Four Asian Tigers
The Four Asian Tigers, Four Asian Dragons or Four Little Dragons, (in Chinese and Korean, only the "dragon" terms are used), are the economies of Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan, which underwent rapid industrialization and maintained exceptionally high growth rates (in excess of 7 percent a year) between the early 1960s (mid-1950s for Hong Kong) and 1990s. By the early 21st century, all four had developed into high-income economies (developed countries), specializing in areas of competitive advantage. Hong Kong and Singapore have become world-leading international financial centres, whereas South Korea and Taiwan are world leaders in manufacturing electronic components and devices. Their economic success stories have served as role models for many developing countries, especially the Tiger Cub Economies of southeast Asia.
|Four Asian Tigers|
|Literal meaning||Asia's Four Little Dragons|
|Hangul||아시아의 네 마리 용|
|Hanja||아시아의 네 마리 龍|
|Literal meaning||Asia's four dragons|
|Malay||Empat Harimau Asia|
|Tamil||நான்கு ஆசியப் புலிகள்|
A controversial World Bank report (The East Asian Miracle 1993) credited neoliberal policies with the responsibility for the boom, including maintenance of export-oriented policies, low taxes, and minimal welfare states; institutional analysis also states some state intervention was involved. However, others argued that industrial policy and state intervention had a much greater influence than the World Bank report suggested.
- 1 Overview
- 2 Gross domestic product (GDP)
- 3 Education and technology
- 4 Cultural basis
- 5 Territory and region data
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
Prior to the 1997 Asian financial crisis, the growth of the Four Asian Tiger economies (commonly referred to as "the Asian Miracle") has been attributed to export oriented policies and strong development policies. Unique to these economies were the sustained rapid growth and high levels of equal income distribution. A World Bank report suggests two development policies among others as sources for the Asian miracle: factor accumulation and macroeconomic management.
The Hong Kong economy was the first out of the four to undergo industrialization with the development of a textile industry in the 1950s. By the 1960s, manufacturing in the British colony had expanded and diversified to include clothing, electronics, and plastics for export orientation. Following Singapore's independence from Malaysia, the Economic Development Board formulated and implemented national economic strategies to promote the country's manufacturing sector. Industrial estates were set up and foreign investment was attracted to the country with tax incentives. Meanwhile, Taiwan and South Korea began to industrialize in the mid-1960s with heavy government involvement including initiatives and policies. Both countries pursued export-oriented industrialization as in Hong Kong and Singapore. The four countries were inspired by Japan's evident success, and they collectively pursued the same goal by investing in the same categories: infrastructure and education. They also benefited from foreign trade advantages that sets them apart from other countries, most significantly economic support from the United States; part of this is manifested in the proliferation of American electronic products in common households of the Four Tigers.
By the end of the 1960s, levels in physical and human capital in the four economies far exceeded other countries at similar levels of development. This subsequently led to a rapid growth in per capita income levels. While high investments were essential to their economic growth, the role of human capital was also important. Education in particular is cited as playing a major role in the Asian economic miracle. The levels of education enrollment in the Four Asian Tigers were higher than predicted given their level of income. By 1965, all four nations had achieved universal primary education. South Korea in particular had achieved a secondary education enrollment rate of 88% by 1987. There was also a notable decrease in the gap between male and female enrollments during the Asian miracle. Overall these advances in education allowed for high levels of literacy and cognitive skills.
The creation of stable macroeconomic environments was the foundation upon which the Asian miracle was built. Each of the Four Asian Tiger states managed, to various degrees of success, three variables in: budget deficits, external debt and exchange rates. Each Tiger nation's budget deficits were kept within the limits of their financial limits, as to not destabilize the macro-economy. South Korea in particular had deficits lower than the OECD average in the 1980s. External debt was non-existent for Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan, as they did not borrow from abroad. Although South Korea was the exception to this - its debt to GNP ratio was quite high during the period 1980-1985, it was sustained by the country’s high level of exports. Exchange rates in the Four Asian Tiger nations had been changed from long-term fixed rate regimes to fixed-but-adjustable rate regimes with the occasional steep devaluation of managed floating rate regimes. This active exchange rate management allowed the Four Tiger economies to avoid exchange rate appreciation and maintain a stable real exchange rate.
