World economy

The world economy or global economy is the economy of all humans of the world, referring to the global economic system that includes all economic activity within nations and between nations, including production, consumption, economic management, exchange of financial values and trade of goods and services.[1][2] In some contexts, the two terms are distinct "international" or "global economy" being measured separately and distinguished from national economies while the "world economy" is simply an aggregate of the separate countries' measurements. Beyond the minimum standard concerning value in production, use and exchange, the definitions, representations, models and valuations of the world economy vary widely. It is inseparable from the geography and ecology of planet Earth.

It is common to limit questions of the world economy exclusively to human economic activity and the world economy is typically judged in monetary terms, even in cases in which there is no efficient market to help valuate certain goods or services, or in cases in which a lack of independent research, genuine data or government cooperation makes establishing figures difficult. Typical examples are illegal drugs and other black market goods, which by any standard are a part of the world economy, but for which there is by definition no legal market of any kind.

However, even in cases in which there is a clear and efficient market to establish a monetary value, economists do not typically use the current or official exchange rate to translate the monetary units of this market into a single unit for the world economy since exchange rates typically do not closely reflect worldwide value, for example in cases where the volume or price of transactions is closely regulated by the government.

Rather, market valuations in a local currency are typically translated to a single monetary unit using the idea of purchasing power. This is the method used below, which is used for estimating worldwide economic activity in terms of real United States dollars or euros. However, the world economy can be evaluated and expressed in many more ways. It is unclear, for example, how many of the world's 7.8 billion people (as of March 2020)[3][4] have most of their economic activity reflected in these valuations.

According to Maddison, until the middle of 19th century, global output was dominated by China and India. Waves of Industrial Revolution in Western Europe and Northern America shifted the shares to the Western Hemisphere. As of 2020, the following 15 countries or collectives have reached an economy of at least US$2 trillion by GDP in nominal or PPP terms: Brazil, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, Russia, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union.[5]

OverviewEdit

World economy by country groupsEdit

country groups with individual countries designated by the IMF.[6] Members of the G-20 major economies are in bold.
List of country groups by GDP (nominal) at peak level as of 2020 in millions US$[7] List of country groups by GDP (PPP) at peak level as of 2020 in millions US$[7]
Country group GDP (nominal) Peak year Number of countries Members of G20 economies and/or largest in the group (mutually inclusive)
World 87,552,440 2019 195
Major advanced economies (G7) 39,659,165 2019 7   Canada
  France
  Germany
  Italy
  Japan
  United Kingdom
  United States
Emerging and developing Asia 21,069,339 2020 30   China
  India
  Indonesia
  Malaysia
  Philippines
  Thailand
Other advanced economies
(advanced economies excluding the G7)
12,393,950 2018 32   Australia
  South Korea
  Netherlands
  Spain
   Switzerland
  Taiwan
Latin America and the Caribbean 6,048,992 2013 33   Argentina
  Brazil
  Colombia
  Mexico
  Venezuela
Emerging and developing Europe 4,576,610 2013 16   Poland
  Russia
  Turkey
Middle East and Central Asia 3,984,677 2019 32   Egypt
  Iran
  Pakistan
  Saudi Arabia
  United Arab Emirates
Sub-Saharan Africa 1,771,952 2014 45   Nigeria
  South Africa
Country group GDP (PPP) Peak year Number of countries Members of G20 economies and/or largest in the group (Mutually exclusive)
World 134,556,917 2019 195
Major advanced economies (G7) 42,625,290 2019 7   Canada
  France
  Germany
  Italy
  Japan
  United Kingdom
  United States
Emerging and developing Asia 42,386,090 2019 30   China
  India
  Indonesia
  Malaysia
  Philippines
  Thailand
Other advanced economies
(advanced economies excluding the G7)
15,358,474 2019 32   Australia
  South Korea
  Netherlands
  Singapore
  Spain
  Taiwan
Emerging and developing Europe 10,227,416 2019 16   Poland
  Russia
  Turkey
Latin America and the Caribbean 10,159,861 2019 33   Argentina
  Brazil
  Colombia
  Mexico
  Venezuela
Middle East and Central Asia 9,655,101 2019 32   Egypt
  Iran
  Pakistan
  Saudi Arabia
  United Arab Emirates
Sub-Saharan Africa 4,144,685 2019 45   Nigeria
  South Africa

Current world economic league table of largest economies in the world by GDP and share of global economic growthEdit

