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Singapore Exchange Limited (SGX, SGX: S68) is an investment holding company located in Singapore and provides different services related to securities and derivatives trading and others.[5] SGX is a member of the World Federation of Exchanges[6] and the Asian and Oceanian Stock Exchanges Federation.[5]

Singapore Exchange Limited
SGX gradient logo (PNG).png
SGX Centre, Singapore - 20121015.jpg
TypeStock exchange
LocationSGX Centre, Singapore
Founded1 December 1999
Key peopleKwa Chong Seng (Chairman) [1]
Loh Boon Chye (CEO)[2]
CurrencySingapore dollar, US dollar[3]
No. of listings776
Market cap$733.27 Billion [4]



SGX operates several different divisions, each responsible for handling specific businesses.

  • SGX ETS (Electronic Trading System): provides global trading access to SGX markets where 80 percent of the customers are from outside Singapore.[7]
  • SGX DT (Derivatives Trading): provides derivatives trading.[5]
  • SGX ST (Securities Trading): provides securities trading.[8]
  • SGX DC (Derivatives Clearing): subsidiary for clearing and settlement operations.[9]
  • SGX AsiaClear: offers clearing services for over-the-counter (OTC) oil swaps and forward freight agreements.[10]
  • SGX Reach: an electronic trading platform.[5]
  • Central Depository Pte Ltd: subsidiary responsible for securities clearing, settlement and depository services.[5]
  • Asian Gateway Investments Pte Ltd: wholly owned subsidiary
  • Singapore Exchange IT Solutions Pte Ltd: provides computer services and maintenance as well as software maintenance[11]


The companies listed on SGX belong to one of two groups: the companies listed on the SGX Mainboard and the companies listed on SGX SESDAQ. In order to be listed on the mainboard, a company has to fulfill some requirements set forth by SGX, while a listing on SESDAQ is not tied to the fulfillment of any additional conditions.[5] SESDAQ was replaced on 26 November 2007 by the SGX Catalist after an extensive study of other market models and a public consultation in May 2007.[12] The word "Catalist" is an amalgamation of the words "Catalyst" and "List", to reflect the idea that the Catalist board could be used as a catalyst to propel growth upon listing.[12] Catalist differs from SESDAQ primarily in its use of a sponsor system to determine a prospective company's suitability to list and as a corporate advisor to advise on listing and corporate governance issues.

Trading systemEdit

The exchange launched SGX QUEST (SGX Quotation and Execution System) in August 2004. The system is used by the exchange for derivatives and securities trading.[13]

Trading hoursEdit

Local times:[14]

Start time End time
Pre open 8:30 am 8:51 am
Market open 9:00 am 11:59 am
Pre open (Mid-Day Break) 12:00 pm 12:59 pm
Market open 1:00 pm 5:00 pm
Pre close 5:00 pm 5:05 pm
Close 5:06 pm


Formation of SGXEdit

SGX was formed on 1 December 1999 as a holding company. The share capital of some former exchange companies, namely Stock Exchange of Singapore (SES), Singapore International Monetary Exchange (Simex) and Securities Clearing and Computer Services Pte Ltd (SCCS) was cancelled and new shares issued in these companies were fully paid up by SGX. In this way, all assets previously owned by these three companies were transferred to SGX. The shareholders previously holding shares in SES, Simex and SCCS received newly issued SGX shares.[15]

Second Listed Exchange in Asia-PacificEdit

On 23 November 2000, SGX became the second exchange in Asia-Pacific to be listed via a public offer and a private placement[citation needed] (Australian Securities Exchange was listed in 1998). Listed on its own bourse, the SGX stock is a component of benchmark indices such as the MSCI Singapore Free Index and the Straits Times Index.