Export policies have been the de facto reason for the rise of these Four Asian Tiger economies. The approach taken has been different among the four nations. Hong Kong, and Singapore introduced trade regimes that were neoliberal in nature and encouraged free trade, while South Korea and Taiwan adopted mixed regimes that accommodated their own export industries. In Hong Kong and Singapore, due to small domestic markets, domestic prices were linked to international prices. South Korea and Taiwan introduced export incentives for the traded-goods sector. The governments of Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan also worked to promote specific exporting industries, which were termed as an export push strategy. All these policies helped these four nations to achieve a growth averaging 7.5% each year for three decades and as such they achieved developed country status.
Dani Rodrik, economist at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, has in a number of studies argued that state intervention was important in the East Asian growth miracle. He has argued "it is impossible to understand the East Asian growth miracle without appreciating the important role that government policy played in stimulating private investment".
1997 Asian financial crisis
The Tiger economies experienced a setback in the 1997 Asian financial crisis. Hong Kong came under intense speculative attacks against its stock market and currency necessitating unprecedented market interventions by the state Hong Kong Monetary Authority. South Korea was hit the hardest as its foreign debt burdens swelled resulting in its currency falling between 35–50%. By the beginning of 1997, the stock market in Hong Kong, Singapore, and South Korea also saw losses of at least 60% in dollar terms. Singapore and Taiwan were relatively unscathed. The Four Asian Tigers recovered from the 1997 crisis faster than other countries due to various economic advantages including their high savings rate (except South Korea) and their openness to trade.
2008 financial crisis
The export-oriented tiger economies, which benefited from American consumption, were hit hard by the financial crisis of 2007–08. By the fourth quarter of 2008, the GDP of all four nations fell by an average annualized rate of around 15%. Exports also fell by a 50% annualized rate. Weak domestic demand also affected the recovery of these economies. In 2008, retail sales fell 3% in Hong Kong, 6% in Singapore and 11% in Taiwan.
As the world recovers from the financial crisis, the Four Asian Tiger economies have also rebounded strongly. This is due in no small part to each country's government fiscal stimulus measures. These fiscal packages accounted for more than 4% of each country's GDP in 2009. Another reason for the strong bounce back is the modest corporate and household debt in these four nations.
A recent article published in Applied Economics Letters by financial economist Mete Feridun of University of Greenwich Business School and his international colleagues investigates the causal relationship between financial development and economic growth for Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, China, India and Singapore for the period between 1979 and 2009, using Johansen cointegration tests and vector error correction models. The results suggest that in the case of Indonesia, Singapore, the Philippines, China and India financial development leads to economic growth, whereas in the case of Thailand there exists a bidirectional causality between these variables. The results further suggest that in the case of Malaysia, financial development does not seem to cause economic growth.
Gross domestic product (GDP)
In 2018, the combined economy of the Four Asian Tigers constituted 3.46% of the world's economy with a total Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of 2,932 billion US dollars. The GDP in Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan was worth 363.03 billion, 361.1 billion, 1,619.42 billion and 589.39 billion US dollars respectively in 2018, which represented 0.428%, 0.426%, 1.911% and 0.696% of the world economy. Together, their combined economy surpassed the United Kingdom's GDP of 3.34% of the world's economy some time in the mid 2010s.
Education and technology
This section contains content that is written like an advertisement. (November 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
These four countries invested heavily in their infrastructure as well as in developing the intellectual abilities of their human talent, fostering and retaining their educated population to help further develop and improve their respective countries. This policy turned out to be so effective that by the late 20th century, all four countries had developed into advanced and high-income industrialized developed countries, developing many different areas of advanced technology that give them a tremendous competitive advantage in the world. For example, all four countries have become top level global education centers with Singapore, Taiwan, South Korea and Hong Kong high school students consistently outperforming all other countries in the world and achieving the highest top scores on international math and science exams such as the PISA exam and with Taiwan students winning multiple gold medals every year consistently at the International Biology Olympiad, International Linguistics Olympiad, International Physics Olympiad, International Earth Science Olympiad, International Mathematical Olympiad and International Chemistry Olympiad.
