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Introduction

Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It is located at the junction of the East and South China Seas in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, with the People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The territories controlled by the ROC consist of 168 islands with a combined area of 36,193 square kilometres (13,974 square miles). The main island of Taiwan, also known as Formosa, has an area of 35,808 square kilometres (13,826 square miles), with mountain ranges dominating the eastern two-thirds and plains in the western third, where its highly urbanized population is concentrated. The capital, Taipei, forms along with New Taipei City and Keelung the largest metropolitan area. With around 23.9 million inhabitants, Taiwan is among the most densely populated countries.

Taiwan has been settled for at least 25,000 years. Ancestors of Taiwanese indigenous peoples settled the island around 6,000 years ago. In the 17th century, large-scale Han Chinese immigration began under a Dutch colony and continued under the Kingdom of Tungning, the first predominantly Han Chinese state in Taiwanese history. The island was annexed in 1683 by the Qing dynasty of China and ceded to the Empire of Japan in 1895. The Republic of China, which had overthrown the Qing in 1912, took control following the surrender of Japan in 1945. Japan renounced sovereignty over Taiwan in 1952. The immediate resumption of the Chinese Civil War resulted in the loss of the Chinese mainland to Communist forces, who established the People's Republic of China, and the flight of the ROC central government to Taiwan in 1949. The effective jurisdiction of the ROC has since been limited to Taiwan, Penghu, and smaller islands.

In the early 1960s, Taiwan entered a period of rapid economic growth and industrialization called the "Taiwan Miracle". In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the ROC transitioned from a one-party state under martial law to a multi-party democracy, with democratically elected presidents since 1996. Taiwan's export-oriented industrial economy is the 21st-largest in the world by nominal GDP and the 20th-largest by PPP measures, with a focus on steel, machinery, electronics, and chemicals manufacturing. Taiwan is a developed country. It is ranked highly in terms of civil liberties, healthcare, and human development.

The political status of Taiwan is contentious. The ROC no longer represents China as a member of the United Nations after UN members voted in 1971 to recognize the PRC instead. The ROC maintained its claim of being the sole legitimate representative of China and its territory until 1991, when it ceased to regard the CCP as a rebellious group and recognized its control over mainland China. Taiwan is claimed by the PRC, which refuses to establish diplomatic relations with countries that recognise the ROC. Taiwan maintains official diplomatic relations with 11 out of 193 UN member states and the Holy See. Many others maintain unofficial diplomatic ties through representative offices and institutions that function as de facto embassies and consulates. International organizations in which the PRC participates either refuse to grant membership to Taiwan or allow it to participate on a non-state basis. Domestically, the major political contention is between parties favoring eventual Chinese unification and promoting a pan-Chinese identity, contrasted with those aspiring to formal international recognition and promoting a Taiwanese identity; into the 21st century, both sides have moderated their positions to broaden their appeal. (Full article...)

Taichung (/ˌtˈʊŋ/, Wade–Giles: Tʻai2-chung1, pinyin: Táizhōng), officially Taichung City, is a special municipality located in central Taiwan. Taichung is the second largest city of Taiwan, with more than 2.85 million residents, making it the largest city in Central Taiwan. It serves as the core of the Taichung–Changhua metropolitan area, the second largest metropolitan area in Taiwan.

Located in the Taichung Basin, the city was initially developed from several scattered hamlets helmed by the Taiwanese indigenous peoples. It was constructed to be the new capital of Taiwan Province and renamed as "Taiwan-fu" in the late Qing dynastic era between 1887 and 1894. During the Japanese era from 1895, the urban planning of present-day city of Taichung was performed and developed by the Japanese. From the start of ROC rule in 1945, the urban area of Taichung was organized as a provincial city up until 25 December 2010, when the original provincial city and Taichung County were merged into a new special municipality. (Full article...)

Selected biography

Justin Huang (Chinese: 黃健庭; pinyin: Huáng Jiàntíng; born 6 November 1959) is a Taiwanese politician. He was a member of the National Assembly from 1996 to 2000. Huang was first elected to the Legislative Yuan in 2001 and served two full terms on the Legislative Yuan, and was reelected to a third in 2008. Huang stepped as a legislator in 2009 to run for Taitung County Magistrate. After two terms as county magistrate, Huang left office in 2018. (Full article...)

Selected picture - show another

Chen Cheng-po was a Taiwanese painter whose oil painting Street of Chiayi was the first painting of a Taiwanese artist displayed in the Empire Art Exhibition in Japan. Chen was captured and killed by the Kuomintang government as a result of the 228 Incident.

Illustration credit: Chen Cheng-po

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This is a Good article, an article that meets a core set of high editorial standards.

A sample of pe̍h-ōe-jī text

Pe̍h-ōe-jī (Taiwanese Hokkien: [pe˩ˀ o̯e̞˩ d͡ʑi˧] , English approximation: /ˌpɛɔɪ/ PEH-oy-JEE; abbr. POJ; lit.'vernacular writing'), sometimes known as Church Romanization, is an orthography used to write variants of Hokkien Southern Min, particularly Taiwanese and Amoy Hokkien, and it is widely employed as one of the writing systems for Southern Min. During its peak, it had hundreds of thousands of readers.

Developed by Western missionaries working among the Chinese diaspora in Southeast Asia in the 19th century and refined by missionaries working in Xiamen and Tainan, it uses a modified Latin alphabet and some diacritics to represent the spoken language. After initial success in Fujian, POJ became most widespread in Taiwan and, in the mid-20th century, there were over 100,000 people literate in POJ. A large amount of printed material, religious and secular, has been produced in the script, including Taiwan's first newspaper, the Taiwan Church News. (Full article...)
Formosan black bear.
Formosan black bear.
  • ... that the Formosan black bear (pictured) is an endangered and endemic species of bear that can only be found in Taiwan?
  • ... that Jade Mountain, at 3,952 meters (13,114 feet), is the tallest mountain in Taiwan. Did you also know that it stands 176 meters taller than Mount Fuji in Japan, and that it was named Niitakayama, or 'new tall mountain' during Japanese rule?
  • ... that Gueishan Island is an islet formed by the only active volcano in Taiwan?

General images

The following are images from various Taiwan-related articles on Wikipedia.

On this day...

In the news

28 May 2024 – 2024 Taiwanese legislative reform protests
The Kuomintang and Taiwan People's Party pass amendments granting the Legislative Yuan greater powers to oversee the executive and to question officials and citizens, despite claims that these amendments violate civil liberties and could reduce the powers of president Lai Ching-te of the Democratic Progressive Party. (The Guardian)
23 May 2024 – Cross-Strait relations
China's People's Liberation Army begins two days of military drills around Taiwan. In response, Taiwan mobilizes its military. (BBC News) (Reuters)
20 May 2024 –
Lai Ching-te is sworn in as President of Taiwan, with Hsiao Bi-khim as his Vice President. (Al Jazeera)
17 May 2024 –
A brawl breaks out in the Legislative Yuan, Taiwan's parliament, following disagreements over draft reforms between the Democratic Progressive Party and the Kuomintang. (The Independent)

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