Joint VentureEdit

On 25 September 2006, the Joint Asian Derivatives Exchange (JADE), a joint venture between SGX and Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) became operational.[16] However, this joint venture was cancelled in November 2007, with CME Groups selling of its 50% stake in the joint venture to SGX. The contracts previously traded on JADE were transferred to SGX's QUEST trading platform.[5]

In August 2009, SGX formed a joint venture with Chi-X Global, called Chi-East.[17] At the beginning of October 2010, this joint venture received approval from the Monetary Authority of Singapore to operate a dark pool trading platform.[18]


In March 2007, SGX bought a 5% stake in Bombay Stock Exchange for 42.7 million dollars.[19]

On 15 June 2007, Tokyo Stock Exchange, Inc. announced that it had acquired a 4.99% stake in SGX.[20] Since then the value of the shares has declined and the Tokyo Stock Exchange, Inc. has made a decision to sell the shares it holds in SGX to its parent company, the Tokyo Stock Exchange Group, Inc.[5]

On 31 January 2008, SGX acquired a 20% stake in Philippine Dealing System Holdings Corp, which has become an associated company of SGX.[5]

At the beginning of 2008, SGX reached an agreement to buy at least 95% of Singapore Commodity Exchange. On 30 June 2008, SGX completed the acquisition of Singapore Commodity Exchange Ltd (SICOM), which now is a 100% subsidiary.[21][22][23][24]

Representative OfficeEdit

On 18 April 2008, SGX opened a representative office in Beijing.[5][5]

On 8 June 2010, SGX announced it has opened an office in London.[25][26][27] This is part of SGXs move to invest S$250 million into its Reach initiative.[28] By implementing this initiative, SGX plans to create the world's fastest trading engine and a data centre as well as further connecting trading communities in the world to Singapore. The new trading platform, SGX Reach, will be delivered to SGX by NASDAQ OMX, Voltaire and HP.[5] This platform is based on GENIUM, a trading platform developed by NASDAQ OMX.[29]


SGX has entered a partnership with NASDAQ OMX. Together they will provide a suite of tools and solutions for companies, which is designed to support listed companies in Asia.[30]

Dual currency tradingEdit

SGX plan to introduce dual currency trading of securities — Which includes stocks, bonds and other listed investments in two different denominations, the Singapore and US dollar on 2 April 2012.[3]

Financial PerformanceEdit

As of 31 January 2010, SGX had 774 listed companies with a combined market capitalisation of S$650 billion. The revenues of SGX are mainly from the securities market (75%) and derivatives market (25%).

SGX reported a net profit of $165.8 million for the first half of its financial year 2010. Excluding non-recurring items, net profit was 7% higher compared to 1H FY2009 ($159.2 million). In the second quarter of the financial year 2010, excluding the non-recurring items, net profit of $77.0 million was 3% higher than a year ago. Operating revenue increased 6% to $324.0 million (1H FY2009: $304.9 million).[citation needed]

Small-cap sell-offEdit

In October 2012, excessive speculation led to the sharp price fall of three mainboard stocks, Blumont Group Ltd, Asiasons Capital Ltd. and LionGold Corp.[31] SGX and the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) launched a review of activities around the three stocks, and in February 2014 jointly issued a consultation paper setting out a number of enhancements to strengthen the securities market and protect investors from speculative and market manipulative behaviour.[32] Enhancements included implementing a minimum trading price for mainboard listed issuers, requiring reporting of short positions and the creation of three independent regulatory bodies.

2018 Review of corporate governance codeEdit

Numerous guidelines are set to be shifted to SGX Listing Rules. At least one-third of the board members are to be independent directors. The shareholding threshold for assessing director independence has been lowered to 5% from 10%. A director will no longer be independent if he or any immediate family member is a substantial shareholder with a 5% stake or more. Relationships between chairman and CEO must be disclosed if they are immediate family members. There will be a proposed 9 year limit on independent directors as a hard limit, or the appointment of independent directors who have served more than nine years to be put to an annual vote requiring approval from majority of all shareholders and majority of non-controlling shareholders, with a transition period of three years to be provided regardless of the option adopted. Directors must be submitted for renomination and reappointment at least once every three years. If dividends are not paid, companies must state the reason.

