The Peranakans(/pəˈrɑːnɑːkɑːn/ or /pəˈrɑːnəkʌn/) are an ethnic group defined by their genealogical descent from the first waves of Hoklo settlers in the Malay Peninsula and Indonesian Archipelago. Peranakan culture, especially in the dominant Peranakan centres of Malacca, Singapore, Penang and Medan is characterized by its unique hybridization of ancient Chinese culture with the local cultures of the Nusantara region, the result of a centuries-long history of transculturation and interracial marriage.
|Regions with significant populations|
|Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore,|
|Baba Malay and other Varieties of Malay, Penang Hokkien and other varieties of Chinese, Indonesian, Javanese, Betawi, Southern Thai|
|Mahayana Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, Taoism, Sunni Islam|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Chinese diaspora, Benteng Chinese, Bangka Island Peranakan Chinese, Malaysian Chinese, Thai Chinese, Chinese Singaporean, Chinese Indonesians|
Immigrants from the southern provinces of China arrived in significant numbers in the Nusantara region between the 15th and 17th centuries, taking abode in the Malay Peninsula (where their descendants in Malacca, Singapore, and Penang are referred to as Baba-Nyonya); the Indonesian Archipelago (where their descendants are referred to as Kiau-Seng); and southern Thailand, primarily in Phuket and Ranong. Intermarriage between these Chinese settlers and their Malay, Thai, Javanese, or other predecessors in the region contributed to the emergence of a distinctive hybrid culture and ostensible phenotypic differences. The Peranakans are considered a mixed-race or multiracial community, with the caveat that individual family histories vary widely and likewise self-identification with multiracialism (as opposed to Chineseness) varies widely. The Malay/Indonesian phrase "orang Cina bukan Cina" ("a not-Chinese Chinese person") encapsulates the complex relationship between Peranakan identity and Chinese identity. The particularities of genealogy and the unique syncretic culture are the main features that distinguish the Peranakan from descendants of later waves of Chinese immigrants to the region. The Peranakans are also sometimes referred to as the Straits Chinese or Straits-born Chinese, though these terms are not interchangeable.
The word Peranakan is a grammatical inflection of the Malay and Indonesian word anak, meaning child or offspring. With the addition of the prefix per- and the suffix -an to the root anak, the modified word peranakan has a variety of meanings. Among other things, it can mean womb, or it can be used as a designator of genealogical descent, connoting ancestry or lineage, including great-grandparents or more-distant ancestors. On its own, when used in common parlance, the word "peranakan" doesn't denote a specific ethnicity of descent unless followed by a subsequent qualifying noun. For example Peranakan Tionghoa/Cina may simply mean "Chinese descendants"; likewise Jawi Peranakan can mean "Arab descendants", or Peranakan Belanda "Dutch descendants".
However, in a semantic shift, the word peranakan has come to be used as a "metaphorical" adjective that has the meaning of "locally born but non-indigenous". In Indonesian, it can denote "hybrid" or "crossbred". Thus the term "Peranakan Cina" or "Peranakan Tionghoa" can have the literal or archaic meaning of "Chinese womb" or "Chinese descendants" or "Chinese ancestry" or "descended from the Chinese"—but more latterly has come to mean "locally born but non-indigenous Chinese" or even "half-caste Chinese". The semantic shift is presumed to have arisen from the thorough hybridization or assimilation of the earliest Chinese or other non-indigenous settlers in the Malay Archipelago such that their ethnic heritage needed to be specified whenever referring to them, either to avoid confusion or to emphasise difference. The designator peranakan—in its original sense simply connoting "descendant of X ethnicity", or "the wombs of X"—emerged as the name for entire ethnic groups that were "locally born but non-indigenous" or perceived to be "hybrid" and "crossbred", and, in time, the latter meaning has come to predominate. It should also be noted that the broadness of the semantic range of peranakan means that it can have significantly different connotations in different parts of the Nusantara region and across different dialects or variants of the Malay and Indonesian languages.
The word Peranakan, which can have very broad and labile meanings in Malay and Indonesian and, when used in common parlance, is simply an indicator of heritage or descent, may also be used to refer to other ethnic groups in the same region. Owing to the broad meaning of the term 'peranakan', the term is also encountered when referring to other communities in the region with similar histories of immigration and assimilation. For example, the Chitty may accurately refer to themselves as 'Indian Hindu Peranakans', meaning "of Indian Hindu descent" or "locally born but non-indigenous Indian Hindu". Likewise the Kristang may accurately refer to themselves as 'Eurasian Peranakans'. The name of the Jawi Pekan people is derived from 'Peranakan', Jawi being the Javanised Arabic script, and Pekan being a colloquial contraction of Peranakan.
The prominence of Peranakan Chinese culture, however, has led to the common elision whereby 'Peranakan' may simply be taken to refer to the Peranakan Chinese, i.e. the culturally unique descendants of the earliest Chinese settlers in the Malay Archipelago, as opposed to the other smaller groups that also justifiably call themselves 'peranakan'. For some Peranakans of Chinese descent, calling oneself "Peranakan" without the qualifier "Chinese" can be a way of asserting an ethnic identity distinct from and independent of Chineseness (though such a use of "Peranakan" as a single-word ethnonym may clash with the desire of other groups of non-Chinese descent to equally call themselves "Peranakan").
The term Straits Chinese or Straits-born Chinese is sometimes used interchangeably with 'Peranakan Chinese'. 'Straits Chinese' emerged, following the British colonization of parts of the Malay Peninsula, as an Anglophone label for people of Chinese descent living in the British-governed Straits Settlements located on the Straits of Malacca. However, given that 'Straits Chinese' is a geographical designator specific to the former British colonies in the region, whereas 'Peranakan Chinese' is a broader genealogical designator covering all parts of the Nusantara region where Chinese people settled (including areas colonized by the Dutch, who would not have used the word 'Straits'), the two terms cannot be said to fully overlap or be interchangeable. Someone who is said to be 'Straits Chinese' in British colonial documents might, for example, be non-Peranakan, i.e. a person who arrived in the Nusantara region during much later periods of Chinese migration. Conversely, a Dutch-speaking Peranakan Chinese person in Indonesia would be unlikely to refer to themselves using the English term 'Straits Chinese'. Later wave of immigrants to South East Asian are generally referred to using larger umbrella terms such as Malaysian Chinese, Chinese Singaporean, Chinese Indonesian or Tionghoa, or Thai Chinese.
