Singapore Exchange Limited (SGX, SGX: S68) is an investment holding company located in Singapore and provides different services related to securities and derivatives trading and others. SGX is a member of the World Federation of Exchanges and the Asian and Oceanian Stock Exchanges Federation.
|Location||SGX Centre, Singapore|
|Founded||1 December 1999|
|Key people||Kwa Chong Seng (Chairman)  |
Loh Boon Chye (CEO)
|Currency||Singapore dollar, US dollar|
|No. of listings||776|
|Market cap||$733.27 Billion |
SGX operates several different divisions, each responsible for handling specific businesses.
- SGX ETS (Electronic Trading System): provides global trading access to SGX markets where 80 percent of the customers are from outside Singapore.
- SGX DT (Derivatives Trading): provides derivatives trading.
- SGX ST (Securities Trading): provides securities trading.
- SGX DC (Derivatives Clearing): subsidiary for clearing and settlement operations.
- SGX AsiaClear: offers clearing services for over-the-counter (OTC) oil swaps and forward freight agreements.
- SGX Reach: an electronic trading platform.
- Central Depository Pte Ltd: subsidiary responsible for securities clearing, settlement and depository services.
- Asian Gateway Investments Pte Ltd: wholly owned subsidiary
- Singapore Exchange IT Solutions Pte Ltd: provides computer services and maintenance as well as software maintenance
The companies listed on SGX belong to one of two groups: the companies listed on the SGX Mainboard and the companies listed on SGX SESDAQ. In order to be listed on the mainboard, a company has to fulfill some requirements set forth by SGX, while a listing on SESDAQ is not tied to the fulfillment of any additional conditions. SESDAQ was replaced on 26 November 2007 by the SGX Catalist after an extensive study of other market models and a public consultation in May 2007. The word "Catalist" is an amalgamation of the words "Catalyst" and "List", to reflect the idea that the Catalist board could be used as a catalyst to propel growth upon listing. Catalist differs from SESDAQ primarily in its use of a sponsor system to determine a prospective company's suitability to list and as a corporate advisor to advise on listing and corporate governance issues.
The exchange launched SGX QUEST (SGX Quotation and Execution System) in August 2004. The system is used by the exchange for derivatives and securities trading.
|Start time||End time|
|Pre open||8:30 am||8:51 am|
|Market open||9:00 am||11:59 am|
|Pre open (Mid-Day Break)||12:00 pm||12:59 pm|
|Market open||1:00 pm||5:00 pm|
|Pre close||5:00 pm||5:05 pm|
Formation of SGXEdit
SGX was formed on 1 December 1999 as a holding company. The share capital of some former exchange companies, namely Stock Exchange of Singapore (SES), Singapore International Monetary Exchange (Simex) and Securities Clearing and Computer Services Pte Ltd (SCCS) was cancelled and new shares issued in these companies were fully paid up by SGX. In this way, all assets previously owned by these three companies were transferred to SGX. The shareholders previously holding shares in SES, Simex and SCCS received newly issued SGX shares.
Second Listed Exchange in Asia-PacificEdit
On 23 November 2000, SGX became the second exchange in Asia-Pacific to be listed via a public offer and a private placement (Australian Securities Exchange was listed in 1998). Listed on its own bourse, the SGX stock is a component of benchmark indices such as the MSCI Singapore Free Index and the Straits Times Index.
On 25 September 2006, the Joint Asian Derivatives Exchange (JADE), a joint venture between SGX and Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) became operational. However, this joint venture was cancelled in November 2007, with CME Groups selling of its 50% stake in the joint venture to SGX. The contracts previously traded on JADE were transferred to SGX's QUEST trading platform.
In August 2009, SGX formed a joint venture with Chi-X Global, called Chi-East. At the beginning of October 2010, this joint venture received approval from the Monetary Authority of Singapore to operate a dark pool trading platform.
On 15 June 2007, Tokyo Stock Exchange, Inc. announced that it had acquired a 4.99% stake in SGX. Since then the value of the shares has declined and the Tokyo Stock Exchange, Inc. has made a decision to sell the shares it holds in SGX to its parent company, the Tokyo Stock Exchange Group, Inc.
At the beginning of 2008, SGX reached an agreement to buy at least 95% of Singapore Commodity Exchange. On 30 June 2008, SGX completed the acquisition of Singapore Commodity Exchange Ltd (SICOM), which now is a 100% subsidiary.
