Portuguese people are a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Portugal that share a common Portuguese culture and speak one of the native languages of Portugal, including most numerously Portuguese, as a primary language, with Mirandese and Galician being the other languages respectively. Their predominant religion is Christianity, mainly Roman Catholicism.
|c. 42 million to 270 million[a]|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Portugal 10,374,822 (2011 population of all residents of Portugal, regardless of ethnicity)|
5,000,000 (eligible for Portuguese citizenship)45,000,000 (Portuguese ancestry)
|United States||1,471,549 (Portuguese ancestry)|
|Venezuela||1,300,000 (Portuguese ancestry)|
|France||1,243,419 (Portuguese ancestry)|
|Canada||429,850 (Portuguese ancestry)|
|Guyana||50,000 (Portuguese ancestry)|
|Cape Verde (Portuguese ancestry)||22,318|
|Trinidad and Tobago||800|
|Rest of the Americas||24,776|
|Rest of Africa||8,965|
|Languages of Portugal
(Portuguese, Mirandese, Galician and others)
|Predominantly Christian-Roman Catholic|
|Related ethnic groups|
^a Total number of ethnic Portuguese varies wildly based on the definition.
The Roman Republic conquered Iberia during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. As a result of Roman colonization, the majority of local languages, stem from the Vulgar Latin. Due to the large historical extent of the Portuguese Empire and the colonization of territories in Asia, Africa and the Americas, as well as historical and recent emigration, Portuguese communities can be found in many diverse regions around the globe, and a large Portuguese diaspora exists.
Demographics of PortugalEdit
There are around 10 million native Portuguese in Portugal, out of a total population of 10.34 million (estimate).
Native minority languages in PortugalEdit
A small minority of about 15,000 speak the Mirandese language, (part of the Asturian-Leonese linguistic group which includes the Asturian and Leonese minority languages of Northwestern Spain ) in the municipalities of Miranda do Douro, Vimioso and Mogadouro. All of the speakers are bilingual with Portuguese.
An even smaller minority of no more than 2,000 people speak Barranquenho, a dialect of Portuguese heavily influenced by Extremaduran, spoken in the Portuguese town of Barrancos (in the border between Extremadura and Andalusia, in Spain, and Portugal).
Ethnic minorities in PortugalEdit
More recently, a great number of Slavs, especially Ukrainians (now the third biggest ethnic minority), Moldovans, Romanians and Russians, keep migrating to Portugal. There is also a Chinese minority.
In addition, there is a small minority Gypsies (Ciganos) of about 40,000 people, Muslims about 34,000 people and an even smaller minority of Jews of about 5,000 people (some Ashkenazi, and the majority Sephardi, such as the Belmonte Jews).
In the whole world there are easily more than one hundred million people with recognizable Portuguese ancestors, due to the colonial expansion and worldwide immigration of Portuguese from the 16th century onwards to India, the Americas, Macau (see Macanese people), East-Timor, Malaysia, Indonesia and Africa. Between 1886 and 1966, Portugal lost to emigration more than any West European country except Ireland. From the middle of the 19th century to the late 1950s, nearly two million Portuguese left Europe to live mainly in Brazil and with significant numbers to the United States. About 40 million Brazilians have relatively recent Portuguese background, due to massive immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. About 1.2 million Brazilian citizens are native Portuguese. Significant verified Portuguese minorities exist in several countries (see table).
Portuguese Sephardic Jews (mostly descendants) are also in Israel, the Netherlands, the United States, France, Venezuela, Brazil and Turkey. In Brazil many of the colonists were also originally Sephardic Jews, who, converted, were known as New Christians.
In the United States, there are Portuguese communities in New Jersey, the New England states, and California. In the Pacific, Hawaii has a sizable Portuguese element that goes back 150 years (see Portuguese Americans), Australia and New Zealand also have Portuguese communities (see Portuguese Australian, Portuguese New Zealander). Canada, particularly Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia, has developed a significant Portuguese community since 1940 (see Portuguese Canadians). Argentina (See Portuguese Argentine and Cape Verdean Argentine) and Uruguay (see Portuguese Uruguayan) had Portuguese immigration in the early 20th century. So has Chile where an estimated 50,000 descendants live, as the country's maritime industries attracted a small number of Portuguese as well. Portuguese fishermen, farmers and laborers dispersed across the Caribbean, especially Bermuda (3.75% to 10% of the population), Guyana (4.3% of the population in 1891), Trinidad, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, and the island of Barbados where there is high influence from the Portuguese community.
In the early twentieth century the Portuguese government encouraged white emigration to Angola and Mozambique, and by the 1970s, there were up to 1 million Portuguese settlers living in their overseas African provinces. An estimated 800,000 Portuguese returned to Portugal as the country's African possessions gained independence in 1975, after the Carnation Revolution, while others moved to Brazil and South Africa.
As a result, there are Portuguese influenced people with their own culture and Portuguese based dialects in parts of the world other than former Portuguese colonies, most notably in Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia (see Kristang people), Barbados, Jamaica (see Portuguese Jamaican), Aruba, Curaçao, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana (see Portuguese immigrants in Guyana), Equatorial Guinea and Sri Lanka (see Burgher people and Portuguese Burghers). In 1989 some 4,000,000 Portuguese were living abroad, mainly in France, Germany, Brazil, the United Kingdom, South Africa, Canada, Venezuela, and the United States. Portuguese constitute 13% of the population of Luxembourg. In 2006 there were estimates to be over half a million people of Portuguese origin in the United Kingdom (see Portuguese in the United Kingdom)—this is considerably larger than the around 88,000 Portuguese-born people alone residing in the country in 2009 (estimation; however this figure does not include British-born people of Portuguese descent). In areas such as Thetford and the crown dependencies of Jersey and Guernsey, the Portuguese form the largest ethnic minority groups at 30% of the population, 7% and 3% respectively. The British capital London is home to the largest number of Portuguese people in the UK, with the majority being found in the boroughs of Kensington and Chelsea, Lambeth and Westminster. The Portuguese diaspora communities still are very attached to their language, their culture and their national dishes and particularly the bacalhau.
List of countries by population of Portuguese heritageEdit
|Country||Population||% of country||Criterion|
|Portuguese in North America|
|Portuguese Canadian||429,850||1.3%||Canada 2011 Census|
|Portuguese in South America|
|Portuguese Brazilian||5 million (eligible for Portuguese citizenship)||-|
|Portuguese Venezuelan||1,400,000||5%|||
|Portuguese in Europe|
|Portuguese in the Netherlands||20,981||0.11%|
They constitute 16.1% of the population of Luxembourg, which makes them
|Portuguese in Asia|
|Macanese people||25,000 - 46,000||2%|
|Portuguese in Oceania|
|Portuguese New Zealander||650||0.02%|
|Portuguese in Africa|
|Portuguese South African||126,476||0.15%|
|Portuguese Indians||200, 000||0.02%|
|Total in Diaspora||~105,000,000|
|Portuguese people in Portugal||11,000,000||
 Figure is only a population estimate of all residents of Portugal, and includes people of non-Portuguese ethnic origin
Portuguese ancestry in the Brazilian populationEdit
||This section's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. (January 2013)|
|Source: Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE)|
In colonial times, over 700,000 Portuguese settled in Brazil, and most of them went there during the gold rush of the 18th century. Brazil received more European settlers during its colonial era than any other country in the Americas. Between 1500 and 1760, about 700,000 Europeans immigrated to Brazil, compared to 530,000 European immigrants in the United States. They managed to be the only significant European population to populate the country during colonization, even though there were French and Dutch invasions. The Portuguese migration was strongly marked by the predominance of men (colonial reports from the 16th and 17th centuries almost always report the absence or rarity of Portuguese women). This lack of women worried the Jesuits, who asked the Portuguese King to send any kind of Portuguese women to Brazil, even the socially undesirable (e.g. prostitutes or women with mental maladies such as Down Syndrome) if necessary. The Crown responded by sending groups of Iberian orphan maidens to marry both cohorts of marriageable men, the nobles and the peasants. Some of which were even primarily studying to be nuns. The Crown also shipped over many Órfãs d'El-Rei of what was considered "good birth" to colonial Brazil to marry Portuguese settlers of high rank. Órfãs d'El-Rei (modern Portuguese órfãs do rei) literally translates to "Orphans of the King", and they were Portuguese female orphans in nubile age. There were noble and non-noble maidens and they were daughters of military compatriots who died in battle for the king or noblemen who died overseas and whose upbringing was paid by the Crown. Bahia's port in the East received one of the first groups of orphans in 1551. The multiplication of descendants of Portuguese settlers also happened to a large degree through miscegenation with black and amerindian women. In fact, in colonial Brazil the Portuguese men competed for the women, because among the African slaves the female component was also a small minority. This explains why the Portuguese men left more descendants in Brazil than the Amerindian or African men did. The Indian and African women were "dominated" by the Portuguese men, preventing men of color to find partners with whom they could have children. Added to this, White people had a much better quality of life and therefore a lower mortality rate than the black and indigenous population. Then, even though the Portuguese migration during colonial Brazil was smaller (3.2 million Indians estimated at the beginning of colonization and 3.6 million Africans brought since then, compared to the descendants of the over 700,000 Portuguese immigrants) the "white" population (whose ancestry was predominantly Portuguese) was as large as the "non white" population in the early 19th century, just before independence from Portugal. After independence from Portugal in 1822, around 1.7 million Portuguese immigrants settled in Brazil. Portuguese immigration into Brazil in the 19th and 20th centuries was marked by its concentration in the states of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. The immigrants opted mostly for urban centers. Portuguese women appeared with some regularity among immigrants, with percentage variation in different decades and regions of the country. However, even among the more recent influx of Portuguese immigrants at the turn of the 20th century, there were 319 men to each 100 women among them. The Portuguese were different from other immigrants in Brazil, like the Germans, or Italians who brought many women along with them (even though the proportion of men was higher in any immigrant community). Despite the small female proportion, Portuguese men married mainly Portuguese women. Female immigrants rarely married Brazilian men. In this context, the Portuguese had a rate of endogamy which was higher than any other European immigrant community, and behind only the Japanese among all immigrants.
Even with Portuguese heritage, many Portuguese-Brazilians identify themselves as being simply Brazilians, since Portuguese culture was a dominant cultural influence in the formation of Brazil (like many British Americans in the United States, who will never describe themselves as of British extraction, but only as "Americans").
In 1872, there were 3.7 million Whites in Brazil (the vast majority of them of Portuguese ancestry), 4.1 million mixed-race people (mostly of Portuguese-African-Native American ancestry) and 1.9 million Blacks. These numbers give the percentage of 80% of people with total or partial Portuguese ancestry in Brazil in the 1870s.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a new large wave of immigrants from Portugal arrived. From 1881 to 1991, over 1.5 million Portuguese immigrated to Brazil. In 1906, for example, there were 133,393 Portuguese-born people living in Rio de Janeiro, comprising 16% of the city's population. Rio is, still today, considered the largest "Portuguese city" outside of Portugal itself, with 1% Portuguese-born people.
Genetic studies also confirm the strong Portuguese genetic influence in Brazilians. According to a study, at least half of the Brazilian population's Y Chromosome (male inheritance) comes from Portugal. Black Brazilians have an average of 48% non-African genes, most of them may come from Portuguese ancestors. On the other hand, 33% Amerindian and 28% African contribution to the total mtDNA (female inheritance) of white Brazilians was found
An autosomal study from 2013, with nearly 1300 samples from all of the Brazilian regions, found a predominant degree of European ancestry (mostly Portuguese, due to the dominant Portuguese influx among European colonization and immigration to Brazil) combined with African and Native American contributions, in varying degrees. 'Following an increasing North to South gradient, European ancestry was the most prevalent in all urban populations (with values from 51% to 74%). The populations in the North consisted of a significant proportion of Native American ancestry that was about two times higher than the African contribution. Conversely, in the Northeast, Center-West and Southeast, African ancestry was the second most prevalent. At an intrapopulation level, all urban populations were highly admixed, and most of the variation in ancestry proportions was observed between individuals within each population rather than among population'.
A large community-based multicenter autosomal study from 2015, considering representative samples from three different urban communities located in the Northeast (Salvador, capital of Bahia), Southeast (Bambuí, interior of Minas Gerais) and South Brazilian (Pelotas, interior of Rio Grande do Sul) regions, estimated European ancestry to be 42.4%, 83.8% and 85.3%, respectively. In all three cities, European ancestors were mainly Iberian.
It was estimated that around 25 million or more Brazilians can acquire Portuguese citizenship, due to the last Portuguese nationality law that grants citizenship to grandchildren of Portuguese nationals.
- "Estudo descobre 31,19 milhões de portugueses pelo mundo". Dn.pt. Retrieved 2014-08-24.
- Portuguese ethnicity is more clear-cut than Spanish ethnicity, but here also, the case is complicated by the Portuguese ancestry of populations in the former colonial empire. Portugal has 11 million nationals. The 42 million figure is due to a study estimating a total of an additional 31 million descendants from Portuguese grandparents; these people would be eligible for Portuguese citizenship under Portuguese nationality law (which grants citizenship to grandchildren of Portuguese nationals). Emigração: A diáspora dos portugueses (2009)
- Parra FC, Amado RC, Lambertucci JR, Rocha J, Antunes CM, Pena SD (January 2003). "Color and genomic ancestry in Brazilians". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 100 (1): 177–82. Bibcode:2002PNAS..100..177P. PMC . PMID 12509516. doi:10.1073/pnas.0126614100.
- "The Genomic Ancestry of Individuals from Different Geographical Regions of Brazil Is More Uniform Than Expected". Plos One. 2011-02-16. Retrieved 2014-08-25.
- "Statistics Portugal". Retrieved 28 April 2016.
- NOVAimagem.co.pt / Portugal em LInha (2006-02-17). "Cinco milhões de netos de emigrantes podem tornar-se portugueses". Noticiaslusofonas.com. Retrieved 2014-08-25.
- Cite error: The named reference
https:.2F.2Fbooks.google.com.br.2Fbooks.3Fid.3Do5txCgAAQBAJ.26pg.3DPT268.26dq.3Dbisneto.2Bde.2Bportugueses.2B25.2Bmilh.C3.B5es.26hl.3Dpt-BR.26sa.3DX.26ved.3D0CBwQ6AEwAGoVChMIpYSo7__5yAIVBBKQCh3-4QcN.23v.3Donepage.26q.3Dbisneto.2520de.2520portugueses.252025.2520milh.25C3.25B5es.26f.3Dfalsewas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- Cite error: The named reference
http:.2F.2Fbr.monografias.com.2Ftrabalhos.2Ffora-diversidade-identidades.2Ffora-diversidade-identidades2.shtml.23_Toc143094349was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- Foto: LUIS ACOSTA/AFP. "Maior comunidade portuguesa da América Latina esperançada numa nova Venezuela". JN. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
- "Observatório da Emigração". Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
- "Ethnic Origin (264), Single and Multiple Ethnic Origin Responses (3), Generation Status (4), Age Groups (10) and Sex (3) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2011 National Household Survey".
- "José Eduardo dos Santos diz que trabalhadores portugueses são bem-vindos em Angola". Observatório da Emigração. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
...presença de cerca de 200 mil trabalhadores portugueses no país...
- "Ausländerinnen und Ausländer in der Schweiz - Bericht 2008 (German)" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-08-24.
- Afonso, Alexandre. "Permanently Provisional. History, Facts & Figures of Portuguese Immigration in Switzerland". International Migration. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2435.2010.00636.x. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
- "The Portugal-born Community". Retrieved 28 April 2016.
- "Observatório da Emigração". Observatorioemigracao.secomunidades.pt. 27 May 2014. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
- "Expresso". Jornal Expresso. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
- "Demographic Report" (PDF). The Guardian. 2011. p. 15.
- "Census – Final results: Portugal – 2011". Statistics Portugal. 2012. p. 530. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
- Gene Test Shows Spain’s Jewish and Muslim Mix
- "Unesco.org". Unesco.org. 2014-08-09. Retrieved 2014-08-24.
- "Portal SEF". Sef.pt. Retrieved 2014-08-24.
- "European Roma Rights Centre". Errc.org. Retrieved 2014-08-24.
- "A Imigração em Portugal,Comunidades lusófonas, Países do Leste da Europa". Imigrantes.no.sapo.pt. Retrieved 2014-08-24.
- "Portugal - Emigration". Countrystudies.us. Retrieved 2014-08-24.
- Jorge Malheiros (2002-12-01). "Portugal Seeks Balance of Emigration, Immigration". Migrationinformation.org. Retrieved 2014-08-24.
- "Recently Portuguese Immigrants in Brazil". Archived from the original on 25 April 2006. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- Direcção Geral dos Assuntos Consulares e Comunidades Portuguesas do Ministério dos Negócios Estrangeiros (1999), Dados Estatísticos sobre as Comunidades Portuguesas, IC/CP - DGACCP/DAX/DID - Maio 1999.
- "Portuguese Jews in Brazil". Archived from the original on 6 March 2001. Retrieved 7 July 2007. (in Portuguese)
- Joshua Project. "Bermuda :: Joshua Project". Retrieved 28 April 2016.
- "Bermuda". Solarnavigator.net. Retrieved 2014-08-24.
- "Portuguese emigration from Madeira to British Guiana". Guyana.org. 2000-05-07. Retrieved 2014-08-24.
- "The Portuguese in Trinidad and Tobago". Archived from the original on 25 February 2002. Retrieved 7 September 2008.
- "The Portuguese of the West Indies". Freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com. 2001-07-31. Retrieved 2014-08-24.
- Portugal - Emigration, Eric Solsten, ed. Portugal: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1993.
- Dismantling the Portuguese Empire, Time Magazine (Monday, Jul. 07, 1975)
- Portugal Migration, The Encyclopedia of the Nations
- "UK-Portuguese Newspaper Launched in Thetford Norfolk". NewswireToday. Retrieved 2009-01-17.
- SILVA, A. J. M. (2015), The fable of the cod and the promised sea. About Portuguese traditions of bacalhau, in BARATA, F. T- and ROCHA, J. M. (eds.), Heritages and Memories from the Sea, Proceedings of the 1st International Conference of the UNESCO Chair in Intangible Heritage and Traditional Know-How: Linking Heritage, 14–16 January 2015. University of Evora, Évora, pp. 130-143. PDF version
- "2008 Community Survey". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2012-09-18.
- Statistics Canada. "2011 National Household Survey: Data tables". Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- NOVAimagem.co.pt / Portugal em LInha (2006-02-17). "Notícias do Brasil | Noticias do Brasil, Portugal e países de língua portuguesa e comunidades portuguesas". Noticiaslusofonas.com. Retrieved 2014-08-25.
- "Country-of-birth database". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Archived from the original on 11 May 2005. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
- "CBS Statline". Statline.cbs.nl. Retrieved 2014-08-25.
- "Population par subdivision territoriale et selon la nationalité 2001" (in French). Statec. Retrieved 2007-07-01.
- Macao Country Study Guide Volume 1 Strategic Information and Developments. Retrieved 2014-08-25.
- (in Portuguese)Sidney Arnold Pakeman, "Ceylon", Praeger, 1964
- (in Portuguese)Portugueses na Austrália
- "Portuguese Migration Observatory (Portuguese)"
- "IBGE teen". Archived from the original on 23 September 2009. Retrieved 29 December 2011.
- Renato Pinto Venâncio, "Presença portuguesa: de colonizadores a imigrantes", chap. 3 of Brasil: 500 anos de povoamento (IBGE). Relevant extract available here Archived 24 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
- History of Immigration to the United States#Population in 1790
- "Desmundo de Alain Fresnot, o Brasil no século XVI". ensinarhistoria. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
- "Desmundo by Ana Miranda (1996)". companhiadasletras.com.br. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
- "Desmundo by Ana Miranda". companhiadasletras.com.br. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
- Telfer (1932), p. 184.
- Bethell (1984), p. 47.
- Ribeiro, Darcy. O Povo Brasileiro, Companhia de Bolso, fourth reprint, 2008 (2008)
- "A Integração social e económica dos emigrantes portugueses no Brasil" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-08-25.
- Retrato Molecular- Genética
- Do outro lado do Atlântico: um século de imigração italiana no Brasil. Retrieved 2014-08-25.
- "A integração social e económica dos imigrantes portugueses no Brasil nos finais do século xix e no século xx" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-08-25.
- "Evolution of Brazilian population according to "colour" (Evolução da população brasileira segundo a cor), in Reis, J.J., "Presença Negra: conflitos e encontros", in Brasil: 500 anos de povoamento, 2000, Rio de Janeiro, IBGE - Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística". Archived from the original on 5 March 2001. Retrieved 21 November 2006., from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, p. 94.
- "Venâncio, R.P., "Presença portuguesa: de colonizadores a imigrantes", in Brasil 500 anos, 2000, Rio de Janeiro, IBGE - Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística". Archived from the original on 24 November 2002. Retrieved 6 May 2009., from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics.
- Carvalho, R., Pelos mesmos direitos do imigrante, 2003, Observatório da Imprensa from the State University of Campinas (Brazil).