The Peranakan Chinese commonly refer to themselves as Baba-Nyonya. The term Baba is an honorific for Straits Chinese men. It originated as a Hindustani (originally Persian) loan-word borrowed by Malay speakers as a term of affection for one's grandparents, and became part of the common vernacular. In Penang Hokkien, it is pronounced bā-bā (in Pe̍h-ōe-jī), and sometimes written with the phonetic loan characters 峇峇. Female Straits-Chinese descendants were either called or styled themselves Nyonyas. Nyonya (also spelled nyonyah or nonya) is a Malay and Indonesian honorific used to refer to a foreign married lady. It is a loan word, borrowed from the old Portuguese word for lady donha (compare, for instance, Macanese creole nhonha spoken on Macau, which was a Portuguese colony for 464 years). Because Malays at that time had a tendency to address all foreign women (and perhaps those who appeared foreign) as nyonya, they used that term for Straits-Chinese women as well. It gradually became more exclusively associated with them. In Penang Hokkien, it is pronounced nō͘-niâ (in Pe̍h-ōe-jī), and sometimes written with the phonetic loan characters 娘惹.
Straits-Chinese were defined as those born or living in the Straits Settlements: a British colonial construct of Penang, Malacca and Singapore constituted in 1826. Straits Chinese were not considered Baba Nyonya unless they displayed certain Sino-Malay syncretic attributes.[clarification needed]
Many Peranakans identify as Holoh (Hokkien) despite being of numerous origins, such as the descendants of adopted local Malaysian aborigines and Chinese-influenced Arab and Persian merchants from Quanzhou who intermarried with local Malaysians. A sizeable number are of Teochew or Hakka descent, including a small minority of Cantonese.
Baba Nyonya are a subgroup within Chinese communities. Peranakan families occasionally imported brides from China and sent their daughters to China to find husbands.
There are parallels between the Peranakan Chinese and the Cambodian Hokkien, who are descendants of Hoklo Chinese. Likewise the Pashu of Myanmar, a Burmese word for the Peranakan or Straits Chinese who have settled in Myanmar. They maintained their culture partially despite their native language gradually disappearing a few generations after settlement.
Popular accounts of the Peranakan Chinese in Malacca, Singapore, and Penang sometimes state exclusive descent from the royal retinue of a purported Ming Dynasty princess named Hang Li Po or Hong Li-Po—mentioned in the Malay Annals as having made a marriage of alliance with the Sultan of Malacca in the fifteenth century—but the historical evidence for this (likely romanticized) claim is unreliable.
The language of the Peranakans, Baba Malay (Bahasa Melayu Baba) or Peranakan Malay, is a creole language related to the Malay language (Bahasa Melayu), which contains many Hokkien words. It is a dying language, and its contemporary use is mainly limited to members of the older generation. It is common for the Peranakan of the older generation (particularly among women) to latah in Peranakan Malay when experiencing unanticipated shock.
The Peranakan Malay spoken by the Malaccan Peranakans community is strongly based on the Malay language as most of them can only speak little to none of the language of their Chinese forebears. Whereas in the east coast of Peninsula Malaysia, the Peranakans are known to not only speak a Hokkien version of their own but also Thai and Kelantanese Malay dialect in Kelantan, and Terengganu Malay dialect in Terengganu respectively. Unlike the rest of the Peranakans in Malaysia, Penang Peranakans in comparison are much heavily influenced by a variant of Hokkien dialect known locally as Penang Hokkien.
In Indonesia, the Peranakan language is mainly based on Indonesian and Javanese, which is mixed with elements of Chinese, mostly Hokkien dialect. Speakers of the Peranakan language can be found scattered along the northern coastline area throughout West Java, Central Java and East Java, and also in Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Young Peranakans can still speak this creole language, although its use is limited to informal occasions.
The first Chinese immigrants to settle in the Malay Archipelago arrived from Guangdong and Fujian provinces in the 10th century C.E. They were joined by much larger numbers of the Chinese in the 15th through 17th centuries, following on the heels of the Ming emperor's reopening of Chinese-Malay trade relations in the 15th century.
In the 15th century, some small city-states of the Malay Peninsula often paid tribute to various kingdoms such as those of China and Siam. Close relations with China were established in the early 15th century during the reign of Parameswara when Admiral Zheng He (Cheng Ho), a Muslim Chinese, visited Malacca and Java during his expedition (1405–1433). According to a legend in 1459 CE, the Emperor of China sent a princess, Hang Li Po, to the Sultan of Malacca as a token of appreciation for his tribute. The nobles (500 sons of ministers) and servants who accompanied the princess initially settled in Bukit Cina and eventually grew into a class of Straits-born Chinese known as the Peranakans.
Due to economic hardships in mainland China, waves of immigrants from China settled in Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore. Some of them embraced the local customs, while still retaining some degree of their ancestral culture; they are known as the Peranakans. Peranakans normally have a certain degree of indigenous blood, which can be attributed to the fact that during imperial China, most immigrants were men who married the local women. Peranakans at Tangerang, Indonesia, held such a high degree of indigenous blood that they are almost physically indistinguishable from the local population. Peranakans in Indonesia can vary between very fair to copper tan in colour.
Chinese men in Melaka fathered children with Javanese, Batak and Balinese slave women. Their descendants moved to Penang and Singapore during British rule. Chinese men in colonial southeast Asia also obtained slave wives from Nias. Chinese men in Singapore and Penang were supplied with slave wives of Bugis, Batak, and Balinese origin.:71 The British tolerated the importation of slave wives since they improved the standard of living for the slaves and provided contentment to the male population.:72 The usage of slave women or house maids as wives by the Chinese was widespread.
It cannot be denied, however, that the existence of slavery in this quarter, in former years, was of immense advantage in procuring a female population for Pinang. From Assaban alone, there used to be sometimes 300 slaves, principally females, exported to Malacca and Pinang in a year. The women get comfortably settled as the wives of opulent Chinese merchants, and live in the greatest comfort. Their families attach these men to the soil; and many never think of returning to their native country. The female population of Pinang is still far from being upon a par with the male; and the abolition therefore of slavery, has been a vast sacrifice to philanthropy and humanity. As the condition of the slaves who were brought to the British settlements, was materially improved, and as they contributed so much to the happiness of the male population, and the general prosperity of the settlement, I am disposed to think (although I detest the principles of slavery as much as any man), that the continuance of the system here could not, under the benevolent regulations which were in force to prevent abuse, have been productive of much evil. The sort of slavery indeed which existed in the British settlements in this quarter, had nothing but the name against it; for the condition of the slaves who were brought from the adjoining countries, was always ameliorated by the change; they were well fed and clothed; the women became wives of respectable Chinese; and the men who were in the least industrious, easily emancipated themselves, and many became wealthy. Severity by masters was punished; and, in short, I do not know any race of people who were, and had every reason to be, so happy and contented as the slaves formerly, and debtors as they are now called, who came from the east coast of Sumatra and other places.