Additionally, these four countries are home to some of the most prestigious top ranking universities in the world such as National Taiwan University, Seoul National University, National University of Singapore, Nanyang Technological University and University of Hong Kong, Faculty of Dentistry, which as of 2017, was ranked as the number one top dental school in the world. While Taiwan and South Korea invested in technological innovation and development, Hong Kong and Singapore pursued a different path of finances and both became world-leading international financial centers. Inspired in part by Japan's technological and economic success, two of the earliest countries to pursue a similar path of cutting edge science and technology development were Taiwan, which has the best and most technologically advanced top ranked medical care system in the world, and South Korea, which have both become advanced innovative world leaders in state of the art technologies including medical science, computer technology, biotechnology, space technology (manned spacecraft & robots), military technology stealth technology robotics and information technology manufacturing. Both Taiwan and South Korea achieved this by promoting technological innovation, research and development, and export-oriented industrialization which turned an initially post-World War 2 poor agricultural economy into two thriving economic and technological superpowers on the same competitive level as Japan and the United States.
The role of Confucianism has been used to explain the success of the Four Asian Tigers. This conclusion is similar to the Protestant work ethic theory in the West promoted by German sociologist Max Weber in his book The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. The culture of Confucianism is said to have been compatible with industrialization because it valued stability, hard work, discipline, and loyalty and respect towards authority figures. There is a significant influence of Confucianism on the corporate and political institutions of the Asian Tigers. Prime Minister of Singapore Lee Kuan Yew advocated Asian values as an alternative to the influence of Western culture in Asia. This theory was not without its critics. There was a lack of mainland Chinese economic success during the same time frame as the Four Tigers, and yet China was the birthplace of Confucianism. During the May Fourth Movement of 1919, Confucianism was blamed for China's inability to compete with Western powers.
Territory and region data
|GDP (millions of USD, 2017)||GDP per capita (USD, 2017)||Trade
|(billions of USD, 2017)||Industrial|
rate (%) (2017)
Quality of life
|Human Development Index
by Gini coefficient
|Median household income
(2013), USD PPP
|Median per-capita income
(2013), USD PPP
|Global Well Being Index|
(2010), % thriving
|Hong Kong||0.933 (7th)||53.7 (2011)||35,443||9,705||19%|
|Singapore||0.932 (9th)||46.4 (2014)||32,360||7,345||19%|
|South Korea||0.903 (22nd)||30.2 (2013)||40,861||11,350||28%|
|Taiwan||0.907 (2018, 21st)||33.8 (2012)||32,762||6,882||22%|
|Average Internet connection speed
|Utilization of Renewable Energy|
|Hong Kong||26.45 Mbit/s||87%||0.3%|
|South Korea||20.63 Mbit/s||89%||2.1%|
|Property rights index
|Bribe Payers Index
|Current political status|
|Hong Kong||6.31||29.04||77||5.53||Very Easy (5th)||7.6||7.6||Executive-led Special Administrative|
Region of the People's Republic of China
|Singapore||6.32||50.95||84||5.71||Very Easy (2nd)||8.1||8.3||Parliamentary Republic|
|South Korea||8.00||23.51||53||5.07||Very Easy (4th)||5.9||7.9||Presidential Republic|
|Taiwan||7.73||23.36||61||5.33||Very Easy (15th)||6.9||7.5||Semi-Presidential Republic|
Organizations and groups
- Developed country
- Developmental state
- The Pacific Pumas
- Economic miracle (full list of miracles and "tigers")
- Asian Century
- Pacific Century
- Celtic Tiger
- Baltic Tiger
- Newly industrialized country
- Gulf Tiger
- Korean Wave
- Japanese economic miracle
- Miracle on the Han River
- Taiwan Miracle
- List of country groupings
- List of multilateral free-trade agreements
- "Can Africa really learn from Korea?". Afrol News. 24 November 2008. Archived from the original on 16 December 2008. Retrieved 16 February 2009.
