes likens the building's shape to a stack of take-out boxes as used in Western-style Chinese food; of course, the stackable shape of such boxes is likewise derived from that of ancient money boxes.[73] The four discs mounted on each face of the building where the pedestal meets the tower represent coins. The emblem placed over entrances shows three gold coins of ancient Chinese design with central holes shaped to imply the Arabic numerals 1-0-1.[27] The structure incorporates many shapes of squares and circles to reach a balance between yin and yang.

Curled ruyi figures appear throughout the structure as a design motif. Though the shape of each ruyi at Taipei 101 is traditional, its rendering in industrial metal is plainly modern. The ruyi is a talisman of ancient origin associated in art with heavenly clouds. It connotes healing, protection and fulfillment. It appears in celebrations of the attainment of new career heights.[74][75] The sweeping curved roof of the adjoining mall culminates in a colossal ruyi that shades pedestrians.[75] Each ruyi ornament on the exterior of the Taipei 101 tower stands at least 8 m (26 ft) tall.[76]

At night the bright yellow gleam from its pinnacle casts Taipei 101 in the role of a candle or torch upholding the ideals of liberty and welcome. From 6 to 10 p.m.,[77] the tower's lights display one of seven colors, according to a weekly schedule.[78]

Day Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday
Color violet red orange yellow green blue indigo

From 26 February to 6 March 2022, the typical colors were replaced by blue and yellow in solidarity with Ukraine, in response to the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.[79]

The adjoining Taipei 101 on the east side connects the landmark further with the symbolism of time. The design of the circular park doubles as the face of a giant sundial. The tower itself casts the shadow to mark afternoon hours for the building's occupants. The park's design is echoed in a clock that stands at its entrance. The clock runs on energy drawn from the building's wind shear.[80]

Taipei 101, like many of its neighboring buildings, exemplifies the influence of feng shui philosophy. An example appears in the form of a large granite fountain at the intersection of Songlian Road and Xinyi Road near the tower's east entrance.[81] A ball at the fountain's top spins toward the tower. As a work of public art the fountain offers a contrast to the tower in texture even as its design echoes the tower's rhythms. The fountain also serves a practical function in feng shui philosophy. A T intersection near the entrance of a building represents a potential drain of positive energy, or ch'i, from the structure and its occupants.[82][83] Placing flowing water at such spots is thought to help redirect the flow of ch'i.[84][85]


Taipei 101 Mall

Taipei 101 is the first record-setting skyscraper to be constructed in the 21st century. It exhibits a number of technologically advanced features as it provides a center for business and recreation.[8]

The original 2004 fiber-optic and satellite Internet connections permitted transfer speeds up to a gigabit per second.[55]

The double-deck elevators built by the Japanese Toshiba Elevator and Building Systems Corporation (TELC) set a new record in 2004 with the fastest ascending speeds in the world. At 60.6 kilometers (37.7 mi) per hour, 16.83 m (55.22 ft) per second, or 1,010 m/min,[60] the speed of Taipei 101's elevators is 34.7 percent faster than the previous record holders of the Yokohama Landmark Tower elevator, Yokohama, Japan, which reaches speeds of 12.5 m (41 ft) per second (45 km/h, 28 mph). Taipei 101's elevators transport visitors from the fifth floor to the 89th-floor observatory in only 37 seconds.[duplication?][86] Each elevator features an aerodynamic body, full pressurization, state-of-the art emergency braking systems, and the world's first triple-stage anti-overshooting system. The cost for each elevator is NT$80 million (US$2.4 million).[87][88][89][90]

A 660-metric-ton (728-short-ton) tuned mass damper (TMD), located between the 87th and 92nd floors,[60] stabilizes the tower against movements caused by high winds.[duplication?][citation needed][68] The damper can reduce up to 40 percent of the tower's movements.[91][28] The TMD is visible to all visitors on the 87th through 91st floors.[60]

Two restaurants have opened on the 85th floor: Diamond Tony's, which offers European-style seafood and steak, and Shin Yeh 101 (欣葉), which offers Taiwanese Hokkien cuisine. Occupying all of the 86th floor is Taiwanese restaurant Ding Xian 101.[92] Din Tai Fung, several international dining establishments and retail outlets also operate in the adjoining mall. The multistory retail mall adjoining the tower is home to hundreds of fashionable stores, restaurants, clubs and other attractions. The mall's interior is modern in design even as it makes use of traditional elements. The curled ruyi symbol is a recurring motif inside the mall. Many features of the interior also observe feng shui traditions.[85]

Floor directory

A tenant directory is posted in the first floor's lobby (visible from the Xinyi entrance).