The 25 largest economies by GDP (nominal), twenty largest economies by GDP (PPP) as of 2020. Members of the G-20 major economies are in bold.
List of the 25 largest economies
by GDP (nominal) at their peak level as of 2020 in millions US$
[8]
List of the 25 largest economies
by GDP (PPP) at their peak level as of 2020 in millions US$
[9]
List of the 25 economies by highest
GDP (nominal) per capita at their peak level as of 2020 in US$
List of the 25 economies by highest
GDP (PPP) per capita at their peak level as of 2020 in US$
Rank Country Value
(USD$)
Peak year
World 87,552,440 2020
1   United States 21,433,225 2019
  European Union 19,226,235 2008
2   China 15,222,155 2020
3   Japan 6,203,212 2012
4   Germany 3,965,565 2018
5   United Kingdom 3,102,069 2007
6   France 2,929,983 2008
7   India 2,868,930 2019
8   Brazil 2,614,027 2011
9   Italy 2,408,392 2008
10   Russia 2,288,428 2013
11   Canada 1,846,595 2013
12   South Korea 1,724,846 2018
13   Spain 1,631,685 2008
14   Australia 1,569,309 2012
15   Mexico 1,315,356 2014
16   Indonesia 1,120,141 2019
17   Turkey 957,504 2013
18   Netherlands 951,766 2008
19   Saudi Arabia 792,967 2019
20    Switzerland 709,465 2014
21   Argentina 643,861 2017
22   Taiwan 635,547 2020
23   Iran 610,662 2020
24   Poland 592,401 2019
25   Sweden 586,842 2013
Rank Country Value
(USD$)
Peak year
World 134,556,917 2019
1   China 24,162,435 2020
  European Union 22,825,236 2019
2   United States 21,433,225 2019
3   India 9,542,255 2019
4   Japan 5,450,654 2019
5   Germany 4,672,006 2019
6   Russia 4,135,992 2019
7   Indonesia 3,331,872 2019
8   United Kingdom 3,254,845 2019
9   France 3,228,039 2019
10   Brazil 3,222,990 2019
11   Italy 2,665,524 2019
12   Mexico 2,625,895 2019
13   Turkey 2,471,660 2019
14   South Korea 2,304,833 2019
15   Spain 2,006,054 2019
16   Canada 1,920,997 2019
17   Saudi Arabia 1,722,862 2014
18   Australia 1,345,676 2019
19   Thailand 1,339,643 2019
20   Iran 1,337,370 2011
21   Poland 1,309,450 2019
22   Egypt 1,292,478 2020
23   Taiwan 1,275,805 2020
24   Pakistan 1,076,258 2020
25   Nigeria 1,075,694 2019
Rank Country Value
(USD$)
Peak year
1   Luxembourg 120,450 2014
2   Norway 102,577 2013
3   Qatar 101,933 2012
4    Switzerland 88,903 2011
5   Macau 86,998 2014
6   Ireland 80,504 2019
7   San Marino 79,110 2008
8   Iceland 73,868 2018
9   Australia 68,445 2012
10   Singapore 66,186 2018
11   United States 65,254 2019
12   Denmark 64,531 2008
13   Sweden 60,845 2013
14   Netherlands 58,015 2008
15   Finland 53,898 2008
16   Canada 52,744 2012
17   Austria 51,914 2008
18   United Kingdom 50,589 2007
19   Japan 48,633 2012
20   Hong Kong 48,627 2019
21   Belgium 48,493 2008
22   Germany 48,036 2014
23   Brunei 47,772 2012
24   France 47,155 2008
25   Kuwait 45,726 2012
Rank Country Value
(USD$)
Peak year
1   Qatar 169,698 2012
2   Macau 145,992 2013
3   Luxembourg 120,490 2019
5   United Arab Emirates 110,114 2004
4   Singapore 101,458 2019
6   Ireland 91,959 2019
7   Brunei 88,312 2012
8   San Marino 74,942 2008
9   Kuwait 72,736 2012
10    Switzerland 72,008 2019
11   Norway 66,742 2013
12   United States 65,254 2019
13   Hong Kong 62,267 2019
14   Denmark 59,719 2019
15   Netherlands 59,693 2019
16   Iceland 58,965 2019
17   Austria 58,850 2019
18   Saudi Arabia 57,284 2012
19   Germany 56,226 2019
20   Sweden 55,265 2019
21   Bahrain 54,489 2012
22   Belgium 54,029 2019
23   Taiwan 54,020 2020
24   Australia 52,726 2019
25   Canada 51,190 2019

