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Johor (/əˈhɔːr/)[4][5][6] or Johore is a Malaysian state, located in the southern portion of Peninsular Malaysia. The state capital city of Johor is Johor Bahru. The state royal town is Muar, the old state capital is Johor Lama and the state administrative center is Kota Iskandar in Iskandar Puteri.

Johor
State
Johor Darul Ta'zim
جوهر دار التّعظيم
Negeri dan Jajahan Takluk Johor Darul Takzim
Other transcription(s)
 • Malay Johor
 • Jawi جوهر
 • Chinese 柔佛
 • Tamil ஜொகூர்
Flag of Johor
Flag
Coat of arms of Johor
Coat of arms
Motto(s): Kepada Allah Berserah
كڤد الله برسره
(To Allah We Surrender)
Anthem: Lagu Bangsa Johor
لاڬو بڠسا جوهر
(Johor State Anthem)

   Johor in    Malaysia
   Johor in    Malaysia
Coordinates: 1°29′14″N 103°46′52″E / 1.48722°N 103.78111°E / 1.48722; 103.78111Coordinates: 1°29′14″N 103°46′52″E / 1.48722°N 103.78111°E / 1.48722; 103.78111
Capital Johor Bahru[a]
Royal capital Muar
Government
 • Type Parliamentary constitutional monarchy
 • Sultan Sultan Ibrahim Ismail
 • Menteri Besar Osman Sapian (PH-PPBM)
Area[1]
 • Total 19,102 km2 (7,375 sq mi)
Population (2017[2])[3]
 • Total 3,750,000 (est.)
 • Density 196.31/km2 (508.4/sq mi)
 • Demonym Johorean / Johorian
Human Development Index
 • HDI (2010) 0.798 (high) (5th)
Postal code 79xxx to 86xxx
Calling code 07[b]
06 (Muar and Tangkak)
ISO 3166 code MY-01
Vehicle registration J
De jure 810
Johor Sultanate 1528
Anglo–Johor Treaty 1885
Johor State Constitution 14 April 1895
British protectorate 1914
Japanese occupation 31 January 1942
Accession into the Federation of Malaya 1948
Independence as part of the Federation of Malaya 31 August 1957
Website johor.gov.my
^[a] Kota Iskandar is a state administrative centre
^[b] Except Muar and Tangkak

Johor is surrounded by Pahang to the north, Melaka and Negeri Sembilan to the northwest, and the Straits of Johor to the south, which separates Johor and the Republic of Singapore. The state also shares a maritime border with the Riau Archipelago from the east and Riau mainland on the west by the South China Sea and the Strait of Malacca respectively, both Indonesian territories. Johor is the only Malaysian state that has a coastline on both the Indian Ocean (via the Strait of Malacca) and Pacific Ocean (via the South China Sea).

Johor is also known by its Arabic honorific, Darul Ta'zim, or "Abode of Dignity", and as Johore in English.

Contents

EtymologyEdit

The name "Johor" originated from Arabic جَوْهَر : jauhar, itself borrowed from Persian گوهر : gauhar, meaning 'precious stone/jewel'.[7][8] Malays tend to name a place after natural objects in great abundance or having visual dominance. Before the name Johor was adopted, the area south of the Muar River to Singapore island was known as Ujong Tanah or 'land's end' in Malay, due to its location at the end of the Malay Peninsula. Coincidentally, Johor is the most southern point of the Asian continental mainland.[9]

HistoryEdit

 
Johor Lama in Kota Tinggi District, the old capital of Johor.

In the early 16th century, the Sultanate of Johor was founded by the Alauddin Riayat Shah II, the son of Mahmud Shah, the last Sultan of Melaka who fled from the invading Portuguese in Melaka. Johor sultanate was one of the two successor states of the Melaka empire. On Malacca's defeat by the Portuguese in 1511, Alauddin Riayat Shah II established a monarchy in Johor, which posed a threat to the Portuguese. The Sultanate of Perak—established by Mahmud Shah's other son, Muzaffar Shah I—was the other successor state of Malacca. During Johor's peak, the whole of Pahang, present day Indonesian territories of the Riau archipelago, and part of Sumatra Island was under Johor's rule.

A series of succession struggles were interspersed with strategic alliances struck with regional clans and foreign powers, which maintained Johor's political and economic hold in the Straits. In competition with the Acehnese of northern Sumatra and the port-kingdom of Melaka under Portuguese rule, Johor engaged in prolonged warfare with their rivals, often striking alliances with friendly Malay states and with the Dutch.[citation needed] In 1641, Johor in co-operation with the Dutch succeeded in capturing Melaka. By 1660, Johor had become a flourishing entrepôt, although weakening and splintering of the empire in the late seventeenth and eighteenth century reduced its sovereignty.[citation needed]

In the 18th century, the Bugis of Sulawesi and the Minangkabau of Sumatra controlled the political powers in the Johor-Riau Empire.[citation needed] However, in the early 19th century, Malay and Bugis rivalry commanded the scene. In 1819, the Johor-Riau Empire was divided up between the British and the Dutch into the mainland Johor, controlled at first by the Sultan of Johor and then later his Temenggong, and the Sultanate of Riau-Lingga, controlled by the Bugis.[citation needed] In 1855, under the terms of a treaty between the British in Singapore and Sultan Ali of Johor, control of the state was formally ceded to Dato' Temenggong Daing Ibrahim, with the exception of the Kesang area (Muar), which was handed over in 1877. Temenggong Ibrahim opened up Bandar Tanjung Puteri (later to become Johor's present-day capital) in south Johor as a major town.[citation needed]