The number 4 is considered an unlucky number in Chinese culture,[72] so what would have been the 44th floor has been replaced by Level 43, with 42A replacing the actual 43 to compensate for the skipped floor number.[citation needed]

As of 1 January 2011, the highest occupied office floor (excluding the observatory and restaurants) was 75. The building appears to be at least 70 percent occupied at this point.

There is a freight elevator that stops at every level from B5 to 91, with a button for every floor.[citation needed]

The 92nd through 100th floors are officially designated as communication floors, although it is unknown if there are any radio or TV stations currently broadcasting from the top of Taipei 101. The 101st floor indoor/outdoor rooftop observatory opened to the public on 14 June 2019.[93]

The top 10 floors are to have stated on their website to contain a radio and television relay station, Emergency system receiving/signaling relay station, telecommunications stations, and an outdoor antenna frame on 96F, which offers power, fire protection, telecom systems, and security related systems, according to their website.[citation needed]

The 101st floor is home to a private VIP club named Summit 101, according to the observatory brochure. Before 2014, no information about this club was ever made public.[94] In 2014, photos of the exclusive club were shown on TV for the first time. A Taipei Financial Center Corporation spokesman said that only foreign dignitaries, Hollywood film actors, and high spenders in the Taipei 101 Mall (over NT $1 million in purchases) had been invited to the VIP club.[95]

Access to the 101st floor requires two elevator transfers on the 89th and 93rd floors, respectively. There is only one service elevator that facilitates access to the top nine floors (93–101). The 101st floor is divided into three levels: 101F (lower), 101MF (mezzanine) and 101RF (roof). The VIP club exists on the lower level, while 101RF, a mechanical floor, provides access to the 60-meter tall spire, which has 24 levels (numbered R1 through R24) that can only be accessed via ladder.[citation needed]

Taipei 101, first from right, compared with other tallest buildings


The Taipei 101 includes two high-speed observatory single deck elevators manufactured by Toshiba in cooperation with Kone, which manufactured the machines in almost all of its elevators. Their highest speed is 1,010 meters per minute (about 60.6 kilometers per hour). It only takes 37 seconds to travel from the fifth floor to the 89th floor of the skyscraper.[duplication?] In 2016, the title for the fastest elevator was taken away by the Shanghai Tower in Shanghai.[96] Shortly after, the title for the world's fastest elevator was passed on yet again to the Guangzhou CTF Finance Centre.[97] The shuttle double deck elevators only serves 35F/36F and 59F/60F.[citation needed]

Floor plan

Levels Purposes
101 Outdoor Observatory Deck
100 Mechanical
92 Tuned Mass Damper
91 Outdoor Observatory Deck
90 Mechanical
89 Indoor Observatory Deck
88 Indoor Observatory Deck
87 Mechanical
86 Restaurant
85 Diamond Tony's 101 Panorama,


84 High Zone Office
82 Mechanical
81 Alliance Bernstein
77 CIMB Securities Limited
76 CIMB Securities Limited, RBS Securities (Room C-D)
74 Mechanical
73 Google
72 BNP Paribas
71 BNP Paribas
70 ING Wholesale Bank
66 Mechanical
62 Chien Yeh Law Offices
61 Boston Consulting Group (Unit F)
60 Skylobby
59 Skylobby
58 Mid Zone Office Mechanical
57 The Executive Centre
55 Legg Mason (Suite E)
54 Bayer
53 Bayer
50 Mechanical
49 S&P Global
47 McKinsey & Company
46 Development Dimensions International
45 Perkins Coie (Suite F), Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria (Unit D)
42 Mechanical
37 The Executive Centre
36 Skylobby

Taipei 101 Conference Center[2] Sui Business Lounge

35 Skylobby
34 Low Office Zone Mechanical
28 DBS Bank
27 Korn Ferry (Room D-1), Morningstar
26 Mechanical
24 Orrick, Herrington & Sutcliffe C-1,
21 PPD, Inc. Unit A,
20 Jones Lang LaSalle
18 Mechanical
12 Taiwan Stock Exchange
11 Taiwan Stock Exchange
10 Taiwan Stock Exchange
9 Taiwan Stock Exchange
8 Mechanical
6 Gymnasium
5 Taipei 101 Shopping Mall Taipei 101 Observatory Deck Entrance
2 Lobby
B1 Taipei 101–World Trade Center Station Metro (Exit 4)
B2 Parking Lot