Twenty largest economies in the world by nominal GDPEdit

The following is a list of the twenty largest economies by nominal GDP at peak value as of the specific year according to the International Monetary Fund.[10]
Rank 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025
1   United States   United States   United States   United States   United States   United States   United States   United States   United States   United States
2   Soviet Union   Soviet Union   Japan   Japan   Japan   Japan   China   China   China   China
3   Japan   Japan   Soviet Union   Germany   Germany   Germany   Japan   Japan   Japan   Japan
4   West Germany   West Germany   West Germany   France   United Kingdom   United Kingdom   Germany   Germany   Germany   Germany
5   France   France   France   United Kingdom   France   China   United Kingdom   United Kingdom   United Kingdom   India
6   United Kingdom   United Kingdom   United Kingdom   Italy   Italy   France   France   France   France   France
7   Italy   Italy   Italy   Brazil   China   Italy   Italy   Brazil   India   United Kingdom
8   Canada   Canada   Canada   China   Brazil   Canada   Brazil   Italy   Brazil   Brazil
9   China   China   Iran   Spain   Canada   Spain   Russia   Russia   Italy   Italy
10   Argentina   Mexico   Spain   Canada   Mexico   South Korea   India   India   Russia   Russia
Rank 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025
11   Spain   India   China   Iran   Spain   Brazil   Spain   Canada   Canada   Canada
12   Mexico   Argentina   Brazil   South Korea   South Korea   Mexico   Canada   Spain   South Korea   South Korea
13   Netherlands   Spain   India   Mexico   Iran   India   Australia   Australia   Spain   Spain
14   India   Brazil   Australia   Netherlands   India   Russia   South Korea   South Korea   Australia   Australia
15   Saudi Arabia   Australia   Netherlands   Australia   Netherlands   Australia   Mexico   Mexico   Mexico   Indonesia
16   Australia   Netherlands   Mexico   India   Russia   Netherlands   Netherlands   Turkey   Indonesia   Mexico
17   Brazil   Saudi Arabia   South Korea    Switzerland   Australia   Iran   Turkey   Netherlands   Turkey   Netherlands
18   Sweden   Iran   Sweden   Russia    Switzerland   Turkey   Indonesia   Indonesia   Netherlands   Turkey
19   Belgium   Sweden    Switzerland   Argentina   Argentina    Switzerland    Switzerland   Saudi Arabia   Saudi Arabia    Switzerland
20    Switzerland   Belgium   Argentina   Belgium   Taiwan   Sweden   Iran    Switzerland    Switzerland   Saudi Arabia

Twenty largest economies in the world by GDP (PPP)Edit

List of twenty largest economies by GDP based on purchasing power parity at peak value as of the specific year according to the International Monetary Fund and the CIA World Factbook.[11][12]
Rank 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025
1   United States   United States   United States   United States   United States   United States   United States   United States   China   China
2   Soviet Union   Soviet Union   Soviet Union   Japan   China   China   China   China   United States   United States
3   Japan   Japan   Japan   China   Japan   Japan   India   India   India   India
4   West Germany   West Germany   West Germany   Germany   Germany   India   Japan   Japan   Japan   Japan
5   Italy   Italy   Italy   Russia   India   Germany   Germany   Germany   Germany   Germany
6   France   France   France   India   France   Russia   Russia   Russia   Russia   Russia
7   Brazil   Brazil   China   Italy   Italy   France   Brazil   Brazil   Indonesia   Indonesia
8   United Kingdom   United Kingdom   Brazil   France   Russia   Brazil   France   United Kingdom   United Kingdom   Brazil
9   Saudi Arabia   China   United Kingdom   Brazil   Brazil   United Kingdom   United Kingdom   France   France   United Kingdom
10   Mexico   India   India   United Kingdom   United Kingdom   Italy   Italy   Indonesia   Brazil   France
Rank 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025
11   India   Mexico   Mexico   Mexico   Mexico   Mexico   Indonesia   Italy   Italy   Turkey
12   China   Saudi Arabia   Spain   Indonesia   Indonesia   Indonesia   Mexico   Mexico   Mexico   Mexico
13   Spain   Canada   Canada   Spain   Spain   Spain   South Korea   Turkey   Turkey   Italy
14   Canada   Spain   Indonesia   Saudi Arabia   Canada   Canada   Spain   South Korea   South Korea   South Korea
15   Iran   Iran   Saudi Arabia   Canada   Saudi Arabia   South Korea   Saudi Arabia   Saudi Arabia   Spain   Spain
16   Indonesia   Indonesia   Iran   South Korea   South Korea   Saudi Arabia   Canada   Spain   Canada   Canada
17   Argentina   Turkey   Turkey   Turkey   Turkey   Turkey   Turkey   Canada   Saudi Arabia   Saudi Arabia
18   Poland   Australia   Australia   Iran   Iran   Iran   Iran   Iran   Australia   Egypt
19   Netherlands   Netherlands   South Korea   Australia   Australia   Australia   Australia   Australia   Thailand   Thailand
20   Turkey   Argentina   Netherlands   Thailand   Netherlands   Thailand   Taiwan   Taiwan   Iran   Poland