- "Korea role model for Latin America: Envoy". Korean Culture and Information Service. 1 March 2008. Archived from the original on 22 April 2009. Retrieved 16 February 2009.
- Leea, Jinyong; LaPlacab, Peter; Rassekh, Farhad (2 September 2008). "Korean economic growth and marketing practice progress: A role model for economic growth of developing countries". Industrial Marketing Management. 37 (7): 753–757. doi:10.1016/j.indmarman.2008.09.002.
- Derek Gregory; Ron Johnston; Geraldine Pratt; Michael J. Watts; Sarah Whatmore, eds. (2009). "Asian Miracle/tigers". The Dictionary of Human Geography (5th ed.). Malden, MA: Blackwell. p. 38. ISBN 978-1-4051-3287-9.
- Rodrik, Dani (1 April 1997). "The 'paradoxes' of the successful state". European Economic Review. 41 (3–5): 411–442. doi:10.1016/S0014-2921(97)00012-3. ISSN 0014-2921.
- Chang, Ha-Joon (2006). The East Asian Development Experience. ISBN 9781842771419.
- Data for "Real GDP at Constant National Prices" and "Population" from Economic Research at the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
- Page, John (1994). "The East Asian Miracle: Four Lessons for Development Policy". In Fischer, Stanley; Rotemberg, Julio J. (eds.). NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1994, Volume 9. Nber Macroeconomics Annual. 9. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. pp. 219–269. doi:10.1086/654251. ISBN 978-0-262-06172-8. Archived from the original on 2 February 2013.
- "Economic History of Hong Kong" Archived 17 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Schenk, Catherine. EH.net 16 March 2008.
- "Singapore Infomap – Coming of Age". Ministry of Information, Communications and the Arts. Archived from the original on 13 July 2006. Retrieved 17 July 2006.
- Michael H. Hunt (10 November 2003). The World Transformed: 1945 to the Present. Bedford/St. Martin's. p. 352. ISBN 978-0-312-24583-2.
- Anonymous (2009). "Troubled Tigers". The Economist. 390 (8616): 75–77.
- Rodrik, Dani; Grossman, Gene; Norman, Victor (1995). "Getting Interventions Right: How South Korea and Taiwan Grew Rich" (PDF). Economic Policy. 10 (20): 55–107. doi:10.2307/1344538. JSTOR 1344538.
- Pam Woodall (1998). "East Asian Economies: Tigers adrift". The Economist. London; US: The Economist Intelligence Unit: S3–S5. ISSN 0013-0613. ProQuest 224090151.
- Mukhopadhyaya, Bidisha; Pradhana, Rudra P.; Feridun, Mete (2011). "Finance-growth nexus revisited for some Asian countries". Applied Economics Letters. 18 (6): 1527–1530. doi:10.1080/13504851.2010.548771.
