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(), officially the Republic of Singapore
, is a sovereign
in maritime Southeast Asia
. It lies about one degree of latitude (137 kilometres or 85 miles) north of the equator
, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula
, bordering the Straits of Malacca
to the west, the Riau Islands
to the south, and the South China Sea
to the east. The country's territory is composed of one main island
, 63 satellite islands and islets
, and one outlying islet
, the combined area of which has increased by 25% since the country's independence as a result of extensive land reclamation
projects. It has the second greatest population density in the world
. The country has almost 5.7 million residents, 61% (3.4 million) of whom are Singaporean citizens
. There are four official languages of Singapore
, and Tamil
; with English being the lingua franca
is enshrined in the constitution, and continues to shape national policies
in education, housing, and politics.
Although its history stretches back millennia, modern Singapore was founded in 1819 by Sir Stamford Raffles as a trading post of the British Empire. In 1867, the colonies in East Asia were reorganised and Singapore came under the direct control of Britain as part of the Straits Settlements. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan in 1942, but returned to British control as a separate crown colony following Japan's surrender in 1945. Singapore gained self-governance in 1959, and in 1963 became part of the new federation of Malaysia, alongside Malaya, North Borneo, and Sarawak. Ideological differences led to Singapore being expelled from the federation two years later, thereby becoming an independent country.
After early years of turbulence and despite lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation rapidly developed to become one of the Four Asian Tigers based on external trade, becoming a highly developed country; it is ranked ninth on the UN Human Development Index, and has the second-highest GDP per capita (PPP) in the world. Singapore is the only country in Asia with an AAA sovereign rating from all major rating agencies. It is a major financial and shipping hub, consistently ranked the most expensive city to live in since 2013, and has been identified as a tax haven. Singapore is placed highly in key social indicators: education, healthcare, quality of life, personal safety and housing, with a home-ownership rate of 91%. Singaporeans enjoy one of the world's longest life expectancies, fastest Internet connection speeds and one of the lowest infant mortality rates in the world.
Singapore is a unitary parliamentary republic
with a Westminster system
parliamentary government. While elections are considered generally free, the government exercises significant control over politics and society, and the People's Action Party
has ruled continuously since independence. One of the five founding members of ASEAN
, Singapore is also the headquarters of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
(APEC) Secretariat and Pacific Economic Cooperation Council
(PECC) Secretariat, as well as many international conferences and events. Singapore is also a member of the United Nations
, World Trade Organization
, East Asia Summit
, Non-Aligned Movement
and the Commonwealth of Nations
. (Full article...
Selected article -
The Internal Security Act (ISA) of Singapore (Cap. 143, 1985 Rev. Ed.) is a statute that grants the executive power to enforce preventive detention, prevent subversion, suppress organized violence against persons and property, and do other things incidental to the internal security of Singapore. The present Act was originally enacted by the Parliament of Malaysia as the Internal Security Act 1960 (No. 18 of 1960), and extended to Singapore on 16 September 1963 when Singapore was a state of the Federation of Malaysia.
Before a person can be detained under the ISA by the Minister for Home Affairs
, the President
must be satisfied that such detention is necessary for the purposes of national security
or public order. In the landmark case of Chng Suan Tze v. Minister for Home Affairs
(1988), the Court of Appeal
sought to impose legal limits on the power of preventive detention by requiring the Government
to adduce objective facts which justified the President's satisfaction. Two months after the decision, a series of legislative and constitutional
amendments was enacted that effectively reversed the Chng Suan Tze
decision. These amendments were subsequently confirmed to be valid by the High Court
and Court of Appeal in Teo Soh Lung v. Minister for Home Affairs
(1989–1990), which held it is sufficient for the President to be subjectively satisfied that a detainee is a threat to national security in order for a detention order to be issued under the ISA. Notable ISA cases include Operation Coldstore
in 1963 which led to the arrest of some 100 left-wing
politicians and trade unionists, including members of the socialist opposition party, the Barisan Sosialis
. Chia Thye Poh
, an alleged Communist, was detained and subject to other restrictions on his liberty under the ISA from 1966 to 1998. The Chng Suan Tze
and Teo Soh Lung
cases resulted from a 1987 security operation called Operation Spectrum
in which 22 Roman Catholic church
and social activists and professionals accused of being members of a Marxist
conspiracy were detained under the ISA. (Full article...
The following are images from various Singapore-related articles on Wikipedia.
Lieutenant-General Arthur Percival, led by a Japanese officer, marches under a flag of truce to negotiate the capitulation of Allied forces in Singapore, on 15 February 1942. It was the largest surrender of British-led forces in history.
Men of various races- Chinese, Malay, and Indian gather at a street corner in Singapore, circa 1900.
Baedeker map of the city and environs, c. 1914
The Marina Bay Sands integrated resort. Opened in 2010, it has become a key feature of Singapore's modern skyline.
The Jurong Industrial Estate was developed in the 1960s to industrialise the economy.
Damage caused by a Japanese air assault on 8 February 1942. Many civilians were killed in these air raids.
JJ Lin is a Singaporean singer, songwriter, record producer and actor.
A statue of Raffles by Thomas Woolner now stands in Singapore, near Raffles's landing site in 1819.
Singapore's urban geography is often characterised by extensive use of HDB flats, which the majority of citizens reside in.
An artist's impression of Parameswara, who ruled Singapore in the 1390s.
Chinese community in Singapore carrying the Flag of the Republic of China (written Long live the motherland) to celebrate the victory, also reflected the Chinese identity issues at that time.
Top view of Bukit Batok West. Large scale public housing development has created high housing ownership among the population.
Fireworks over the Marina Bay skyline following the conclusion of the 2015 National Day Parade on 9 August 2015.
The Plan of the Town of Singapore, or more commonly known as the Jackson Plan or Raffles Town Plan.
Old Supreme Court of Singapore
Japanese POWs are taken to work where they were made to clear up the city during the British reoccupation in September 1945
The country celebrates its National Day on 9 August each year.
The Mao Kun map from Wubei Zhi which is based on the early 15th century maps of Zheng He showing Temasek (淡馬錫) at the top left, and Long Ya Men (龍牙門) on the right panel.
A busy Victoria Dock, Tanjong Pagar, in the 1890s.
1888 German map of Singapore
Buddha Tooth Relic Temple and Museum
Orchids in the Botanic Gardens
Jurong Industrial Estate, Singapore, with Jurong Island in the background
The Thian Hock Keng, completed in 1842, served as a place of worship for early immigrants.
Mural of Singapore's landmarks
Singapore's first Prime Minister, Lee Kuan Yew declaring the forming of the Federation of Malaysia on 16 September 1963 in Singapore.
Selected biography -
In this month
Did you know -
- ... that the Maintenance of Religious Harmony Act of Singapore allows restrictions to be placed on religious leaders who promote political causes under the guise of religious activity?
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