Statistical indicatorsEdit

FinanceEdit

 
Countries by total wealth (trillions USD), Credit Suisse

EmploymentEdit

 
World GDP per capita between 1500 and 2000 (log scale)
 
World GDP per capita between 1500 and 2003
 
GDP increase, 1990–1998 and 1990–2006, in major countries
  • Unemployment rate: 8.7% (2009 est.). 30% (2007 est.) combined unemployment and underemployment in many non-industrialized countries; developed countries typically 4%–12% unemployment.

IndustriesEdit

  • Industrial production growth rate: 3% (2002 est.)

EnergyEdit

 
Global primary energy consumption, measured in terawatt-hours (TWh) per year
  • Yearly electricity – production: 21,080,878 GWh (2011 est.),[18] 15,850,000 GWh (2003 est.), 14,850,000 GWh (2001 est.)
  • Yearly electricity – consumption: 14,280,000 GWh (2003 est.), 13,930,000 GWh (2001 est.)
  • Oil – production: 79,650,000 bbl/d (12,663,000 m3/d) (2003 est.), 75,460,000 barrels per day (11,997,000 m3/d) (2001)
  • Oil – consumption: 80,100,000 bbl/d (12,730,000 m3/d) (2003 est.), 76,210,000 barrels per day (12,116,000 m3/d) (2001)
  • Oil – proved reserves: 1.025 trillion barrel (163 km3) (2001 est.)
  • Natural gas – production: 3,366 km3 (2012 est.),[19] 2,569 km3 (2001 est.)
  • Natural gas – consumption: 2,556 km3 (2001 est.)
  • Natural gas – proved reserves: 161,200 km3 (1 January 2002)

Cross-borderEdit

  • Yearly exports: $12.4 trillion, €11.05 trillion (2009 est.)
  • Exports – commodities: the whole range of industrial and agricultural goods and services
  • Exports – partners: US 12.7%, Germany 7.1%, China 6.2%, France 4.4%, Japan 4.2%, UK 4.1% (2008)
  • Yearly imports: $12.29 trillion, €10.95 trillion (2009 est.)
  • Imports – commodities: the whole range of industrial and agricultural goods and services
  • Imports – partners: China 10.3%, Germany 8.6%, US 8.1%, Japan 5% (2008)
  • Debt – external: $56.9 trillion, €40 trillion (31 December 2009 est.)

Gift economyEdit

CommunicationsEdit

Telephones – main lines in use: 843,923,500 (2007)
4,263,367,600 (2008)

TransportEdit

Transportation infrastructure worldwide includes:

MilitaryEdit

 
A pie chart showing global military expenditures by country for 2018, in US$ billions, according to SIPRI.
  • World military expenditure in 2018: estimated to $1.822 trillion [24]
  • Military expenditures – percent of GDP: roughly 2% of gross world product (1999).

Science, research and developmentEdit

 
Number of scientific or technical journal article publications per million residents as of 2013.

The Royal Society in a 2011 report stated that in terms of number of papers the share of English-language scientific research papers the United States was first followed by China, the UK, Germany, Japan, France, and Canada.[25] In 2015, research and development constituted an average 2.2% of the global GDP according to the UNESCO Institute for Statistics.[26] Metrics and rankings of innovation include the Bloomberg Innovation Index, the Global Innovation Index and the share of Nobel laureates per capita.