- Ya-chen, Tai; Chang, S.C. (6 August 2017). "Taiwan team wins gold at International Linguistic Olympiad". Focus Taiwan. The Central News Agency. Archived from the original on 7 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- "Taiwan students excel at International Biology Olympiad". Taiwan Today. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of China. 31 July 2017. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- "Taiwan students shine at International Chemistry Olympiad". Taiwan Today. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of China. 17 July 2017. Archived from the original on 7 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Chih-chung, Chen; Huang, Romulo (22 July 2017). "Taiwan wins 6 medals at Math Olympiad in Brazil". Focus Taiwan. The Central News Agency. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Sullivan, Maureen (30 November 2016). "Who Has The Smartest Math And Science Students? Singapore". Forbes. Archived from the original on 15 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Couglan, Sean (6 December 2016). "Pisa tests: Singapore top in global education rankings". BBC News. Archived from the original on 17 July 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Speiser, Matthew (13 May 2015). "The 10 smartest countries based on math and science". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- McPhillips, Deidre (6 December 2016). "The Best Students in the World". US News. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Jackson, Abby; Kiersz, Andy (6 December 2016). "The latest ranking of top countries in math, reading, and science is out — and the US didn't crack the top 10". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- "Taiwanese students sweep olympiad to finish in first place". The China Post. 11 December 2016. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- "Taiwanese win gold at Biology Olympiad". The Taipei Times. 18 July 2011. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- "Taiwan crowned International Biology Olympiad champion". Taiwan News. 12 July 2014. Archived from the original on 7 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- "Taiwan wins 3 gold medals, 1 silver at Biology Olympiad". Taiwan News. 19 July 2015. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- "Taiwan wins 1 gold, 3 silvers at International Biology Olympiad". Taiwan News. 21 July 2013. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- "Taiwan Wins Four Gold Medals at International Biology Olympiad". Ministry of Education, Republic of China. 7 December 2014. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- "HKU Faculty of Dentistry Ranked No.1 in the World - All News - Media - HKU". www.hku.hk.
- "Top Dental Schools in 2017". 23 March 2017.
- Harrah, Scott (12 November 2014). "Health Care Around the World: Taiwan & Its 'World's Best' Medical System". The UMHS Endeavour. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Shyu, Billy (17 December 2016). "Here's Why Taiwan Is One of the Healthiest Countries in the World". Vision Times. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Brinded, Lianna (30 January 2017). "The 21 countries with the best quality of life in the world for expats". Business Insider. 1. Archived from the original on 15 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Morin, Gronda (3 April 2017). "What We Can Learn About Healthcare In Taiwan?". GrondaMorin.com. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Roberts, Elizabeth (28 October 2014). "Taiwan tops the expat health care charts". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Bryant, Joseph (13 July 2016). "Study shows that expats enjoy the best healthcare in Taiwan". Medelita. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Hagan, Suzanna (16 December 2016). "Look for inspiration from Taiwan's health care system". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Freimuth, Marjorie (17 May 2017). "How Does American Health Care Compare To Taiwan?". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 19 May 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Jung-hsiang, Chang; Low, Y.F. (17 June 2017). "Taiwan scientists find potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease". Focus Taiwan. The Central News Agency. Archived from the original on 15 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- "Foxconn Builds Taiwan's Largest Supercomputer - TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". www.top500.org.
- "Taiwan-based firm reveals supercomputer".
- News, Taiwan. "Hon Hai unveils Taiwan's fastest superc... - Taiwan News".
- "Hon Hai unveils supercomputer system - Tech - FOCUS TAIWAN - CNA ENGLISH NEWS".
- Thompson, Cadie (28 January 2013). "Apple iPhone, iPads Are All Made by Taiwanese Companies". CNBC. Archived from the original on 7 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- "Taiwan's Technology Industry Marks Global Success". Forbes Custom. Archived from the original on 22 June 2016.