Observation deck

On the 91F outdoor observatory at 391.8 m (1,285 ft)
On the 89F indoor observatory
Artwork outside the mall at night

Taipei 101 features an indoor observation deck on the 88th and 89th floors, and two outdoor observation decks (91st floor and 101st floor), all offering 360-degree views and attract visitors from around the world. The Indoor Observatory stands 383.4 m (1,258 ft) above ground, offering a comfortable environment, large windows with UV protection, recorded voice tours in eight languages, and informative displays and special exhibits. Here, one may view the skyscraper's main damper, which is the world's largest and heaviest visible damper, and buy food, drinks and gift items. Two more flights of stairs take visitors up to the Outdoor Observatory. The Outdoor Observatories, at 391.8 m (1,285 ft) and 449.2 m (1,474 ft) above ground,[8][98] is the second-highest observation deck ever provided in a skyscraper and the highest such platform in Taiwan.[49][99]

The Indoor Observatory is open thirteen hours a day (9:00 am–10:00 pm) throughout the week as well as on special occasions; the Outdoor Observatory is open during the same hours as weather permits. Tickets may be purchased on site in the shopping mall (5th floor) or in advance through the Observatory's website[100] and allow access to the 88th through 91st floors via high-speed elevator.[101]

In 2019, its 101 top floor opened for the first time to the public,[102] starting 14 June with only 36 people given access each day.[103] The 91st-floor observatory used to be the highest floor that open to the public until 14 June 2019 when it was announced by the building's management team that the 101st floor (at 460 m above sea level) will be opened to the general public, with a quota of 36 people per day and is subject to prior booking.[104] Going onto the outdoor viewing platform requires safety equipment, such as a safety belt buckled to the railing.

Other features


Many works of art appear in and around Taipei 101. These include: German artist Rebecca Horn's Dialog between Yin and Yang in 2002 (steel, iron), American artist Robert Indiana's 1-0 in 2002 and Love in 2003 (aluminum), French artist Ariel Moscovici's Between Earth and Sky in 2002 (rose de la claret granite), Taiwanese artist Chung Pu's Global Circle In 2002 (black granite, white marble), British artist Jill Watson's City Composition in 2002 (Bronze), and Taiwanese artist Kang Mu Hsiang's Infinite Life in 2013 (aluminum).[27] Moreover, the Indoor Observatory hosts a regular series of exhibitions. The artists represented have included Wu Ching (gold sculpture), Ping-huang Chang (traditional painting) and Po-lin Chi (aerial photography).[35]


Taipei 101 New Year 17 fireworks.

On its opening date, Taipei 101 was awarded the Emporis Skyscraper Award, coming in 1st place.

Taipei 101 was awarded the top award platinum rating, by the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), the globally recognized green building ranking system of the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), making the skyscraper the tallest energy conservation building in the world.[105]

Taipei 101 has won the Asia Responsible Entrepreneurship Award (AREA).[106]

Taipei 101 was awarded the CTBUH Skyscraper Award on the Performance award category.[107]


See also


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External links

Further reading

Preceded by
Petronas Towers
451.9 m (1,483 ft)
World's tallest building
509.2 m (1,671 ft)

Succeeded by
Burj Khalifa
829.8 m (2,722 ft)
Preceded by
Willis Tower
442 m (1,450 ft) & 412.4 m (1,353 ft)
World's highest roof & highest occupied floor
449.2 m (1,474 ft) & 439.2 m (1,441 ft)

Succeeded by
Shanghai World Financial Center
492 m (1,614 ft) & 474 m (1,555 ft)
Preceded by
Yokohama Landmark Tower
12.5 m/s (41 ft/s) (45 km/h, 28 mph)
World's fastest elevator
16.83 m/s (55.22 ft/s) (60.6 km/h, 37.7 mph)

Succeeded by
Shanghai Tower
20.5 m/s (67.26 ft/s) (73.8 km/h, 45.9 mph)
Preceded by
Tuntex Sky Tower
347.5 m (1,140 ft)
Tallest building in Taiwan
509.2 m (1,671 ft)

Preceded by World's tallest & highest-use green building
(LEED platinum rating)

Preceded by
Environmental Protection Agency building
(Florida, U.S.)
World's largest green building
(LEED platinum rating)

Preceded by
World's largest & heaviest wind damper
diameter 5.5 m (18 ft) & 660 metric tons (728 short tons)

Preceded by
World's tallest building of earthquake hotspot
platinum rating)