Resources and environmentEdit

 
Shown is how the global material footprint and global CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and industrial processes changed compared with global GDP.[27]
 
Deforestation (net loss) of tropical rainforest and woodland over time, 1750-2004
  • Forests (carbon sinks, wood, ecosystem services, ...)
    • Estimated number of trees that are net lost annually as of 2020: 10 billion[28][29]
    • Global annual deforested land in 2015–2020: 10 million hectares
    • Global annual net forest area loss in 2000–2010 : 4.7 million hectares[30]
  • Other land degradation and land- and organisms-related ecosystem disturbances
    • Soils (carbon sink, ecosystem services, food production, ...)
      • Soil erosion by water in 2012: almost 36 billion tons (based on a high resolution global potential soil erosion model developed in 2017)[31]
      • Estimated annual loss of agricultural productivity due to soil erosion: 8 billion US dollars (based on the soil erosion data)[32]
      • Soil erosion by water in 2015: approximately 43 billion tons (according to a 2020 study)[33]
      • Environmental impact of pesticides
        • Pesticide use in tonnes of active ingredient in Australia in 2016: ca. 62,500 tonnes[34]
  • Oceans (ecosystem services, food production, ...): Blue economy
  • Waste and pollution (effects of economic mechanisms, effects on ecosystem services)
    • As of 2018, about 380 million tonnes of plastic is produced worldwide each year. From the 1950s up to 2018, an estimated 6.3 billion tonnes of plastic has been produced worldwide, of which an estimated 9% has been recycled and another 12% has been incinerated with the rest reportedly being "dumped in landfills or the natural environment".[35]
    • Air pollution
      • Number of human deaths caused annually by air pollution worldwide: ca. 7 million[36][37][38]
      • Estimated global annual cost of air pollution: $5 trillion[39][40][41]
    • Microplastic pollution
      • Estimated accumulated number of microplastic particles in the North Atlantic Ocean in 2014: 15 to 51 trillion particles, weighing between 93,000 and 236,000 metric tons[42]
      • Estimated accumulated number of microplastic particles in the North Atlantic Ocean in 2020: 3700 microplastics per cubic meter[42]

From the scientific perspective, economic activities are embedded in a web of dynamic, interrelated, and interdependent activities that constitute the natural system of Earth. Novel application of cybernetics in decision-making (such as in decision-making related to process- and product-design and related laws) and direction of human activity (such as economic activity) may make it easier to control modern ecological problems.[43]

Historical developmentEdit

Estimations of world population and GDP from a 2020 research paper[44]
Year Population
(million)
GDP per capita
(1990 $ in PPP)
GDP in billion
(1990 $ in PPP)
1000000 BCE 0.125 400 0.05
300000 BCE 1 400 0.40
25000 BCE 3.34 400 1.34
10000 BCE 4 400 1.60
5000 BCE 5 404 2.02
4000 BCE 7 409 2.87
3000 BCE 14 421 5.90
2000 BCE 27 433 11.7
1000 BCE 50 444 22.2
500 BCE 100 457 45.7
200 BCE 150 465 69.7
1 168 467 78.4
200 190 463 88.0
400 190 463 88.0
500 190 463 88.0
600 200 462 92.3
700 210 460 96.6
800 220 459 101
900 240 456 109
1000 265 453 120
1100 320 512 164
1200 360 551 198
1300 360 551 198
1400 350 541 190
1500 438 625 274
1600 556 629 350
1700 603 658 397
1820 1,042 712 741
1870 1,276 884 1,128
1900 1,563
1913 1,793 1,543 2,767
1920 1,863
1940 2,299 2,181 5,013
1950 2,528 2,104 5,318
1960 3,042 2,764 12,170
1970 3,691 3,725 13,751
1980 4,440 4,511 20,026
1990 5,269 5,149 27,133
2000 6,077 6,057 36,806
2010 6,873 7,814 53,704
2019 7,620 9,663 73,640

One example for a comparable metric other than GDP are the OECD Better Life Index rankings for different aggregative domains.

Legend
  Explained by: Housing
  Explained by: Income
  Explained by: Jobs
  Explained by: Community
  Explained by: Education
  Explained by: Environment
  Explained by: Civic engagement
  Explained by: Health
  Explained by: Life Satisfaction
  Explained by: Safety
  Explained by: Work-Life Balance
OECD Better Life Index rankings for 2016
Overall Rank
[45]
Country Housing Income Jobs Community Education Environment Civic engagement Health Life Satisfaction Safety Work-Life Balance
1   Norway
2   Australia
3   Denmark
4    Switzerland
5   Canada
6   Sweden
7   New Zealand
8   Finland
9   United States
10   Iceland
11   Netherlands
12   Germany
13   Luxembourg
14   Belgium
15   Austria
16   United Kingdom
17   Ireland
18   France
19   Spain
20   Slovenia
21   Czech Republic
22   Estonia
23   Japan
24   Slovakia
25   Italy
26   Israel
27   Poland
28   South Korea
29   Portugal
30   Latvia
31   Greece
32   Hungary
33   Russia
34   Chile
35   Brazil
36   Turkey
37   Mexico
38   South Africa

The index includes 11 comparable "dimensions" of well-being:[46]

  1. Housing: housing conditions and spendings (e.g. real estate pricing)
  2. Income: household income (after taxes and transfers) and net financial wealth
  3. Jobs: earnings, job security and unemployment
  4. Community: quality of social support network
  5. Education: education and what one gets out of it
  6. Environment: quality of environment (e.g. environmental health)
  7. Governance: involvement in democracy
  8. Health
  9. Life Satisfaction: level of happiness
  10. Safety: murder and assault rates
  11. Work-life balance

Economic studiesEdit

To promote exports, many government agencies publish on the web economic studies by sector and country. Among these agencies include the USCS (US DoC) and FAS (USDA) in the United States, the EDC and AAFC in Canada, Ubifrance in France, the UKTI in the United Kingdom, the HKTDC and JETRO in Asia, Austrade and the NZTE in Oceania. Through Partnership Agreements, the Federation of International Trade Associations publishes studies from several of these agencies (USCS, FAS, AAFC, UKTI, and HKTDC) as well as other non-governmental organizations on its website globaltrade.net.

See alsoEdit

Timeline of world economy
-10000 —
-9500 —
-9000 —
-8500 —
-8000 —
-7500 —
-7000 —
-6500 —
-6000 —
-5500 —
-5000 —
-4500 —
-4000 —
-3500 —
-3000 —
-2500 —
-2000 —
-1500 —
-1000 —
-500 —
0 —
500 —
1000 —
1500 —
2000 —
Mesolithic
Neolithic
Bronze Age
Iron Age
Classical Antiquity
Middle Ages
Early Modern Era
Industrial Revolution
20th Century

Regional economies:

Events:

Lists:

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "THE GLOBAL ECONOMY | definition in the Cambridge English Dictionary". dictionary.cambridge.org. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  2. ^ "World Economy." – Definition. American English Definition of with Pronunciation by Macmillan Dictionary. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Jan. 2015.
  3. ^ World Population: 2020 Overview
  4. ^ 2020 World Population Data Sheet
  5. ^ "Gross domestic product, current prices & Gross domestic product based on purchasing-power-parity (PPP) valuation of country GDP". World Economic Outlook Database, October 2015. International Monetary Fund. October 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-10-11. Retrieved 2015-10-15.
  6. ^ [1] Archived 2018-10-10 at the Wayback Machine IMF GDP 2018 Data (October 2019)
  7. ^ a b "Gross domestic product". IMF World Economic Outlook. October 2019. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
  8. ^ [2] IMF GDP (Nominal) Data (October 2019)
  9. ^ [3] IMF GDP (PPP) Data (April 2020)
  10. ^ "Gross domestic product, current prices". International Monetary Fund. International Monetary Fund. October 2020. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  11. ^ "Gross domestic product based on purchasing-power-parity (PPP) valuation of country GDP; Current international dollar". International Monetary Fund. October 2020. Archived from the original on 3 April 2019. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
  12. ^ "GDP (PURCHASING POWER PARITY)". CIA World Factbook. CIA World Factbook. 2014. Archived from the original on June 25, 2014. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
  13. ^ Based on the IMF data. If no data was available for a country from IMF, data from the World Bank is used.
  14. ^ "IMF World Economic Outlook, Crisis and Recovery, April 2009". Imf.org. 2009-04-16. Archived from the original on 2012-05-19. Retrieved 2012-07-17.
  15. ^ "World Economic Situation and Prospects 2018". United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Development Policy and Analysis Division. Table A.3. ISBN 978-92-1-109177-9. Archived from the original on 2018-03-03. Retrieved 2018-03-02.
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