- Pfanner, Eric (15 September 2013). "Taiwan Chip Industry Powers the Tech World, but Struggles for Status". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Basu, Medha (10 April 2016). "South Korea to build US$86 million AI supercomputers". GovInsider. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Hemsoth, Nicole (6 July 2015). "South Korea's Striking, Stepped-Up Supercomputing Strategy". The Next Platform. Archived from the original on 15 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- "Taiwan Biotech Industry Heats Up". AmCham Taipei. 21 April 2016. Archived from the original on 24 May 2016. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Robertson, Iain (7 February 2017). "South Korea invests in biotech". Innovators Magazine. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Fulco, Matthew (16 December 2015). "Taiwan's Space Program Blasts Off". Taiwan Business Topics. TheNewsLens. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Wei-han, Chen (2 February 2016). "NCTU launches two-stage rocket". The Taipei Times. Archived from the original on 7 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Kang, Tae-jun (27 March 2015). "South Korea's Quest to Be a Major Space Power". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 7 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- "Taiwan to make lunar lander for NASA moon-mining mission". Phys.org. 18 July 2016. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.e
- Patterson, Alan (22 July 2016). "NASA, Taiwan to Develop Robotic Lunar Lander". EE Times. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- "At Mach-10, Taiwan's Hsiung Feng-III 'Anti-China' Missiles could be faster than the BrahMos". DefenceNews.in. 22 October 2016. Archived from the original on 7 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Adams, Sam (29 August 2016). "Taiwanese navy accidentally fires NUCLEAR MISSILE at fishing vessel as tensions in China Strait reach boiling point". Mirror. MGN. Archived from the original on 7 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Collins, Danny (2 September 2016). "BULL IN A CHINA FLOP Taiwanese navy accidentally fires HYPERSONIC MISSILE at fishing vessel as tensions with enemies China ratcheted up". The Sun. News Group. Archived from the original on 7 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Atherton, Kelsey D. (19 March 2014). "Taiwan Navy Launches New Stealth Boat". Popular Science. Bonnier Corporation. Archived from the original on 19 October 2016. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Joseph, Devan (23 December 2014). "The Taiwan Navy Just Unveiled A Stealth Missile Warship Dubbed The 'Carrier-Killer'". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 5 July 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- "Taiwanese Navy showcases new 'killer' stealth warship". FOX News. 12 December 2014. Archived from the original on 7 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Majumdar, Dave (21 January 2016). "South Korea Launches Homegrown Stealth Fighter Project". The National Interest. Archived from the original on 7 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Statt, Nick (30 December 2016). "iPhone manufacturer Foxconn plans to replace almost every human worker with robots". The Verge. Vox Media. Archived from the original on 12 July 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- "Giant Avatar-style robot takes first steps in South Korea". The Telegraph. 27 December 2016. Archived from the original on 7 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Grossman, David (27 December 2016). "Sci-Fi Korean Robot Is Actually Very Real". Popular Mechanics. Hearst. Archived from the original on 20 July 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Hunt, Michael H. (2004). The World Transformed 1945 to the Present. New York, New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 351–352. ISBN 9780199371020.
- Lu, Wei; Chan, Marcus (23 January 2014). "In Global Innovation Race, Taiwan Is Tops in Patents, Israel Leads in R&D". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Seung-ah, Lee (27 January 2014). "Korea is the most innovative country: Bloomberg". Korea.net. KOCIS. Archived from the original on 11 March 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Lin, Justin Yifu (27 October 2011). Demystifying the Chinese Economy. Cambridge University Press. p. 107. ISBN 978-0-521-19180-7. Archived from the original on 29 July 2016.
- DuBois, Thomas David (25 April 2011). Religion and the Making of Modern East Asia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 227–228. ISBN 978-1-139-49946-0. Archived from the original on 3 January 2016.
- Gallup, Inc. "Worldwide, Median Household Income About $10,000". gallup.com. Archived from the original on 5 February 2016.
- "Gallup® Global Wellbeing: The Behavioral Economics of GDP Growth" (PDF). Gallup. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- "Statistical Bulletin conditions" (PDF) (in Chinese). General Statistics Office, Taiwan. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- "Worldwide broadband speed league 2018". Cable. 2018.
- "Visa Survey: Hongkongers choosing mobile to browse and purchase online". Visa Inc. 9 November 2015. Archived from the original on 4 September 2016. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
- "Singapore leads SEA in smartphone, MBB adoption". telecomasia.net. 8 June 2016. Archived from the original on 2 September 2016. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
- Carlon, Kris (26 June 2016). ""Made for Taiwan": the next billion-dollar app market". androidauthority.com. Archived from the original on 20 July 2016. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
- "HKMA joins SEACEN" (Press release). Hong Kong Government. Hong Kong Monetary Authority. 31 October 2014. Archived from the original on 17 February 2016. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- Ezra F. Vogel, The Four Little Dragons: The Spread of Industrialization in East Asia (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1991).
- BBC report on the Asian Tigers in the aftermath of the 1997 Financial Crisis (includes map of the Asian Tigers)
- ASEAN tigers
- The Elephant at the Gate in China Economic Review