Temenggong Ibrahim was succeeded by his son, Dato' Temenggong Abu Bakar, who later took the title Seri Maharaja Johor by Queen Victoria of England. In 1886, he was formally crowned the Sultan of Johor, thus usurping the original line of Sultans of Johor descended from the Sultanate of Melaka. Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor (1864–1895) implemented a state constitution, developed a British-style administration and constructed the Istana Besar, the official residence of the Sultan. For his achievements, Sultan Abu Bakar is known by the title "Father of Modern Johor".[citation needed] The increased demand for black pepper and gambier in the nineteenth century lead to the opening up of farmlands to the influx of Chinese immigrants, which created Johor's initial economic base.[10][11] The Kangchu system was put in place with the first settlement of Kangkar Tebrau established in 1844.[12] The decline of the Kangchu economy at the end of the 19th century coincided with the opening of the railway line connecting Johor Bahru and the Federated Malay States in 1909 and the emergence of rubber plantations throughout the state.[13] Under the British Resident system, Sultan Ibrahim, Sultan Abu Bakar's successor, was forced to accept a British adviser in 1904. D.G. Campbell was dispatched as the first British adviser to Johor. From the 1910s to the 1940s, Johor emerged as Malaya's top rubber producing state, a position it has held until recently.[citation needed]

During World War II, Johor Bahru became the last city on the Malay peninsula to fall to the Japanese. Allied Forces, Australian, Malayan and Indian forces held out for four days in what was known as the Battle of Gemas,[14] the General Yamashita Tomoyuki had his headquarters on top of Bukit Serene and coordinated the downfall of Singapore.

Johor gave birth to the Malay opposition that derailed the Malayan Union plan. Malays under Dato' Onn Jaafar's leadership formed the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) in Johor on 11 May 1946. In 1948, Johor joined the Federation of Malaya, which gained Independence in 1957.

Population and demographicsEdit

 
Johor Bahru, the capital of Johor.
 
Kota Iskandar, the administrative center of Johor.
 
Muar, the royal town of Johor.

Johor is Malaysia's second-most populous state with the nation's 3rd largest conurbation, the Iskandar Malaysia as of 2015 with a total population of the state at 3,551,000 people.[15] From 1991 to 2000, the state experienced 2.39% average annual population growth, with Johor Bahru District being the highest at 4.59% growth and Segamat District being the lowest at 0.07%.[16] In 2017, the annual population growth for the state was 1.3%.[1] As of 2016, life expectancy is 72.2 years for males and 77.0 years for females.[17]

Johor's geographical position in the southern of Peninsular Malaysia contributed to the state's rapid development as Malaysia's transportation and industrial hub. This creates jobs and attracted migrants from other states as well as overseas, especially from Indonesia, the Philippines, Vietnam, Myanmar, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and China. As of 2015, foreign residents in the state accounted for 7.8% of the population at around 277,200 people.[18]

Sub divisions of Johor

Rank Flag Districts Population (2016)
1   Johor Bahru 1,334,188
2   Batu Pahat 401,902
3   Kluang 288,364
4   Kulai 245,294
5   Muar 239,027
6   Kota Tinggi 193,210
7   Segamat 182,985
8   Pontian 149,938
9   Tangkak 131,890
10   Mersing 69,028

Johor has the second-largest population in Malaysia at 3,230,440 as of 2010,[19] which increased to 3,601,690 in 2016.[3]

Ethnic breakdownEdit

The following is based on Department of Statistics Malaysia 2015 figures.[3]

Ethnic groups in Johor, 2015
Ethnicity Population Percentage
Malay 1,893,100 53.3%
Chinese 1,075,100 30.3%
Indian 230,700 6.5%
Other Bumiputeras 60,900 1.7%
Others 16,900 0.5%
Non-Malaysian 276,900 7.8%

Most of the people in Johor identify themselves as Bangsa Johor (English: Johor nation), which is also highly echoed by the Johor royal family to unite the state residents regardless of their race.[20]

ReligionEdit

Religion in Johor – 2010 Census[21]
religion percent
Islam
58.2%
Buddhism
29.6%
Hinduism
6.6%
Christianity
3.3%
Unknown / None
1.0%
Chinese Ethnic Religion
0.8%
No Religion
0.3%
Others
0.2%
 
Kota Iskandar Mosque in Iskandar Puteri is the second state mosque of Johor.

As of 2010, the population of Johor is 58.2% Muslim, 29.6% Buddhist, 6.6% Hindu, 3.3% Christian, 1.2% follower of other religions or unknown affiliations, 0.8% Taoist or Chinese religion adherent, and 0.3% non-religious.[21]

The state religion of Johor being Islam was one of the stipulations in 1946 put on Malaya by Johor.[22]

Statistics from the 2010 Census indicate that 89.8% of the Chinese population in Johor identify as Buddhists, with significant minorities of adherents identifying as Christians (6.8%), Chinese folk religions (2.1%) and Muslims (0.4%). The majority of the Indian population identify as Hindus (87.9%), with a significant minorities of numbers identifying as Christians (4.05%), Muslims (3.83%), and Buddhists (3.05%). The non-Malay bumiputera community are predominantly Christians (42.3%), with significant minorities identifying as Muslims (25.3%) and Buddhists (13.7%). All Malay bumiputera are Muslims.[23]