The Corporate Governance Council of Singapore is proposing to force a "nine-year rule" that will reassess whether long-serving independent directors of listed companies will qualify as independent after being in that role for so long. The proposal was made in an effort to encourage companies to refresh and introduce more diversity into their boardrooms. The Singapore Exchange is seeking public feedback on whether it should be written into the Listing Rules, and public consultation will close on March 15. [33]

Merger talksEdit

Merger talks with ASXEdit

SGX was in a merger talks with Australian Securities Exchange (ASX), which would have created a bourse with a market value of US$14 billion had the deal been successful.[34][35]

The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission said on 15 December 2010 that it would not oppose SGXs takeover of ASX.[36]

Criticism from Tokyo Stock ExchangeEdit

SGX's plans to buy ASX have drawn criticism from the Tokyo Stock Exchange, which is the second largest shareholder in SGX. A representative of the TSE said SGX's bid for ASX "would flag off a race to consolidate".[37] TSE chief Atsushi Saito fears isolation of the Tokyo Stock Exchange as a result of the takeover.[38]

Revision of takeover proposalEdit

SGX revised its initial takeover proposal in an attempt to overcome some of the opposition to the plans. This would have decreased the number of Singaporean citizens on the board of the combined company and would have given addition seats to Australians.[39]

Rejection of mergerEdit

However, on 8 April 2011, the Australian Treasurer and Deputy Leader of the Australian Labor Party, Wayne Swan, made the decision to block the merger between the two exchanges. Upon the announcement that the federal government would block the merger, SGX retracted its bid for ASX shares and decided to seek growth opportunities elsewhere.[40]

Cooperation and merger talks with LSEEdit

As of July 2012, SGX was in merger talks with the London Stock Exchange (LSE)[41] and the two exchanges already signed a cross trading agreement.[42] However, on 20 July SGX said there are no plans for a takeover of or merger with LSE.[43]

Companies listed on Singapore ExchangeEdit

As of February 2017, there were 754 listed companies (excluding GDRs, Hedge Funds and Debt Securities) on the Singapore Exchange with a market capitalisation of SGD 977.097 billion (roughly USD 700 billion).[44]

November 2015
Domestic Listings 483
Foreign Listings

(excluding China)

China Listings 123
GDRs, Hedge Funds and Debt Securities 2
Total listings 773

Major shareholdersEdit

The following is a listing of the shareholders of Singapore Exchange Ltd holding at least 5 percent as of 3 August 2015:[45]

