Provincial city (Taiwan)
|Category||Special municipalities, counties, and cities|
|Location||Free area of the Republic of China|
|Number||3 (as of 2019)|
The first administrative divisions entitled "city" were established in the 1920s when Taiwan was under Japanese rule. At this time cities were under the jurisdiction of prefectures. After the World War II, nine (9) out of eleven (11) prefectural cities established by the Japanese government were reform into provincial cities. Their roman spellings are also changed to reflect the official language shift from Japanese to Mandarin Chinese, but characters remain the same.
The reform was based on the Laws on the City Formation (市組織法) of the Republic of China. This law was passed in the early 20th century. The criteria for being a provincial city included being the provincial capital as well as having a population of over 200,000, or over 100,000 if the city had particular significance in politics, economics, and culture. The division reform in 1945 had some compromises between the Japanese and the Chinese systems, some of the cities with population under the criteria were still be established as provincial cities.
After the government of the Republic of China relocated to Taipei, Taiwan in 1949, the population criterion for provincial cities was raised to 500,000 in the Guidelines on the Implementation of Local Autonomy in the Counties and Cities of Taiwan Province (臺灣省各縣市實施地方自治綱要), which was passed in 1981. It was later raised again to 600,000. Since the streamline of provinces in 1998, provincial cities are all directly under the central government, and are simply referred to as cities.
|1945-10||Changhua, Chiayi, Hsinchu,
Kaohsiung, Keelung, Pingtung, Taichung, Tainan, Taipei
|9||Reorganised from the prefecture-administered cities in the period under Japanese rule.|
|1950-08-16||Chiayi||8||Merged into Chiayi County and became a county-administered city|
|1951-12-01||Changhua, Hsinchu, Pingtung||5||Downgraded to county-administered cities|
|1967-07-01||Taipei||4||Upgraded to a special municipality|
|1979-07-01||Kaohsiung||3||Upgraded to a special municipality|
|1982-07-01||Chiayi, Hsinchu||5||Upgraded from county-administered cities|
|2010-12-25||Taichung, Tainan||3||Merge with Taichung County and Tainan County, and upgraded to special municipalities|
|Current cities: Chiayi, Hsinchu, Keelung (3).|
Currently, the Local Government Act of the Ministry of the Interior applies for the creation of a city, in which a city needs to have a population between 500,000 and 1,250,000 and occupies major political, economical and cultural roles. Note that all three existing cities are not qualified for the population test, they were built for historical reasons.
There are currently three cities, all in Taiwan Province:
|Chiayi||嘉義市||Jiāyì||Chia¹-i⁴||Jiayì||Ka-gī||Kâ-ngi||60.03 km2||East District||東區||1982-07-01|
|Hsinchu||新竹市||Xīnzhú||Hsin¹-chu²||Sinjhú||Sin-tek||Sîn-chuk||104.10 km2||North District||北區||1982-07-01|
|Keelung||基隆市||Jīlóng||Chi¹-lung²||Jilóng||Ke-lâng||Kî-lùng||132.76 km2||Zhongzheng District||中正區||1945-10-25|
Their self-governed bodies (executive and legislature) regulated by the Local Government Act are:
|Government||Mayor||Current Mayor||City Council||No. of seats|
|Chiayi||Chiayi City Government||Mayor of Chiayi||Huang Min-hui||Chiayi City Council||24|
|Hsinchu||Hsinchu City Government||Mayor of Hsinchu||Lin Chih-chien||Hsinchu City Council||33|
|Keelung||Keelung City Government||Mayor of Keelung||Lin Yu-chang||Keelung City Council||32|
- Has an elected executive and an elected legislative council.
- Has an appointed district administrator for managing local affairs and carrying out tasks commissioned by superior agency.
- Has an elected village administrator for managing local affairs and carrying out tasks commissioned by superior agency.
- Special municipalities, cities, and county-administered cities are all called shi (Chinese: 市; lit. 'city')
- Nominal provinces; provincial governments have been abolished
- Sometimes called provincial cities (Chinese: 省轄市) to distinguish them from special municipalities and county-administered cities
- There are two types of townships: rural townships or xīang (Chinese: 鄉) and urban townships or zhèn (Chinese: 鎮)
- Villages in rural townships are known as tsūn (Chinese: 村), those in other jurisdictions are known as lǐ (Chinese: 里)
Words in native languagesEdit
- "Local governments". Office of the President Republic of China (Taiwan). Retrieved 30 November 2020.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-03-30. Retrieved 2014-03-30.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Glossary of Names for Admin Divisions" (PDF). Taiwan Geographic Names Information Systems. The Ministry of Interior of ROC. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2015. Retrieved 6 June 2015.
- Sarah Shair-Rosenfield (November 2020). "Taiwan combined" (PDF). The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved 29 May 2021.