LanguageEdit

The Johorean Malay, also known as Johor-Riau Malay and originally spoken in Johor, Riau, Melaka, Selangor and Singapore, has been adopted as the basis for both the Malaysian and Indonesian national languages, Malaysian and Indonesian, respectively. Due to Johor's location at the confluence of trade routes within Maritime Southeast Asia, as well as the former economic might and influence of Melaka and Johor, the dialect spread as the region's lingua franca since the 15th century; hence the adoption of the dialect as the basis for the national languages of Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore. Several related languages are also spoken in the state such as Orang Seletar (spoken along the Straits of Johor as well as in northern Singapore), Orang Kanaq (spoken in small parts of southeastern Johor), Jakun (mostly inland parts of Johor), Temuan (near the border with Pahang and Negeri Sembilan) and Orang Kuala (at the northwest coast of Johor). Terengganu Malay, a distinct variant of Malay are spoken in the district of Mersing near the border with Rompin, Pahang.

In October 2017, Sultan of Johor wife Raja Zarith Sofiah, in her capacity as Royal Patron of the Malaysian English Language Teaching Association, called on more conducive environment for young Malaysian to better master English language.[24][25]

GeographyEdit

 
Panti Forest in Kota Tinggi District.
 
Tanjung Leman Beach in Mersing District.

Johor is the fifth largest state in Malaysia by land area, with a total land area of 19,102 km2 (7,375 sq mi).[1] It is the southernmost state in Peninsular Malaysia, and is located between the 1°20"N and 2°35"N latitudes. The highest point in Johor is Mount Ophir standing at 1,276 meters.

As of 2015, there are 41 forest reserves in the state which spans over a total area of 5,014 km2, covering 26.1% of the state.[26] It also has three Ramsar sites, which are Tanjung Piai, Pulai River and Kukup Island.[27]

Johor has 8 large islands with numerous smaller ones, namely Pulau Aur, Pulau Besar, Pulau Dayang, Pulau Lima, Pulau Pemanggil, Pulau Rawa, Pulau Sibu, Pulau Tengah and Pulau Tinggi.

Johor has a total length of 492 km coastline.[15] The longest beach is Tanjung Leman at a length of 20.8 km which is located in Mersing District. Other major beaches are Air Papan, Batu Layar, Desaru, Lido, Minyak Beku, Penyabong, Punggor, Rambah, Stulang Laut, Tanjung Balau, Teluk Buih, Teluk Endau, Teluk Mahkota, Teluk Punggai, Teluk Ramunia and Tenglu Beach.[16]

Main rivers in Johor are Batu Pahat River, Endau River, Johor River, Kesang River, Mengkibol River, Mersing River, Muar River, Pelentong River, Pulai River, Sarang Buaya River, Sedili Besar River, Segamat River, Segget River, Skudai River and Tebrau River.

ClimateEdit

Johor has a tropical rainforest climate with monsoon rain from November until February blowing from the South China Sea. The average annual rainfall is 1,778 mm with average temperatures ranging between 25.5 °C (78 °F) and 27.8 °C (82 °F). Humidity is between 82 and 86%.[28]

On 19 December 2006, a continuous heavy downpour occurred in Johor, which led to the 2006-2007 Malaysian floods. Many towns such as Muar, Kota Tinggi and Segamat were seriously flooded with water levels as high as 10 feet (3.0 m) above ground level recorded in some areas. 15 lives were lost and many possessions destroyed, and this resulted in huge financial losses in Johor. More than 100,000 victims were evacuated to flood relief centres.[29]

Government and politicsEdit

 
Flag of Johor. The blue color represents the State Government, the red color for warriors defending the state, the white crescent and 5-sided star represent the monarchy and Islam.

MonarchyEdit

Johor is a constitutional monarchy. Johor was the first state in Malaysia to adopt the constitutional monarchy system via Undang-undang Tubuh Negeri Johor (Johor State Constitution) written by Sultan Abu Bakar. The constitutional head of Johor is the Sultan. This hereditary position can only be held by a member of the Johor Royal Family, who is descended from Sultan Abu Bakar. The current Sultan of Johor is Sultan Ibrahim Ibni Almarhum Sultan Iskandar since 23 January 2010.

The main royal palace of Sultan of Johor is the Bukit Serene Palace. The royal palace for Johor Crown Prince is the Istana Pasir Pelangi. Both palaces are located in Johor Bahru. Other palaces in Johor are Grand Palace in Johor Bahru, Tanjong Palace in Muar, Sri Lambak in Kluang and Shooting Box in Segamat.[30]

Johor was the first state and currently the only state in Malaysia that has its own military force called the Royal Johor Military Force or 'Timbalan Setia Negeri'. It is a private army of the Sultan of Johor located at Johor Bahru City.[31]

State governmentEdit

 
Johor Chief Minister's Office

The state government is headed by a Chief Minister. The current Chief Minister is Osman Sapian of Pakatan Harapan. The Chief Minister is assisted by 10 members executive council (exco), whose members are selected from the state assembly members.

The legislative branch of Johor's government is the Johor State Legislative Assembly. The state assembly makes laws in matters regarding the state. Members of the Assembly are elected by citizens every five years by universal suffrage. There are 56 seats in Johor assembly, in which currently the majority (39 seats) are held by Pakatan Harapan after the 2018 general election.