John Anderson – Agent to the Government of Prince of Wales Island
Peranakans themselves later on migrated between Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore, which resulted in a high degree of cultural similarity between Peranakans in those countries. Economic / educational reasons normally propel the migration between of Peranakans between the Nusantara region (Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore), their creole language is very close to the indigenous languages of those countries, which makes adaptations a lot easier. In Indonesia, a large population of Peranakans can be found in Tangerang, West Java.
People of Chinese ancestry in Phuket, Thailand make up a significant population, many of whom having descended from tin miners who migrated to the island during the 19th century. The Peranakans there are known as "Phuket Babas" in the local tongue, constitute a fair share of members Chinese community, particularly among those who have family ties with the Peranakans of Penang and Malacca.
For political reasons Peranakans and other Nusantara Chinese are grouped as one racial group, Chinese, with Chinese in Singapore and Malaysia becoming more adoptive of mainland Chinese culture, and Chinese in Indonesia becoming more diluted in their Chinese culture. Such things can be attributed to the policies of Bumiputera and Chinese-National Schools (Malaysia), mother tongue policy (Singapore) and the ban of Chinese culture during the Soeharto era in Indonesia.
Chinese who married local Javanese women and converted to Islam created a distinct Chinese Muslim Peranakan community in Java. Chinese rarely had to convert to Islam to marry Javanese abangan women but a significant amount of their offspring did, and Batavian Muslims absorbed the Chinese Muslim community which was descended from converts. Adoption of Islam back then was a marker of peranakan status which it no longer means. The Semaran Adipati and the Jayaningrat families were of Chinese origin.
Peranakans were held in high regard by Malays. Some Malays in the past may have taken the word "Baba", referring to Chinese males, and put it into their name, when this used to be the case. This is not followed by the younger generation, and the current Chinese Malaysians do not have the same status or respect as Peranakans used to have.
In Penang, Thai women replaced Nias slave women and Batak slave women as wives of Chinese men after the 1830s when slavery was abolished.
The Peranakan retained most of their ethnic and religious origins (such as ancestor worship), but assimilated the language and culture of the Malays. The Nyonya's clothing, Baju Panjang (Long Dress) was adapted from the native Malay's Baju Kurung. It is worn with a batik sarong (batik wrap-around skirt) and 3 kerosang (brooches). Peranakan beaded slippers called Kasot Manek were hand-made with much skill and patience: strung, beaded and sewn onto canvas with tiny faceted glass cut beads (known as Manek Potong) from Bohemia (present-day Czech Republic).
Traditional kasot manek design often have European floral subjects, with colours influenced by Peranakan porcelain and batik sarongs. They were made into flats or bedroom slippers. But from the 1930s, modern shapes became popular and heels were gradually added.
In Indonesia, the Peranakans develop their own kebaya, most notably kebaya encim, derived from the name encim or enci to refer to a married Chinese woman. Kebaya encim was commonly worn by Chinese ladies in Javan coastal cities with significant Chinese settlements, such as Semarang, Lasem, Tuban, Surabaya, Pekalongan and Cirebon. It marked differently from Javanese kebaya with its smaller and finer embroidery, lighter fabrics and more vibrant colours. They also developed their own batik patterns, which incorporate symbols from China. The kebaya encim fit well with vibrant-coloured kain batik pesisiran (Javan coastal batik), which incorporated symbols and motives from China; such as dragon, phoenix, peony and lotus. For the Baba they will wear baju lokchuan (which is the Chinese men full costume) but the younger generation they will wear just the top of it which is the long sleeved silk jacket with Chinese collar or the batik shirt.
Most Peranakans generally subscribed to Chinese beliefs system such as Taoism, Confucianism and Han Buddhism, and Christianity nowadays. Just like the Chinese, the Peranakans also celebrate Lunar New Year, Lantern Festival and other Chinese festivals, while adopting the customs of the land they settled in, as well as those of their colonial rulers. There are traces of Portuguese, Dutch, British, Malay and Indonesian influences in Peranakan culture.
Just like in any other cultures, the Peranakans still believe in pantang larang (meaning superstition) especially among the older generations. In some cases, quite a number the Peranakan's pantang larang are deemed too strict and complex. But today, most Peranakans no longer practice complex pantang larang to keep up with the modern times.
A significant number of the modern Peranakan community have embraced Christianity, most notably in Indonesia. In Singapore, the Kampong Kapor Methodist Church, founded in 1894 by an Australian missionary, Sophia Blackmore, is considered as one of the first Peranakan churches. During its establishment, Sunday service were conducted in Baba Malay language, and it is still one of the languages being used in their services.
Despite living in Muslim majority countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia, converting to Christianity allows Peranakans to continue eating pork which is a key part of the Peranakan diet.  Moreover, Peranakans were traditionally English educated at missionary schools, notably in Penang.
In Indonesia, Peranakan referred to all Indonesian Chinese who had converted to Islam up until the 19th century. This indicated the importance of Islamic identity as a "criterion of indigenization." Later, Peranakan referred to all Indonesian Chinese born in the country, including those of descendants of mixed race unions. Large numbers of Peranakans, many from Fujian having prior experience with foreign Muslims who had a dominant position in that provinces most important seaport, adopted Islam in Java, strongly Muslim areas of Indonesia, and Malaysia. As in the case of the Peranakans in Cirebon, this conversion process occurred over several centuries and was even recorded before the Dutch seized Jakarta. Many of these Peranakans in Indonesia who converted to Islam would marry into aristocratic dynasties. One organisation of Indonesian Peranakan Muslims is the Persatuan Islam Tionghoa Indonesia (Association of Indonesian Chinese Muslims), which was formed in 1936 in Medan. Some prominent Peranakan Muslims include the Indonesians Junus Jahja, Abdul Karim Oei Tjeng Hien and Tjio Wie Tay and from Pattani, the Peranakan convert to Islam, Datu Seri Nara, who according to Wybrand of Warwijck was the most important commercial and military figure in Pattani in 1602.
Due to the culture of Nyonya and Babas is merged between Malay and Chinese and influence by Indonesia. Malacca was once the world's merchant gathering point enabling the birth of Baba and Nyonya ethnic group. Therefore, the Nyonya food can be summarized as "Malay Archipelago Delicacies of Nanyang Cuisine".
From the Malay influence, a unique "Nyonya" cuisine has developed using typical Malay spices. Examples are Chicken Kapitan, a dry chicken curry, and Inchi Kabin, a Nyonya version of fried chicken. Pindang bandeng is a common fish soup served in Indonesia during the Chinese New Year and so is a white round mooncake from Tangerang which is normally used during the Autumn Festival. Swikee Purwodadi is a Peranakan dish from Purwodadi, it is a frog soup dish.
Nyonya Laksa is a very popular dish in Malacca, Malaysia while another variant called Asam Laksa is famous in Penang, Malaysia. Pongteh is also another popular and savoury dish of the Malaccan Peranakan community. The main ingredient is onion, black mushroom (optional), chicken (at times pork is used instead of chicken, hence it's called Babi Pongteh) and fermented bean sauce. The Malaccan Nyonyas are well known for this dish.
Other dishes from the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia Peranakans in Kelantan include Telur Kesum, Ayam Kerabu and Khau Jam are influenced by Chinese, Malay and Thai cuisine. While in Terengganu, popular Peranakan foods are such as the local version of crab cake, Ayam Pachok which resembles satay with a stronger flavour, fish in spicy tamarind sauce and slow-cooked chicken with palm sugar.
Besides that, Peranakans of Malacca are also well known for a wide variety of traditional cakes (kueh or kue) such as Lepak Kacang, Ang Ku Kue (a black variant is called Kueh Ku Hitam), Kueh Tae / Nastar, Nyonya Bak Chang, Apom Balik (Peranakan's version closely resembles Indonesian's Serabi), Kueh Bakol, Tapae, Kueh Kochi, Kueh Bongkong, Rempah Udang, Pulot Enti, Kueh Gulong/Semprong (another variant is Kueh Kapit), Kueh Bolu, Galeng Galoh (also known as Seri Muka), Kueh Bangket and many more. Traditional kueh (or kue) are sometimes made in conjunction with festivals that the Peranakans celebrate. For example, Kueh Genggang (also commonly known as Kueh Lapis), is a type of multi layered cake, most often eaten during Chinese New Year to symbolise a ladder of continued prosperity.
A small number of restaurants serving Nyonya food can be found in Penang and Malacca in Malaysia; and Jakarta, Semarang and Surabaya in Indonesia.
It was not uncommon for early Chinese traders to take Malay women from Peninsular Malaya or Sumatra as wives or concubines. Consequently, the Baba Nyonya possessed a synergistic mix of Sino-Malay cultural traits.
Written records from the 19th and early 20th centuries show that Peranakan men usually took brides from within the local Peranakan community. Peranakan families occasionally imported brides from China and sent their daughters to China to find husbands.
Marriages within the community and of similar stature were the norm during that time. Wealthy men prefigured to marry a chin choay: or matrilocal marriage where husband moved in with the wife's family.
Proposals of marriage were made by a gift of a pinangan, in a 2-tiered lacquered basket known as Bakul Siah in Malaysia or Tenong Keranjang in Indonesia, to the intended bride's parents brought by a go-between who speaks on behalf of the suitor. There are rare cases where wealthy Peranakans in the past used highly decorative glided pagoda trays (Botekan Candi in Indonesian) instead of the Bakul Siah or Tenong Keranjang. Most Peranakans are not Muslim, and have retained the traditions of ancestor worship of the Chinese, though some converted to Christianity.
The wedding ceremony of the Peranakan is largely based on Chinese tradition, and is one of the most colourful wedding ceremonies in Malaysia . At Malacca weddings, the Dondang Sayang, a form of extempore rhyming song in Malay sung and danced by guests at the wedding party, was a highlight. Someone would begin a romantic theme which was carried on by others, each taking the floor in turn, dancing in slow gyrations as they sang. It required quick wit and repartee and often gave rise to laughter and applause when a particularly clever phrase was sung. The melodic accents of the Baba-Nonya and their particular turns of phrase lead to the charm of this performance.
The important wedding rites had to be commenced on auspicious days at specific times, according to the pek ji, the eight Chinese characters annotating one's birth date and time. At these rites, pantangs (taboos) were carefully observed – the wedding rituals had to be legitimised and witnessed by elders, deities and ancestors. Marriages were typically match-made. Parents and elders made the final decision, but the potential bride and bridegroom were also consulted in the process. Wedding items commonly utilised the prosperous colours of red, pink, orange, yellow and gold and were embellished with special motifs to ensure a good marriage. Similar to the Chinese, Peranakans believed that good things always come in pairs, therefore many wedding items came in pairs.
Historical and cultural items from the Peranakan culture are displayed in Baba Nyonya Heritage Museum, Straits Chinese Jewellery Museum and other cultural establishments on Heeren Street, Jonker Street and other streets in the same neighbourhood in Malacca; the Pinang Peranakan Mansion in Penang, Malaysia; and at the Peranakan Museum, Baba House and the Intan Museum in Singapore. Furniture, food, and even traditional clothes of the Baba and Nyonya are exhibited. Free weekly street shows featuring Baba performances, and traditional and pop Chinese cultural performances are found in Jonker Street in Malacca. The shows are part of the night market scene, and are usually crowded with shoppers, both local and foreign.
On 11 November 2011 Benteng Heritage Museum in Tangerang, near Jakarta is opened to display mainly about Benteng Chinese uses an old genuine traditional Chinese Peranakan house. And in August 2013, the Museum Peranakan Indonesia was officially opened by the Yayasan Budaya Tionghoa Indonesia. The museum is located at the Cheng Ho Museum, next to the Hakka Museum, at the pavilion of Taman Budaya Tionghoa Indonesia, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah in Jakarta, Indonesia.
Other Peranakan cultural collections such as batik and bead works can also be found in museums outside of South East Asia. Honolulu Museum of Art and Australian Museum are known to exhibit such collections.
Apart from that, exhibition of Peranakan Chitty history, antiques and culture can be seen at the Chitty Museum in Kampung Chitty, Malacca, Malaysia. Recently in 2013, there were controversies of development at the expense of demolishing part of Kampung Chitty, a historical and cultural village. A proposal to construct a condominium, a hotel and a road cutting through the village are seen as a threat affecting the residents and a temple built in 1827.
Many Peranakan were active in trade and considered elites loyal to the British who generally did not support Malaysian nor Indonesian Independence.. Peranakans often played the role of middleman of the British and the Chinese, or the Chinese and Malays, because they were mostly English educated and spoke Malay more fluently than newer Chinese immigrants.
By the middle of the twentieth century, most Peranakan were English or Dutch-educated, as a result of the Western colonisation of Malaya and Indonesia, Peranakans readily embraced English culture and education as a means to advance economically thus administrative and civil service posts were often filled by prominent Straits Chinese. Many in the community chose to convert to Christianity due to its perceived prestige and proximity to the preferred company of British and Dutch.
The Peranakan community thereby became very influential in Malacca and Singapore and were known also as the King's Chinese due to their loyalty to the British Crown. Because of their interaction with different cultures and languages, most Peranakans were (and still are) trilingual, being able to converse in Chinese, Malay, and English. Common vocations were as merchants, traders, and general intermediaries between China, Malaya and the West; the latter were especially valued by the British and Dutch.
Things started to change in the first half of the 20th century, with some Peranakans starting to support Malaysian and Indonesian independence. In Indonesia three Chinese communities started to merge and become active in the political scene.
They were also among the pioneers of Indonesian newspapers. In their fledgling publishing companies, they published their own political ideas along with contributions from other Indonesian writers. In November 1928, the Chinese weekly Sin Po (Chinese: 新報; pinyin: xīn bào) was the first paper to openly publish the text of the national anthem Indonesia Raya. On occasion, those involved in such activities ran a concrete risk of imprisonment or even of their lives, as the Dutch colonial authorities banned nationalistic publications and activities.
Chinese were active in supporting the independence movement during the 1940s Japanese occupation, when the all but the so-called "Overseas Chinese Association", or residents of Chinese ancestry (Chinese: 華僑中會; pinyin: Huáqiáo Zhōnghuì) were banned by the Japanese military authorities. Some notable pro-independence activists were Siauw Giok Tjhan, Liem Koen Hian, and Yap Tjwan Bing, a member of Panitia Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia, who in the 1960s became a citizen of the United States.
Peranakan culture has started to disappear in Malaysia and Singapore. Without colonial British support for their perceived racial neutrality, government policies in both countries following independence from the British have resulted in the assimilation of Peranakans back into mainstream Chinese culture. Singapore classifies the Peranakans as ethnically Chinese, so they receive formal instruction in Mandarin Chinese as a second language (in accordance with the "Mother Tongue Policy") instead of Malay. In Malaysia, the standardisation of Malay as Bahasa Melayu—required for all ethnic groups—has led to a disappearance of the unique characteristics of Baba Malay.
In Indonesia, the Peranakan culture appears to be losing popularity to modern Western culture, but to some degree the Peranakans are still trying to retain their language, cuisines and customs. Young Peranakans still speak their creole language, although many young women do not wear the kebaya. Marriages normally follow the western culture because the traditional Peranakan customs are losing popularity. Only three communities of Peranakan still uphold the traditional Peranakan wedding customs, Tangerang (by the Cina Benteng people), Makassar and Padang. Of the three communities the Cina Benteng people are the most adherent to the Peranakan culture, but their numbers are dwindling.
Cina Benteng people are normally poor people and many seek, or have sought, opportunities in other areas. Some organisations do try to ease their burden of living. As of May 2012, 108 Cina Benteng families are facing eviction from their traditional homes, the reason given by the Tangerang government being that the area they occupy is actually meant as a green space for the city. Most of these families are low income and have nowhere to move to, as the government is not providing enough money for them to relocate. Several traumatic eviction attempts at 2010 and 2011 ended in violence.
The migration of some Peranakan families, particularly the well-to-do, has led to a small Peranakan diaspora to neighbouring countries, mainly from Vietnam to Australia. The 1998 anti-Chinese riots in Indonesia during the fall of Suharto terrorised many Chinese Indonesians and Peranakans alike, causing Chinese Indonesian communities affected by the riots to leave the country. However, these communities are very small, and with the increasing use of the various languages in their respective countries, the use of Peranakan Malay or Baba Malay has been diluted, especially among the younger generation.
Associations of Chinese Peranakans include The Peranakan Association Singapore (TPAS), Aspertina (Asosiasi Peranakan Tionghoa Indonesia) and the Gunong Sayang Association (GSA), a performing arts group in Singapore. The Peranakan Association Singapore has over 2,000 members, and the Gunong Sayang Association has about 200 members. The Peranakan Association Singapore consists of a mix of young and old members, while the Gunung Sayang Association has primarily elderly or retired members. In Malacca, there is an Indian Peranakan Association known as the Chitty Melaka. This is a tightly knit community of Saivite Hindus. Chitty Peranakans display considerable similarity to Chinese Peranakans in terms of dressing, songs, folk dances and pantun.
In Malaysia, there are Peranakan associations in Malacca, KL and Penang.
The Thai Peranakans live largely in Phuket and have an Association as well.
There are also Peranakan associations in Australia: Melbourne, Perth and New South Wales.
In popular cultureEdit
Interest in the Peranakan culture had begun as early as the 1950s with films from Hong Kong such as the Niangre / Nyonyah (Yue Feng, 1952), Fengyu Niuche Shui / Rainstorm in Chinatown (Yan Jun 1956), Niangre Yu Baba / Nonya And Baba (Yan Jun 1956), and Niangre Zhi Lian / Love With A Malaysian Girl (Lui Kei, 1969).
In Malaysia, a comedy drama series, Baba Nyonya was popular in the 1990s. The series is recognised by the Malaysian Book Of Records as the longest-running TV series in the country ever, lasting from the late 1980s till 2000, with 509 episodes in total.
Along the passing of the Reform Era in Indonesia and the removal of the ban on Chinese culture, in 1999, Indonesian writer Remy Sylado released a novel called Ca-Bau-Kan: Hanya Sebuah Dosa raised the Peranakan culture and history in Indonesia. The novel was adapted into a film called Ca-Bau-Kan by Nia Dinata in 2002. Riri Riza directed a biographical film on an Indonesian student activist named Soe Hok Gie (played by Nicholas Saputra), entitled Gie in 2005. The film is based on a diary Catatan Seorang Demonstran written by Soe Hok Gie, features a glimpse into the everyday life of an Indonesian Peranakan family in the 1960s. A novel that elevates the history and culture of the Benteng Chinese (Cina Benteng is another term in Indonesian referring to Peranakan) titled Bonsai: Hikayat Satu Keluarga Cina Benteng written by Pralampita Lembahmata and published by Gramedia in 2011.
In 2008, a Singaporean drama series The Little Nyonya was aired in Singapore, and later gained popularity in Asia especially within South East Asia region. The filming of the drama took place in Malacca, Penang and Ipoh, Malaysia.
In Yasmin Ahmad films Sepet and Gubra has featured Peranakan character as the lead actor's mother played by Peranakan actress Tan Mei Ling. Lead actors from the 1990s Baba Nyonya series were also featured in Namewee's multi-language and multi-cultural film, Nasi Lemak 2.0 in 2011, showcasing Peranakan culture.
- Agnes Monica: Artist, Singer
- Arief Budiman: Also known as Soe Hok Djin, the older brother of Soe Hok Gie
- Auwjong Peng koen: Indonesian Journalist, Founder of Kompas a national newspaper
- Basuki Tjahaja Purnama: Politician
- Chris John: Professional boxer
- Christian Hadinata: Badminton player
- Christianto Wibisono: Business analyst
- Fifi Young: Actress
- Han Bwee Kong, Kapitein der Chinezen: magnate, government official and landlord in East Java
- Hok Hoei Kan: colonial politician, landlord, patrician and a member of the Han family of Lasem
- Kho Sin-Kie: Professional tennis player
- Khouw Kim An, 5th Majoor der Chinezen of Batavia: bureaucrat, last Chinese head of colonial Jakarta, member of the Khouw family of Tamboen
- O. G. Khouw: philanthropist, landlord and member of the Khouw family of Tamboen
- Khouw Tian Sek, Luitenant-titulair der Chinezen: landlord, magnate and patriarch of the Khouw family of Tamboen
- Kwee Tek Hoay: Journalist, novelist
- Kwik Kian Gie: Economist, Coordinating Minister of Economics and Finance (1999–2000), and National Development Planning Minister (2001–2004) of Indonesia
- Lie Kim Hok: Teacher, writer and a social worker of the Dutch East Indies
- Liem Swie King: National shuttler
- Loa Sek Hie: colonial politician, community leader, landlord and founder of Pao An Tui
- Margaretha Tjoa Liang tjoe: Novelist
- Mari Pangestu: Economist, Trade Minister (2004–2011), and Tourism and Creative Economy Minister (2011) of Indonesia
- Mira Widjaja (Wong): Author, daughter of Othniel
- Oei Tiong Ham, Majoor-titulair der Chinezen: Businessman and founder of the largest conglomerate in the Dutch East Indies, Oei Tiong Ham Concern
- Oey Tamba Sia: playboy, tycoon's heir and criminal
- Phoa Keng Hek: Social worker and entrepreneur
- Phoa Liong Gie: colonial politician, jurist and newspaper owner, great-nephew of Phoa Keng Hek
- Rudy Hartono: National shuttler
- Soe Hok Gie: Student activist
- Kyai Ronggo Ngabehi Soero Pernollo: Chinese-Javanese nobleman, bureaucrat and police chief
- Susi Susanti: National shuttler
- Tan Joe Hok: National shuttler
- Tan Liok Tiauw: Colonial landlord, plantation owner, industrialist
- Tio Ie Soei: Writer and journalist of the Dutch East Indies
- Titi DJ: Artist, Singer
- Thung Sin Nio (1902-1996): physician, politician, suffragist
- Chuah Guat Eng: Novelist
- Chung Thye Phin: Last Kapitan China of the state of Perak and British Malaya
- Gan Eng Seng: Malaccan born businessman and philanthropist in Singapore and Malaya
- Khoo Kay Kim: Historian
- Mavin Khoo: Dancer, son of Khoo Kay Kim
- Nathaniel Tan: Politician and writer
- Tan Chay Yan: Rubber plantation merchant and philanthropist, grandson of Tan Tock Seng
- Tan Cheng Lock: Founder and first President of Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA)
- Tan Siew Sin: Third President of Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA) and first Finance Minister of Malaysia (1959–1974), son of Tan Cheng Lock
- Tan Tock Seng: Malaccan born merchant and philanthropist in Singapore
- Tan Twan Eng: Penang-born novelist known for being the first Malaysian recipient of the Man Asian Literary Prize.
- Azizan Baba : former professional footballer
- Desmond Ho: Landscape designer
- David Lim Kim San: Head of Music Department in the Ministry of Education (1969)
- Dick Lee: Celebrity pop singer, composer and playwright
- Gan Eng Seng: Malaccan born businessman and philanthropist in Straits Settlement of Singapore and Malaya
- Goh Keng Swee: Deputy Prime Minister of Singapore
- Ivan Heng: Actor
- Lee Hsien Loong: Third Prime Minister of Singapore
- Lee Kuan Yew: First Prime Minister of modern Singapore
- Lim Boon Keng: Penang born physician and social activist in Singapore
- Violet Oon: Chef, restaurateur, and food writer specializing in Peranakan cuisine
- Lim Kim San: Former Cabinet Minister
- Lim Nee Soon: Merchant and entrepreneur of the Straits Settlement of Singapore
- Pierre Png: Mediacorp artiste
- Piya Tan: Buddhist writer and teacher
- Seow Poh Leng: Banker, philanthropist and a committee member of the Straits Settlement (Settlement of Singapore)
- Song Hoot Kiam: Teacher, cashier and a community leader
- Sir Song Ong Siang: Lawyer and active citizen of the Straits Settlement of Singapore, son of Song Hoot Kiam
- Tan Chin Tuan: Chairman of OCBC
- Tan Kim Ching: Politician and businessman, the eldest son of Tan Tock Seng
- Tan Kim Seng: Malaccan born philanthropist and merchant
- Tan Tock Seng: Malaccan born merchant and philanthropist of the Straits Settlement of Singapore
- Toh Chin Chye: Deputy Prime Minister of Singapore
- Tony Tan: Seventh President of Singapore
- Walter Woon: Lawyer, academic, diplomat, politician and 7th Attorney-General of Singapore
- Wee Kim Wee: Fourth President of Singapore
- "Chinese Indonesians can't be put in boxes". The Jakarta Post. 26 May 2008. Archived from the original on 25 February 2014. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
- Peranakan Publications. "Tionghua Indonesian Chinese Peranakans". Peranakan.hostoi.com. Archived from the original on 6 June 2013. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
- Caroline S. Hau (2014). The Chinese Question: Ethnicity, Nation, and Region in and Beyond the Philippines. NUS Press. p. 251. ISBN 978-9971-69-792-1.
- "Peranakan". Forvo. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
- "Scientists in Singapore complete DNA study on Peranakans". Youtube. 15 July 2019. Archived from the original on 16 January 2020. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
- Remy Sylado (2004). Sam Po Kong: Perjalanan Pertama. Gramedia Pustaka Utama. ISBN 978-979-22-0685-2.
- The Peranakan trail Archived 5 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- West, Barbara A. (2009). Encyclopedia Of The Peoples Of Asia And Oceania. Facts On File. p. 657. ISBN 978-0-8160-7109-8.
- "Peranakan". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 2 October 2019. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
- Pue, Giok Hun (2017). "'Our Chinese': the mixedness of Peranakan Chinese identities in Kelantan, Malaysia". In Rocha, Zarine L. (ed.). Mixed Race in Asia: Past, Present and Future. London: Routledge. pp. 147–161.
- Chia, Josephine (7 October 2018). "I am Peranakan, not Chinese". Channel News Asia. Archived from the original on 26 January 2019. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
- "Peranakans". Baba & Nyonya Heritage Museum, Malacca. Archived from the original on 12 January 2020. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
- Harimurti Kridalaksana, Kamus Sinonim Bahasa Indonesia, Nusa Indah: 1974: 213 pages
- Sadaoh Nasution, Kamus Umum Lengkap: Inggris-Indonesia Indonesia-Inggris, University of California: 1989: 562 pages
- "Peranakan". Cambridge Dictionary. Archived from the original on 15 January 2020. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
- "Peranakan Museum". Peranakan Museum. Archived from the original on 9 February 2014. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
- Tan, Lincoln (15 April 2019). "Peranakans at a loss on how many of them there are in NZ". New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 14 November 2019. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
- Tan, Siew Imm (2016). Penang Hokkien-English dictionary: with an English-Penang Hokkien glossary. Sunway Education Group. ISBN 978-967-13697-1-5.
- Joo Ee Khoo, The Straits Chinese: a cultural history, Pepin Press: 1996 ISBN 90-5496-008-6, 288 pages
- Soeseno Kartomihardjo, Ethnography of Communicative Codes in East Java Dept. of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1981, ISBN 0-85883-255-0, page 96
- Keat Gin Ooi, Southeast Asia: a historical encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor ABC-CLIO: 2004, ISBN 1-57607-770-5, 1791 pages
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 10 March 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Willmott, William E. (1967). The Chinese in Cambodia. Publications Centre, University of British Columbia. Archived from the original on 24 April 2016. Retrieved 16 December 2015.
- "Royal Blood". Realm of the Lone Grey Squirrel. 17 May 2014. Archived from the original on 29 October 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
- "Siew Tin's Nyonya Kitchen". Archived from the original on 6 November 2018. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
- Anonymous (1821). Malay Annals. Translated by Leyden, John. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown. pp. 179–80. Archived from the original on 14 January 2020. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
- Kulasagaran, Priya (16 January 2012). "Prof Khoo: No record of the existance [sic] of Princess Hang Li Po; its a myth". The Star (Malaysia). Archived from the original on 23 August 2017. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
- Wain, Alexander (7 April 2017). "The search for Hang Li Po". New Straits Times. Archived from the original on 11 May 2017. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
- Frank Bures (2016). The Geography of Madness: Penis Thieves, Voodoo Death, and the Search for the Meaning of the World's Strangest Syndromes. Melville House. p. 69. ISBN 978-16-121-9373-1.
- Kok Seong Teo (1993). A Sociolinguistic Description of the Peranakan Chinese of Kelantan, Malaysia, Volume 1. University of California. p. 83. OCLC 1038840747.
- Zhiming Bao (2015). The Making of Vernacular Singapore English: System, Transfer, and Filter. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-02208-9.
- Tan Chee-Beng (2010). "Peranakan Chinese in Northeast Kelantan with special reference to Chinese Religion". Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 55 (1 (242)): 26–52. ASIN B004124IMY. JSTOR 41492910.
- "The Peranakans of Terengganu". Straits Times Singapore. 2 February 2015. Archived from the original on 10 August 2016. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
- "Indonesian, Peranakan". ethnologue. Archived from the original on 21 September 2015. Retrieved 17 August 2015.
- Rodgers (1996), p. 57 Sojourners and Settlers: Histories of Southeast Asia and the Chinese, p. 57, at Google Books
- Martin A. Klein (1993). Breaking the Chains: Slavery, Bondage, and Emancipation in Modern Africa and Asia. Univ of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-299-13754-0.
- Nordin Hussin (2007). Trade and Society in the Straits of Melaka: Dutch Melaka and English Penang, 1780–1830. NUS Press. ISBN 978-9971-69-354-1. Archived from the original on 17 June 2016. Retrieved 16 December 2015.
- Anderson (1826) Mission to the east coast of Sumatra: in M.DCCC.XXIII, under the direction of the government of Prince of Wales island: including historical and descriptive sketches of the country, an account of the commerce, population, and customs of the inhabitants, and a visit to the Batta cannibal states in the interior, p. 298, at Google Books
- Anderson Mission to the east coast of Sumatra: in M.DCCC.XXIII, p. 299, at Google Books
- Annabelle Gambe (2000). Overseas Chinese Entrepreneurship and Capitalist Development in Southeast Asia. LIT Verlag Berlin-Hamburg-Münster. p. 108. ISBN 978-3-8258-4386-1.
- The Peranakan trail Archived 5 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine MICHAEL D'OLIVEIRO, 31 March 2007, The Star
- Keat Gin Ooi (2004). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor. ABC-CLIO. pp. 1057–. ISBN 978-1-57607-770-2.
- Anthony Reid; Kristine Alilunas-Rodgers (1996). Sojourners and Settlers: Histories of Southeast China and the Chinese. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 75–. ISBN 978-0-8248-2446-4.
- Names and Surnames among the Malays Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
- "Names and Surnames among the Malays PDF - Ebookily.net". Freedownload.is. 13 October 2011. Archived from the original on 21 July 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
- Donna Jeremiah (2002). Cultural Melaka. IKSEP. ISBN 978-983-2600-01-5. Archived from the original on 27 June 2014. Retrieved 14 December 2011.
- Nasution, Khoo Salma (2009). "Hokkien Chinese on the Phuket Mining From The Penang Connection and the Emergence Phuket Baba Community". JMBRAS. 82 (2): 82.
- Agnes Swetta Pandia and Nina Susilo (13 January 2013). "Tantangan Bisnis Kebaya Encim" (in Indonesian). Female Kompas.com. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- Jacqueline Knorr (15 March 2014). Creole Identity in Postcolonial Indonesia. Berghahn Books. p. 150. ISBN 978-1-78238-269-0.
- Jacqueline Knorr (15 March 2014). Creole Identity in Postcolonial Indonesia. Berghahn Books. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-78238-269-0.
- Jacqueline Knorr (15 March 2014). Creole Identity in Postcolonial Indonesia. Berghahn Books. p. 135. ISBN 978-1-78238-269-0.
- Reid, Anthony; Alilunas-Rodgers, Kristine, eds. (1996). Sojourners and Settlers: Histories of Southeast China and the Chinese (illustrated, reprint ed.). University of Hawaii Press. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-8248-2446-4.
- Radcliffe, Sarah, ed. (27 September 2006). Culture and Development in a Globalizing World: Geographies, Actors and Paradigms. Routledge. pp. 141–2. ISBN 978-1-134-27458-1.
A large number of Chinese settlers were converted to Islam. Having come largely from Fujian, they not only found it advantageous to adopt the predominant religion of the Javanese port towns, but in fact were familiar with the role of Islam in Fujian's trade. In Quanzhou, Fujian's most important seaport by the late thirteenth century, both trade and administration were dominated by foreign Muslims and an Islamic diaspora promoted trade with the rest of Asia.
- Tan, Chee-Beng, ed. (11 February 2013). Routledge Handbook of the Chinese Diaspora. Routledge. p. 348. ISBN 978-1-136-23096-7.
- Jacqueline Knorr (15 March 2014). Creole Identity in Postcolonial Indonesia. Berghahn Books. p. 137. ISBN 978-1-78238-269-0.
- Leo Suryadinata (1995). Prominent Indonesian Chinese: Biographical Sketches. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 256. ISBN 978-981-3055-03-2.
- Leo Suryadinata (1995). Prominent Indonesian Chinese: Biographical Sketches. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 46. ISBN 978-981-3055-03-2.
- Leo Suryadinata (1995). Prominent Indonesian Chinese: Biographical Sketches. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 51–2. ISBN 978-981-3055-03-2.
- Leo Suryadinata (1995). Prominent Indonesian Chinese: Biographical Sketches. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 105–6. ISBN 978-981-3055-03-2.
- Montesano, Michael John; Jory, Patrick, eds. (2008). Thai South and Malay North: Ethnic Interactions on the Plural Peninsula (reprint ed.). NUS Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-9971-69-411-1.
- Jacky, Liew (2010). Truly Nyonya Malacca. Malaysia: Seashore. p. 18. ISBN 9789675413247. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
- "Now, development threatens historical site in Malacca". The Malaysian Insider. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- "Road through Kg Chitty could destroy homes". Yahoo! News. Archived from the original on 2 March 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- "Imlek, Prosesi Pernikahan China Peranakan Hanya Bertahan di Tiga Kota". 5 February 2008. Archived from the original on 23 July 2012. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
- "Cina Benteng get free health service". Archived from the original on 25 July 2012. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
- "'Cina Benteng' vows to fight upcoming eviction". Archived from the original on 25 July 2012. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
- "Chinese/Native intermarriage in Austronesian Asia". Color Q World. Archived from the original on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
- "babas_and_nonya.html". theswanker.com. Archived from the original on 19 February 2012.
- "Gunong Sayang Association | Infopedia". eresources.nlb.gov.sg. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
- Shiv Shanker Tiwary & P.S. Choudhary (2009). Encyclopaedia Of Southeast Asia And Its Tribes (Set Of 3 Vols.). Anmol Publications. ISBN 978-81-261-3837-1.
- Tan E.K. (2010). "Journal of Chinese Cinemas, Volume 4, Issue 2 (Hong Kong cinema and the portrayal of the Nanyang Chinese in the 1950s and 1960s)". Journal of Chinese Cinemas. 4 (2): 155–168. doi:10.1386/jcc.4.2.155_1.
- "66-year-old Baba Nyonya actor Chee Hood Siong dies". The Star Online. Archived from the original on 27 February 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
- Amaliya (2012). "tentang totok peranakan". Chinese Culture and its history in Indonesian. Archived from the original on 20 January 2015. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- Leo Suryadinata (1995). Prominent Indonesian Chinese: Biographical Sketches. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 978-981-3055-03-2.
- Labrousse, P. (1973). "Entretien avec Fifi Young". Archipel. 5: 175–177. doi:10.3406/arch.1973.1049.
- Lucas, Anton; Warren, Carol (2013). Land for the People: The State and Agrarian Conflict in Indonesia. Ohio: Ohio University Press. ISBN 9780896802872.
- Ayu Utami (2001). Larung. Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia. ISBN 978-979-9023-63-6.
- Jane Eldridge Miller (2001). Who's who in Contemporary Women's Writing. Psychology Press. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-415-15981-4.
- Ronald Knapp (2013). Chinese Houses of Southeast Asia: The Eclectic Architecture of Sojourners and Settlers. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4629-0587-4.
- Peranakan Museum (2008). Peranakan Museum Visitor Guide – Enter the world of the Peranakans. National Heritage Board.
- Leo Suryadinata (2012). Southeast Asian Personalities of Chinese Descent: A Biographical Dictionary, Volume I & II. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 978-981-4345-21-7.
- Agnes Tan Kim Lwi (1985). Tun Dato Sir Cheng Lock Tan: A Son of Malacca. [Singapore : s.n.] OCLC 225950691.
- Lily Zubaidah Rahim (2010). Singapore in the Malay World: Building and Breaching Regional Bridges. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-01397-5.
- Nicole Idar. "An interview with Tan Twan Eng". Asymptote Journal. Archived from the original on 4 July 2019. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
- Ho, Desmond Lai Seng 1961–. Desmond Ho's guide to beautiful home gardens. Petaling Jaya, Selangor. ISBN 978-967-415-164-5. OCLC 957334446.
- Tong, Lillian (2014). Straits Chinese Gold Jewellery. Malaysia: Penang Peranakan Mansion.
- Santosa, Iwan (2012). Peranakan Tionghoa Di Nusantara. Indonesia: ASPERTINA & Kompas Penerbit Buku. ISBN 978-979-709-641-0.
- Kee, Ming-Yuet; Low Hock Seng (2009). Peranakan Chinese Porcelain: Vibrant Festive Ware Of The Straits Chinese. Singapore: Tuttle. ISBN 978-0-8048-4007-1.
- Somers, Mary F. (2009). Peranakan Chinese Politics In Indonesia. Singapore: Equinox Publishing. ISBN 978-602-8397-35-3.
- Ho, Wing Meng (2008). Straits Chinese Furniture: A Collector's Guide. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 978-981-261-665-4.
- Mahmood, Datin Seri Endon (2004). The Nyonya Kebaya: A Century of Straits Chinese Costume. Malaysia: Periplus Editions. ISBN 978-0-7946-0273-4.
- Teo, Kok Seong (2003). Peranakan Chinese of Kelantan: A Study of the Culture, Language & Communication of an Assimilated Group in Malaysia. Malaysia: Coronet Books Inc. ISBN 978-1-901919-21-9.
- Rudolph, Jürgen (1998). Reconstructing Identities: A Social History of the Babas in Singapore. Singapore: Ashgate.costumes
- Khoo, Joo Ee (1998). The Straits Chinese: A Cultural History. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: The Pepin Press. ISBN 978-90-5496-008-9.
- Chang, Queeny (1981). Memories of a Nonya. Singapore and Selangor, Malaysia: Eastern Universities Press Sdn Bhd. ISBN 978-9971-71-145-0.
- Lee, Chin Koon (1974). Mrs. Lee's Cookbook: Nonya Recipes And Other Favourite Recipes. Malaysia: s.n. ASIN B0006CNVR6.
|Library resources about |
- "Benteng Chinese: Barely Indonesian" in "Invisible People: Poverty and Empowerment in Indonesia
- Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, Phuket's Historic Peranakan Community
- Interactive 360 X 360 degree VR preview of The Peranakan Museum
- Gunong Sayang Association
- The Peranakan Association of Singapore
- NUS Baba House
- Asosiasi Peranakan Tionghoa Indonesia
- Peranakan Association Australia Incorporated
- Singapore's Mother Tongue Policy
- Petition for a Peranakan Town in Singapore
- Pinang Peranakan Mansion
- Baba & Nyonya House Museum, Melaka
- The Intan Museum, Singapore
- Review over one of the peranakan in Penang from photo-outing.com
- Some Articles On Peranakan Communities in Java
- Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David: Phuket's Historic Peranakan Community
- Peranakan collections from the Peranakan Museum, Singapore
- THE PERANAKAN STORY
- ISLANDS AND PEOPLES OF THE INDIES
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Peranakan.|