On 8 June 2010, SGX announced it has opened an office in London. This is part of SGXs move to invest S$250 million into its Reach initiative. By implementing this initiative, SGX plans to create the world's fastest trading engine and a data centre as well as further connecting trading communities in the world to Singapore. The new trading platform, SGX Reach, will be delivered to SGX by NASDAQ OMX, Voltaire and HP. This platform is based on GENIUM, a trading platform developed by NASDAQ OMX.
SGX has entered a partnership with NASDAQ OMX. Together they will provide a suite of tools and solutions for companies, which is designed to support listed companies in Asia.
Dual currency tradingEdit
SGX plan to introduce dual currency trading of securities — Which includes stocks, bonds and other listed investments in two different denominations, the Singapore and US dollar on 2 April 2012.
As of 31 January 2010, SGX had 774 listed companies with a combined market capitalisation of S$650 billion. The revenues of SGX are mainly from the securities market (75%) and derivatives market (25%).
SGX reported a net profit of $165.8 million for the first half of its financial year 2010. Excluding non-recurring items, net profit was 7% higher compared to 1H FY2009 ($159.2 million). In the second quarter of the financial year 2010, excluding the non-recurring items, net profit of $77.0 million was 3% higher than a year ago. Operating revenue increased 6% to $324.0 million (1H FY2009: $304.9 million).
In October 2012, excessive speculation led to the sharp price fall of three mainboard stocks, Blumont Group Ltd, Asiasons Capital Ltd. and LionGold Corp. SGX and the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) launched a review of activities around the three stocks, and in February 2014 jointly issued a consultation paper setting out a number of enhancements to strengthen the securities market and protect investors from speculative and market manipulative behaviour. Enhancements included implementing a minimum trading price for mainboard listed issuers, requiring reporting of short positions and the creation of three independent regulatory bodies.
2018 Review of corporate governance codeEdit
Numerous guidelines are set to be shifted to SGX Listing Rules. At least one-third of the board members are to be independent directors. The shareholding threshold for assessing director independence has been lowered to 5% from 10%. A director will no longer be independent if he or any immediate family member is a substantial shareholder with a 5% stake or more. Relationships between chairman and CEO must be disclosed if they are immediate family members. There will be a proposed 9 year limit on independent directors as a hard limit, or the appointment of independent directors who have served more than nine years to be put to an annual vote requiring approval from majority of all shareholders and majority of non-controlling shareholders, with a transition period of three years to be provided regardless of the option adopted. Directors must be submitted for renomination and reappointment at least once every three years. If dividends are not paid, companies must state the reason.
The Corporate Governance Council of Singapore is proposing to force a "nine-year rule" that will reassess whether long-serving independent directors of listed companies will qualify as independent after being in that role for so long. The proposal was made in an effort to encourage companies to refresh and introduce more diversity into their boardrooms. The Singapore Exchange is seeking public feedback on whether it should be written into the Listing Rules, and public consultation will close on March 15. 
Merger talks with ASXEdit
Criticism from Tokyo Stock ExchangeEdit
SGX's plans to buy ASX have drawn criticism from the Tokyo Stock Exchange, which is the second largest shareholder in SGX. A representative of the TSE said SGX's bid for ASX "would flag off a race to consolidate". TSE chief Atsushi Saito fears isolation of the Tokyo Stock Exchange as a result of the takeover.
Revision of takeover proposalEdit
SGX revised its initial takeover proposal in an attempt to overcome some of the opposition to the plans. This would have decreased the number of Singaporean citizens on the board of the combined company and would have given addition seats to Australians.
Rejection of mergerEdit
However, on 8 April 2011, the Australian Treasurer and Deputy Leader of the Australian Labor Party, Wayne Swan, made the decision to block the merger between the two exchanges. Upon the announcement that the federal government would block the merger, SGX retracted its bid for ASX shares and decided to seek growth opportunities elsewhere.
Cooperation and merger talks with LSEEdit
As of July 2012, SGX was in merger talks with the London Stock Exchange (LSE) and the two exchanges already signed a cross trading agreement. However, on 20 July SGX said there are no plans for a takeover of or merger with LSE.
Companies listed on Singapore ExchangeEdit
As of February 2017, there were 754 listed companies (excluding GDRs, Hedge Funds and Debt Securities) on the Singapore Exchange with a market capitalisation of SGD 977.097 billion (roughly USD 700 billion).
|GDRs, Hedge Funds and Debt Securities||2|
The following is a listing of the shareholders of Singapore Exchange Ltd holding at least 5 percent as of 3 August 2015:
- SEL Holdings Pte Ltd – 23.66%
Note: Nominees service companies were excluded
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