Johor is divided into ten districts, 103 mukims and 16 local governments.[32]

Administrative divisionsEdit

Name Area (km²) Capital Note Local Authorities
 
Districts and local authorities in Johor
Johor Bahru 1,817.8 Johor Bahru The district consists of Johor Bahru City, the district seat of Johor Bahru District and the capital city of Johor and Iskandar Puteri, the administrative center of Johor. Johor Bahru City Council
Iskandar Puteri City Council
Pasir Gudang Municipal Council
Kulai 753 Kulai Kulai district, originally the sub-district of Johor Bahru, was detached in 2008 as Kulaijaya. Later in December 2015, the district was renamed as Kulai district by the Sultan of Johor. Senai International Airport is located in the district. Kulai Municipal Council
Batu Pahat 1,878 Bandar Penggaram (Batu Pahat) Batu Pahat town is the second largest city in Johor. Ayer Hitam which is also known for its ceramic art. Yong Peng and Sri Gading are other major towns in the district. Batu Pahat Municipal Council
Yong Peng District Council
Kluang 2,851 Kluang Kluang town is located in the heart of the state. Simpang Renggam located south of the Kluang also belong to the district. Kluang Municipal Council
Simpang Renggam District Council
Kota Tinggi 3,488 Kota Tinggi Kota Tinggi was once the rowal town of Johor sultanate and the sultanate many relocations also established dozens of royal town including the Johor Lama, Sayong Pinang, etc. in the Johor River area. Kota Tinggi District Council
Pengerang Local Authority
Tangkak 970 Tangkak Tangkak district, originally the sub-district of Muar, was detached as Ledang. Later in December 2015, the district was renamed as Tangkak district by the Sultan of Johor. The district has the highest point in Johor - Gunung Ledang. Tangkak District Council
Mersing 2,838 Mersing Mersing is the main fishing port of Johor, faces the South China Sea and consists of many islands. Mersing District Council
Muar 1,376 Bandar Maharani (Muar) Muar town also known as 'Fragrance Town' (Bandar Maharani), and on February 5, 2012, the Sultan of Johor declared Muar as 'Royal Town'. Muar Municipal Council
Pontian 907 Pontian Kechil The Tanjung Piai in the district is the southernmost point of the Asian continent. Pekan Nanas is also located in the district. Pontian District Council
Segamat 2,851 Segamat Labis and Bekok are the other major town in the district. Segamat Municipal Council
Labis District Council

EconomyEdit

 
Federation of Malaysian Manufacturers (FMM) Johor branch office.
 
Tebrau III Industrial Area in Tebrau, Johor Bahru District.

As of 2017, the GDP of Johor was RM104.4 billion, the third biggest state economy in Malaysia after Selangor and Sarawak. In 2016, the economic growth of Johor was 5.7% and accounted for 9.4% of Malaysia's GDP, with GDP per capita stood at MYR31,952.[33] The median income in the state was MYR5,652 and unemployment rate was 3.6%.[34] The total workforce was 1.639 million people.[35]

In 2015, major sectors contributing to Johor GDP were service (41.0%), manufacturing (30.7%), agriculture (14.9%), construction (5.8%) and mining (0.4%). Based on geographic location, southern Johor focuses on trading and services, western Johor focuses on manufacturing, business and modern farming, eastern Johor focuses on nature, beach and island tourism and central Johor focuses on forest reserves, water catchment and reservoirs and palm oil plantation.[16]

Iskandar Malaysia (also known as Iskandar Development Region and South Johor Economic Region) encompassing Johor Bahru, Kulai, Pasir Gudang and Iskandar Puteri is a major development zone in Johor with an area of 2,215 km² and Pontian (South). Johor Corporation is a state-owned conglomerate company owned by Johor State Government that involves in various business activities in the state and also overseas.

Foreign investmentsEdit

In 2014, the state received MYR7.9 billion worth of FDI, the second highest among all states in Malaysia after Sarawak. Major foreign country investing in Johor were Singapore (MYR6.7 billion), United States (MYR5.4 billion), Japan (MYR4.6 billion), the Netherlands (MYR3.1 billion), China (MYR1.37 billion) and smaller amount came from countries such as Indonesia, South Korea, Germany and India.[36] Major foreign companies with foreign direct investment (FDI) in the state come from the United Kingdom, South Korea, China etc.[34]

AgricultureEdit

 
Palm oil and pineapple plantation in Rengit, Batu Pahat District.

Agriculture-related matters in Johor is governed by the Johor State Department of Agriculture.[37] As of 2015, land area used for agriculture in Johor was 11,555 km2, covering 60.15% of the state.[15]

In 2016, palm oil plantation accounted for 7,456 km2 of land area in Johor, making it the third largest plantation area in Malaysia after Sabah and Sarawak. However, in terms of percentage of palm oil plantation land use with respect to the state area, Johor is the highest in Malaysia at 38.8%.[38] Other agricultural sectors in the state are rubber plantation and produce.[39]

In 2016, Johor was the biggest producer of fruits among all states in Malaysia. Major fruit produce in the state were banana, cempedak, dokong, dragon fruit, duku, durian, guava, jackfruit, langsat, mango, mangosteen, papaya, pineapple, pomelo, pulasan, rambutan, salak, sapodilla, star fruit, sweet orange and watermelon. The total fruit plantation area in the state was 414 km2 with total harvesting area of 305 km2. The state produced a total of 532,249 tons of fruit in that year. Segamat District had the largest major fruit plantation and harvesting area in Johor with a total area of 111 km2 and 66 km2 respectively and Kluang District had the biggest quantity of fruits production with a total amount of 163,714 tons. Other fruit produces in the state are breadfruit, cat's eye, honey dew, horse mango, kuini, longan, passion fruit, rock melon, soursop, Tahitian apple, water rose apple.[40]

In 2016, Johor was the second biggest producer of vegetables among all states in Malaysia after Pahang. Major vegetable produce in the state were angled loofah, bitter gourd, bottle gourd, brinjal, celery, chili, Chinese chives, Chinese kale, cucumber, dwarf bitter gourd, four-angled bean, french bean, hot chili, lady's finger, leaf mustard, lettuce, long bean, pumpkin, snake gourd, spinach, spring onion, sweet shoot, tomato, water spinach and wax ground. The total vegetable plantation area in the state was 154 km2 with total harvesting area of 143 km2. The state produced a total of 229,180 tons of fruit in that year with a total production value of MYR617 million. Kluang District had the largest vegetable plantation and harvesting area in Johor with a total area of 36 km2 and the biggest quantity of vegetable production with a total amount of 60,102 tons. Other vegetable produces in the state are baby corn, bamboo shoot, maman, meranti, pucuk keledek, remayong, taugeh and vegetable fern.[40]

Other plantation in the state are crops, herbs, spices and industrial plants.[40]

CommerceEdit

 
Commercial buildings in Labis, Segamat District.

As of 2010, total land used for commercial buildings was 21.53 km2 with Johor Bahru District accounted for the largest share at 12.99 km2 or 63.5% of the total land.[16] Major shopping malls in the state are Johor Bahru City Square, Komtar JBCC, Johor Premium Outlets, Batu Pahat Mall, KSL City etc.[41]

ManufacturingEdit

In 2013-2017, there was a total amount of MYR114.9 billion worth of investment in the manufacturing sectors in the state.[42] In 2017, MYR16.8billion investment came from domestic direct investment and MYR5.1billion came from foreign direct investment. Australia, China and the United States were the top three foreign investors in the manufacturing sectors.[43] The total industrial area in the state as of 2015 was 144 km2 or 0.75% of the total land in Johor.[15] As of 2000, the largest industries in Johor were metal fabrication and machinery industries, accounting for 27.6% of all manufacturing industries in the state, followed by chemical products, petroleum and rubber industries (20.1%) and wooden products and furniture (14.1%).[16]

EducationEdit

Johor has several institutions of higher learning. It has three public universities, namely Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) situated in Skudai, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) in Parit Raja, Universiti Teknologi MARA Johor (UiTM) in Jementah and UiTM City Campus in Johor Bahru and several polytechnics as an example Politeknik Ibrahim Sultan and Politeknik Mersing Johor. Johor also has two teaching colleges called IPG Kampus Temenggong Ibrahim in Johor Bahru and IPG Kampus Tun Hussien Onn in Batu Pahat. It has one non-profit community college called Southern University College situated in Skudai.[44]

Johor Education Foundation (Yayasan Pelajaran Johor) also establish tertiary education opportunity in Johor State. It offers studies from various field such as engineering, business, economics & hospitality for all Malaysian as well as qualified students from anywhere around the world. Currently, YPJ Education group is managing a 100-acre education complex in Kota Tinggi District as well as technical colleges in Ledang, Batu Pahat, Kluang and Kota Tinggi District.

The English College Johore Bahru, also known as Maktab Sultan Abu Bakar, abbreviated as English College, EC, MSAB, The College, and sometimes dubbed "The Pride of Johore", is among one of the premier historic schools in Malaysia.

As of 30 June 2008, there are 243 secondary schools in Johor educating 277,059 students.[45] The total number of teachers in Johor at that time was 18,212, which provided a teacher-student ratio of 15.21. The EduCity is an integrated learning hub located in Iskandar Puteri in which it houses seven higher education institutions in a more than 120 hectares of area.[46]

Public universitiesEdit

Official Name in Malay Name in English Acronym Location
Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia Tun Hussein Onn University of Malaysia UTHM Parit Raja
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia University of Technology, Malaysia UTM Skudai
Universiti Teknologi MARA MARA Technology University UiTM Segamat and Pasir Gudang

Private universities and collegesEdit

Official Name in Malay Name in English Acronym Website Location
Kolej Olympia Olympia College [2] Johor Bahru
Kolej Universiti Southern Southern University College SUC [3] Skudai
Universiti Kuala Lumpur Kuala Lumpur University UniKL [4] Masai
Institut Sains & Teknologi Darul Takzim University Affiliated College INSTEDT [5] Kota Tinggi
Politeknik Ibrahim Sultan Ibrahim Sultan Polytechnic PIS [6] Johor Bahru
Maktab Sultan Abu Bakar English College Johore Bahru EC [7] Johor Bahru
Institut Teknologi Perindustrian YPJ Institute of Industrial Technology YPJ [8] Johor Bahru
Kolej Aman Aman College [9] Batu Pahat
Kolej I-Systems I-Systems College INFORMATICS [10] Johor Bahru
Kolej Yayasan Pelajaran Johor YPJ College KYPJ [11] Kota Tinggi
Kolej Internasional Crescendo Crescendo International College CRESC [12] Ulu Tiram
Kolej Metropoint Metropoint College [13] Johor Bahru
Kolej Reliance Reliance College http://www.reliance.edu.my/ Johor Bahru
Kolej SAL SAL Group of Colleges SAL [14] Johor Bahru
Kolej Sunway Johor Bahru Sunway College Johor Bahru SUNWAY [15] Johor Bahru
Kolej Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman Tunku Abdul Rahman University College TARC [16] Labis
Universiti Perubatan Antarabangsa International Medical University IMU [17] Batu Pahat
Kolej Universiti Sains Kesihatan Masterskill Masterskill University College of Health Sciences MUCH [18] Masai
Institut Latihan Perindustrian (ILP) Pasir Gudang Pasir Gudang Industrial Training Institute ILPPG [19] Pasir Gudang
Universiti Perubatan Newcastle Malaysia Newcastle University Medicine Malaysia NUMM [20] Iskandar Puteri
Universiti Southampton Kampus Malaysia University of Southampton Malaysia Campus USMC [21] Iskandar Puteri
Universiti Raffles Iskandar Raffles University Iskandar, Malaysia RUI [22] Johor Bahru

LibrariesEdit

 
Johor Public Library

As of 2015, there are 176 public libraries in Johor with free membership fee throughout the state.[16][47] The main library of the state is the Johor Public Library in Johor Bahru which also houses the headquarters of Johor Public Library Corporation. The library has branches in every district of the state and in many major villages.[48][49]

InfrastructuresEdit

ElectricityEdit

Currently, the total installed capacity of electricity generation for Johor is 4,268 MW. The total load in 2015 was 2,765 MW.[16] Power stations in Johor are Pasir Gudang Power Station, Sultan Iskandar Power Station and Tanjung Bin Power Station.

WaterEdit

Water supply-related matters in the state is regulated by the Water Regulatory Bodies of Johor (Malay: Badan Kawal Selia Air Negeri Johor).[50] In 2015, the total daily water usage for Johor was 4.35 billion liters.[16] In total, there are 11 reservoirs for water supply in the state, which are Congok, Gunung Ledang, Gunung Pulai 1, Gunung Pulai 2, Gunung Pulai 3, Juaseh, Layang Lower, Layang Upper, Lebam, Linggiu and Pontian Kechil.[51]

Waste managementEdit

In 2015, the total land allocated for waste management in Johor from municipal solid waste, business waste and industrial waste was 2,019 hectares.[16]

HealthcareEdit

 
Sultanah Fatimah Specialist Hospital in Muar Town.

There are public hospitals and private hospitals in Johor. As of 2015, there are 12 public hospitals, which are Sultanah Aminah Hospital, Sultanah Fatimah Hospital, Sultanah Nora Ismail Hospital, Enche' Besar Hajjah Khalsom Hospital, Segamat Hospital, Pontian Hospital, Kota Tinggi Hospital, Mersing Hospital, Tangkak Hospital, Temenggung Seri Maharaja Tun Ibrahim Hospital, Permai Hospital and Sultan Ismail Hospital.

Private hospitals in the state are Penawar Hospital, Johor Specialist Hospital, Regency Specialist Hospital, Pantai Hospital Batu Pahat, Putra Specialist Hospital Batu Pahat, KPJ Specialist Hospital Muar, Abdul Samad Specialist Hospital, Columbia Asia, Gleneagles Medini Hospital and KPJ Specialist Hospital Pasir Gudang.

TransportationEdit

AirportsEdit

Johor has one international airport, the Senai International Airport in Kulai District. It was opened on 6 June 1974 and has been expanded several times since. Currently, it has a 5-million passenger capacity, with a parallel taxiway under construction. The airport is a regional hub of AirAsia. Malaysia Airlines and Firefly also operate flights from Senai International Airport to some local destinations.

It also houses the Kluang Airport, Mersing Airport and Segamat Airstrip in Kluang District, Mersing District and Segamat District respectively.

Ports and harboursEdit

Johor has three ports, the Johor Port, the Port of Tanjung Pelepas and the Tanjung Langsat Port. Ferry harbours and jetties in the state are Bandar Maharani Bandar DiRaja Ferry Terminal, Johor Lama Village Jetty, Kukup International Ferry Terminal, Mersing Johor Sea Department Passenger Jetty, Minyak Beku Ferry Terminal, Puteri Harbour International Ferry Terminal, Tanjung Emas Jetty and Tanjung Leman Tunjuk Laut Jetty Terminal.

RoadsEdit

Johor is linked to the other states and federal territories in western coast of Peninsular Malaysia via the North–South Expressway and in eastern coast of the peninsular via the Malaysia Federal Route 3.

Public bus serviceEdit

Paid public buses in Johor connect Larkin Sentral and Johor Bahru Sentral Bus Terminals in Johor Bahru City to other towns in Johor Bahru District as well as towns in Batu Pahat District, Kota Tinggi District, Kulai District and Pontian District.[52] Free public buses for locals named Muafakat Bus operate in Johor Bahru City, Iskandar Puteri, Pasir Gudang and Kulai Town with 54 routes in total.[53] TransJohor buses serve destinations between districts in the state with 7 routes in total.[54]

Links to SingaporeEdit

Johor is linked to Singapore via two road connections over the Straits of Johor: the Johor–Singapore Causeway and the Malaysia–Singapore Second Link. Opened in 1923, the Johor–Singapore Causeway spans over a length of around 1 km linking Johor Bahru City and Woodlands in Singapore. It also carries a railway line, linking Singapore, Peninsular Malaysia and Thailand. Opened in 1998, the Malaysia–Singapore Second Link spans over a length of around 2 km linking Tanjung Kupang and Tuas in Singapore.

MediaEdit

TelevisionEdit

Television in Johor consists of seven free-to-air stations. The TV stations are transmitted from Mount Ophir (for North Johor area), Mount Pulai (for Central and South Johor area) and Bukit Tinggi (for East Johor; TV1 and TV2 only). Three of the seven free-to-air stations are managed by Radio Televisyen Malaysia, while the four commercial stations are owned by Media Prima. Some Singapore TV channels transmitted from Bukit Batok can be received in central and southern Johor.

Free-to-air
Cable television
Satellite television

RadioEdit

Radio stations in Johor are available in the FM frequency and transmitted from Mount Ledang (for North Johor area), Mount Pulai (for Central and South Johor area) and Bukit Tinggi (for East Johor). Some Singapore radio stations can be received in central and southern Johor.

NewspapersEdit

The special newspaper for Iskandar Malaysia of Johor is The Iskandarian. Other newspapers in Johor are Berita Harian, Harian Metro, Keadilan Daily, Kosmo!, Sinar Harian and Utusan Malaysia in Malay; The Malay Mail, New Straits Times, The Star and The Sun in English; China Press, Nanyang Siang Pau and Sin Chew Daily in Chinese; Makkal Osai, Malaysia Nanban, Tamil Nesan in Tamil; and Harakah (in Malay and English).

TourismEdit

In 2016, the total tourist arrivals in the state was 10 million visitors, with 7.4 million visitors from Malaysia and 2.6 million visitors from outside Malaysia.[55]

Theme parksEdit

Theme parks and amusement parks in the state are Austin Heights Water and Adventure Park, Danga Bay, Legoland Malaysia Resort, Mount Lambak Water Park, Tropical Village and Wet World Batu Pahat Water Park.

Public squaresEdit

Public squares in the state are Air Papan Square, Dato' Jalok Square, Gemilang Square, Johor Bahru City Square, Johor Jaya Square, Kluang Lake Square, Kota Tinggi Town Square, Labis Square, Maharini Square, Mahkota Square, Penggaram Square, Pontian Royal Square, Segamat Square and Serene Square.

Museums and galleriesEdit

Museums and galleries in the state are Bugis Museum, Bukit Kepong Emergency Gallery, Dato' Onn Gallery, Ehhe Gallery, Figure Museum, Glulam Gallery, Johor Art Gallery, Johor Bahru Chinese Heritage Museum, Kite Museum, KTM Museum, Kwong Siew Heritage Gallery, Kota Johor Lama Museum, Kota Tinggi Museum, Mersing Museum, Mini Hakka Museum, Pineapple Museum, Tanjung Balau Fishermen Museum and Tan Sri Datuk Chang Joo Chiang Museum and Art Gallery.

NatureEdit

Johor houses many national parks, mountains, jungles and waterfalls. Johor currently has five national parks, with a combined area of more than 700 km² and several smaller recreational forest. Almost all recreational parks are based around a mountain. Johor also has the third-largest mangrove forest reserve in Peninsular Malaysia (167 km²). Notable national parks are Endau-Rompin National Park and Tanjung Piai National Park. Notable mountains are Mount Banang, Mount Belumut, Mount Lambak, Mount Ma'okil, Mount Ophir and Mount Pulai. Famous waterfall in the state is Kota Tinggi Waterfalls. Zoos in Johor are Ostrich Wonderland and Johor Zoo.

Islands and beachesEdit

Notable tourist islands in the state are Aur Island, Besar Island, Kukup Island, Pemanggil Island, Rawa Island, Sibu Island and Tinggi Island. Major beach resort is Desaru.

Monuments and mausoleumsEdit

Notable monuments and mausoleums in the state are Mahmoodiah Royal Mausoleum and Sultan Mahmud Mangkat Di Julang Mausoleum.

Places of worshipsEdit

Notable places of worships in the state are Arulmigu Sri Rajakaliamman Glass Temple, Church of the Immaculate Conception, Johor Bahru Old Chinese Temple, Kota Iskandar Mosque, Sultan Abu Bakar State Mosque, Sultan Ibrahim Jamek Mosque and Sultan Iskandar Mosque. This also includes notable building such as Fortune Dragon.

Shopping mallsEdit

Notable shopping malls in the state are 1 Segamat, ÆON Bukit Indah, ÆON Permas Jaya, ÆON Tebrau City, Angsana Johor Bahru Mall, Batu Pahat Mall, Danga City Mall, Johor Bahru City Square, Johor Premium Outlets, Komtar JBCC, Kluang Mall, KSL City, Kulai Centre Point, Mall of Medini, Perling Mall, Plaza Kota Tinggi, Plaza Pelangi, Square One Shopping Mall, The Summit Batu Pahat, Sutera Mall, Tasek Central, Today's Mall and U Mall.

CultureEdit

 
Malay Cultural Village

The culture of Johor is influenced by visitors and traders throughout history. A major influence was the Bugis – who first set foot in Malaysia in Johor before continuing on to Melaka, Linggi, Selangor, Pahang and TerengganuJavanese and the Arabs. They had a powerful effect on the politics of Johor, Pahang, Terengganu and Selangor. The strong Arab influence is apparent in art performances like Zapin and Hamdolok, musical instruments like gambus.[56] Other visible legacies in Johor Bahru are the Arabic names of places such as Wadi Hana and Wadi Hassan in areas populated by the Arab community from Hadhramaut in the southeast of Yemen. Wadi means valley in Arabic.

ClothingEdit

  • Cekak Musang and Teluk Belanga are types of collar design for the male garment 'baju melayu'. It is said that Teluk Belanga was designed by Sultan Abu Bakar in 1866 to commemorate the shift of Johor's capital from Teluk Belanga to Johor Bahru. The Teluk Belanga design is a simple hemmed round collar with a stiff stitching called 'tulang belut' or 'eel's spine', with a loop at the end to fit a 'kancing'. This collar design creates an exposed neck in contrast to the neck-covering Cekak Musang design that is a raised stiff collar of about 1–2 cm with an opening down to the chest. The collar ends have matching holes to fit buttons.[57]
  • Kurung Johor
  • Kurung Riau
  • Belah kebaya panjang

SongsEdit

Tanjung Puteri is the song most commonly associated with Johor.

Tanjung Puteri

Tajuk Johor Tanjung Puteri

Selat Tebrau airnya biru

Di Pantai Lido tepian mandi

Sepanjang masa di hari minggu

Atas bukit Tanjung Puteri

Taman hiburan indah berseri

Pemandangan menawan hati

Jalan tambak hubungan negeri

(chorus)

Tanjung Sekijang nun di kuala

Tempat nelayan mengail gelama

Istana Hinggap di Kuala Danga

Pantai berkelah keluarga diRaja

Dari Tebrau orang berakit

Singgah Setulang membeli kopi

Pusara si Bongkok di lereng bukit

Di tepi pantai Tanjung Puteri

Folk dances and musicEdit

Zapin danceEdit

Zapin is a dance form popular in Malaysia, especially in the state of Johor. It is believed to have been introduced by Muslim missionaries from the Middle East in the 14th century. In the old days, only males were allowed to perform it, but it now includes female dancers. It was once performed exclusively for religious ceremonies, but has become a traditional entertainment. The dancers usually perform in pairs, accompanied by a traditional music ensemble that typically consists of the gambus, accordion, violin, marwas (bongos), rebana (drum), and dok. There are various types of zapin—including zapin melayu, zapin pekajang, zapin tenglu, zapin pulau, zapin parit mastar, and zapin lenga.

Kuda KepangEdit

Kuda kepang is a dance or game performed by Johoreans, especially of Javanese descent. Kuda kepang is a legless horse-shaped puppet that is straddled by the performers. Usually, a troupe of performers consists of 10 to 15 people. It is performed at wedding ceremonies and cultural celebrations. There are several possible origins of kuda kepang. It is said to derive from the struggles of Wali Songo, a group of nine Islamic preachers in Java. Others think it originated from the movement of horses commanded by Ali, the fourth Muslim Caliph. There are several dance rhythms or patterns: the sola, Sselendang, pak tani, pucuk rebung, perjuangan, and mempertahankan diri. The bobbing movement of the performers and their horse puppet is called lenggang kiprah.

The musical instruments used in kuda kepang performance are angklong, gendang, gong, kinong, jidor, soron kecil and bonang.

LegendsEdit

Legend of BadangEdit

This is a story of Badang, a slave who gained super human strength by eating the vomit of a river spirit. He used this to win his freedom. Contrary to popular belief, Badang was born in Sayong Pinang, Johor. Upon hearing his strength, he was summoned by the Seri Rama Wira Kerma of Temasik where he displayed his skills. Challengers were sent by foreign kingdoms to defeat him. Among them were King of Kalinga I from India who sent Nadi Bijaya Pikrama, a fierce wrestler, and the noblemen of Perlak who sent Benderang. Badang emerged victorious from both fights and eventually stayed in Temasik until his death.

Legend of Malim DemanEdit

According to legend, Malim Deman was a king in Segamat who was in love with Princess Santan Bertapis. The princess was kidnapped by a spirit and Malim Deman swore that as long as the princess is not returned, the Segamat area shall experience floods for all eternity. However, with modern town planning and irrigation, flooding is now a rare occurrence in Segamat.

Legend of Gunung LedangEdit

Awang's spear returned to DayangEdit

Lembing Awang Pulang ke Dayang (Awang's spear Returned to Dayang) is an incident that occurred in Parit Raja, Muar.

It occurred in 1776 when a man called Awang returned to Padang (now known as Parit Raja, Muar) after more than 3 years abroad to marry his fiancée Dayang. Upon his return, he found out that another man called Bachok at Pa'achok had told Dayang of Awang's death and she was to be married to him the next day. Awang showed up at the wedding and using a twin spear given by Raja Bugis, he speared Bachok in the stomach. Bachok, fatally injured, grabbed the spear in his stomach and speared his best man. The man then speared the next man he saw and this was repeated until the 99th person was speared. It was Dayang's father who was protecting Dayang. He did not continue the repeated spearing and died. Awang ran away to Endau and Dayang did not marry another until she died.

Black Tongue WarriorEdit

Panglima Lidah Hitam (the Black Tongue Warrior) is a legendary warrior in Johor state.

HamdolokEdit

Hamdolok originated from the exposure of Middle Eastern culture introduced by Arabs in Johor. It is a traditional theatre performed during weddings and festivals. It is a blend of artistic characters of both the Middle East and local Malay communities. Instruments used include the gambus, tambourine, maracas and conga drums. It was also inspired by the Bedouin celebrating the birth of Islamic prophet Muhammad playing musical instruments and reciting poetry.

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BibliographyEdit

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External linksEdit