  • SEL Holdings Pte Ltd – 23.66%

Note: Nominees service companies were excluded

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Board Committees". Archived from the original on 24 May 2017. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
  2. ^ "SGX appoints Loh Boon Chye as new CEO". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
  3. ^ a b "SGX introduces dual currency trading". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
  4. ^ "Singapore Exchange (SGX) Overview - StockMarketClock".
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l
  6. ^ Singapore Exchange, WFE, archived from the original on 17 July 2011, retrieved 21 September 2010
  7. ^ Huat Tan, Chwee (2002). Singapore Financial and Business Sourcebook. Singapore University Press. p. 140. ISBN 978-9971-69-256-8.
  8. ^ Exchange: Singapore Exchange Securities Trading Limited (SGX-ST) (PDF),, retrieved 24 November 2010[dead link]
  9. ^ Huat, T. C. (2005). Financial markets and institutions in Singapore (11th ed.). Singapore: Singapore University Press / NUS Publishing. p. 248. ISBN 978-9971-69-314-5.
  10. ^ About SGX AsiaClear, Singapore Exchange Ltd, archived from the original on 29 May 2009, retrieved 12 October 2010
  11. ^ "Investments in Subsidiaries", The Asian Gateway Singapore Exchange Annual Report 2012 July 2011 - June 2012 (PDF), Annual Report, Singapore Exchange Ltd, 2012, p. 122[permanent dead link]
  12. ^ a b "SGX Unveils Catalist, Sponsor-Supervised Listing Platform For Fast Growing Companies - Corporate/Commercial Law - Singapore". Retrieved 7 June 2018.
  13. ^ Singapore Exchange adopts Financial Information eXchange Protocol to strengthen position in global financial markets (PDF), ASIA PAC, archived from the original (PDF) on 11 October 2008, retrieved 12 October 2010
  14. ^ "SGX Trading Hours & Calendar". Retrieved 26 September 2015.
  15. ^ Shaw, A., Singapore Stock Exchange — Demutualization and Listing of the Singapore Exchange Limited (PDF), archived from the original (PDF) on 16 November 2004, retrieved 21 October 2010
  16. ^ JADE Begins Trading With TSR 20 Rubber Futures Contract, CME Group, archived from the original on 14 July 2011, retrieved 1 October 2010
  17. ^ Ex-BlocSec CEO to lead Chi-East dark pool, The Trade News, archived from the original on 2 July 2011, retrieved 10 October 2010
  18. ^ Chi-East receives MAS approval to operate dark pool trading platform, Channel NewsAsia, archived from the original on 18 January 2013, retrieved 10 October 2010
  19. ^ Timmons, Heather (7 March 2007), "Bombay Stock Exchange sells 5% stake to Singapore Exchange", The New York Times, archived from the original on 3 September 2012, retrieved 1 October 2010
  20. ^ Acquisition by TSE of SGX shares, Tokyo Stock Exchange Group, Inc., archived from the original on 15 July 2007, retrieved 11 October 2010
  21. ^ Singapore Exchange Limited Completes Acquisition of Singapore Commodity Exchange Limited, Thomson Reuters, archived from the original on 1 February 2013, retrieved 1 October 2010
  22. ^ Singapore Exchange Ltd acquires Singapore Commodity Exchange, Alacra, Inc., retrieved 9 February 2012 (subscription required)
  23. ^ Singapore Exchange Ltd. Summary Annual Report 2008 (PDF), Singapore Exchange Ltd., p. 9
  24. ^ "Financial Statements for the Full Year Ended 30 June 2009", Supplemental Listing Document (PDF), Singapore Exchange, p. 18 of 35, archived from the original (PDF) on 27 January 2013, retrieved 27 January 2013
  25. ^ SGX expands in London (PDF), Singapore Exchange Limited, retrieved 21 October 2010
  26. ^ SGX expands in London, The Trade News, archived from the original on 17 July 2011, retrieved 21 October 2010
  27. ^ SGX establishes London office to better serve European customers, MediaCorp Pte Ltd, retrieved 21 October 2010
  28. ^ SGX to boost trading speeds, global links, Singapore Press Holdings Ltd, retrieved 21 October 2010
  29. ^ Gateway to Asia, The NASDAQ OMX Group, Inc., archived from the original on 4 January 2010, retrieved 21 October 2010
  30. ^ Singapore Exchange Partners With NASDAQ OMX to Offer Innovative Corporate Solutions to Asian Companies, DGAP News Service, retrieved 12 April 2011
  31. ^ Reuters "Singapore launches probe into penny stocks crash", 24 October 2014
  32. ^ Baker and McKenzie "MAS and SGX Jointly Propose Enhancements to Securities Market and Self-Regulatory Framework" Archived 22 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine, February 2014
  33. ^ The Straits Times, "New corporate governance rules proposed", January 17 2018
  34. ^ "SGX, Australian stock exchange in merger talks". Channel NewsAsia. Archived from the original on 25 October 2010. Retrieved 22 October 2010.
  35. ^ Singapore stock exchange bids $8.3bn for Australian ASX Archived 19 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  36. ^ "ACCC clears proposed acquisition of ASX by Singapore Exchange". Commonwealth of Australia. Archived from the original on 22 June 2011. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
  37. ^ "Singapore's bid to buy stock exchange stings Australia's prestige". China Post. Archived from the original on 29 September 2012. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
  38. ^ "Tokyo fears stock exchange merger plan". Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
  39. ^ Shani Raja; Sarah Jones (15 February 2011). "Singapore Exchange Recasts ASX Bid to Fight Lawmaker Opposition". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
  40. ^ "SGX eyes other opportunities". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 10 April 2011.
  41. ^ Mangan, S.; Armstrong, R. (19 July 2012). "LSE, Singapore exchange in merger talks: report". Reuters. Archived from the original on 25 July 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
  42. ^ "SGX and LSE Sign Cross Trading Agreement". 11 July 2012. Archived from the original on 2 January 2015. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
  43. ^ "Singapore exchange denies LSE merger talks". Reuters. 20 July 2012. Archived from the original on 23 July 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
  44. ^ "SGX Monthly Market Statistics February 2017" (PDF).
  45. ^ "Statistics of Shareholdings", Singapore Exchange Annual Report 2012 July 2014 - June 2015 (PDF), Annual Report, Singapore Exchange Ltd, 2015, p. 148, archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2015, retrieved 19 December 2015

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit