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Immigration to Spain by country (2008)

Immigration to Spain increased significantly in the beginning of the 21st century. In 1998, immigrants accounted for 1.6% of the population, and by 2009, that number had jumped to above 12% — one of the highest in Europe at the time. Until 2014, the numbers were decreasing due to the economical crisis, but since then, immigration to Spain has increased again since 2015 and immigrants now account for 12.8% of the Spanish population, according to the United Nations. As of 2018, there were over 5,947,106 foreign-born people in Spain, 12.8% of the total population.[1] This makes Spain one of the world's preferred destinations to immigrate to, being the 4th country in Europe by immigration numbers. Spain attracts significant immigration from Latin America and Eastern Europe. The fastest-growing immigrant groups in 2017 were Venezuelans, Colombians, Italians, Ukrainians, and Argentinians.[2]

The population of Spain doubled during the 20th century due to the spectacular demographic boom in the 1960s and early 1970s. The birth rate then plunged by the 1980s, and Spain's population became stagnant, its demographics showing one of the lowest sub-replacement fertility rate in the world.[citation needed].

During the early 21st century, the average year-on-year demographic growth set a new record with its 2003 peak variation of 2.1%, doubling the previous record reached back in the 1960s when a mean year on year growth of 1% was experienced.[3] This trend is far from being reversed at the present moment and, in 2005 alone, the immigrant population of Spain increased by 700,000 people.[4]

Contents

CurrentlyEdit

Foreign population in Spain[5][6][7]
Year Population % total
1981 198,042 0.52%
1986 241,971 0.63%
1991 360,655 0.91%
1996 542,314 1.37%
1998 637,085 1.60%
2000 923,879 2.28%
2001 1,370,657 3.33%
2002 1,977,946 4.73%
2003 2,664,168 6.24%
2004 3,034,326 7.02%
2005 3,730,610 8.46%
2006 4,144,166 9.27%
2007 4,519,554 10.0%
2008 5,268,762 11.4%
2009 5,648,671 12.1%
2010 5,747,734 12.2%
2011 5,751,487 12.2%
2012 5,736,258 12.1%
2013 5,546,238 11.8%
2014 5,023,487 10.7%
2015 4,729,644 10.1%
2016 4,618,581 9.9%
2017 4,572,807 9.8%

According to the United Nations, there were 5,947,106 immigrants in Spain in early 2018, 12.8% of population of Spain.[8] According to the Spanish government, there were 5.6 million foreign residents in Spain in 2010; independent estimates put the figure 14% of total population (Red Cross, World Disasters Report 2006). According to the official 2011 census data, almost 800,000 were Romanian, 774,000 were Moroccan, 317,000 were Ecuadorian, 312,000 were British and 250,000 were Colombian [11]. Other important foreign communities are Bolivian (4.1%), German (3.4%), Italian (3.1%), Bulgarian (2.9%), Chinese (2.6%) and Argentine (2.5%). In 2005, a regularization programme increased the legal immigrant population by 700,000 people. Since 2000, Spain has experienced high population growth as a result of immigration flows, despite a birth rate that is only half of the replacement level. This sudden and ongoing inflow of immigrants, particularly those arriving clandestinely by sea, has caused noticeable social tensions.[citation needed]

According to Eurostat, in 2010, there were 6.4 million foreign-born residents in Spain, corresponding to 14.0% of the total population. Of these, 4.1 million (8.9%) were born outside the EU and 2.3 million (5.1%) were born in another EU Member State.[9]

As of 2005 Spain had the second highest immigration rates within the EU, just after Cyprus, and the second highest absolute net migration in the World (after the USA).[10] This can be explained by a number of reasons including its strong economic growth at the time, the large size of its underground economy and the strength of the agricultural and construction sectors which demand more low cost labour than can be offered by the national workforce, as well as business opportunities for immigrants coming from other developed countries. In fact, booming Spain was Europe's largest absorber of migrants from 2002 to 2007, with its immigrant population more than doubling as 2.5 million people arrived.[citation needed]

Over 920,000 immigrants arrived in Spain during 2007, on top of the 802,971 new arrivals in 2006, 682,711 new arrivals in 2005, and 645,844 new arrivals in 2004.[11]

 
Impact of immigration on the Spanish population pyramid

Although the number of immigrants in Spain, officially, is smaller than that of other countries in the EU, the following data should be taken into consideration:

  • Immigrants from countries belonging to the former Spanish Empire (mainly in Central and South America–Latin America–, Asia–the Philippines– and Africa–Equatorial Guinea and Western Sahara–) can obtain Spanish nationality after legal and continuous residence of 2 years in Spain, after which naturalized citizens are no longer counted as immigrants.
  • In order to avoid statelessness, Spain automatically grants Spanish nationality to the children of immigrants born in Spain whose parents' nationality of origin is not transferred jus sanguinis upon their child's birth abroad. This is unlike many other countries in the EU.[citation needed] It is for this reason that although the Latin American immigrants of origin are most numerous, the Romanians or the Moroccans surpassed them in the official statistics.

In the same way the majority of children born in Spain between 2000 and 2010 are children of immigrants despite not counting as such. Considering these data, there are sectors of Spanish society who oppose immigration that affirm the real number of immigrants in Spain is 10–11 million, or about 25% of the total population.

As for nationalities outside of this category, in order to stay in Spain for more than 3 months, a residence card, residence visa or work permit is required.[12]

In all, two distinct groups can be identified: those immigrants (mostly in working age) originating from countries mostly located in Eastern Europe, South America or Africa, with lower GDP per capita than Spain, comprising most of the immigrating population, and those (whom many are retired) immigrants originating from northern European or another western countries with a higher GDP per capita than Spain.[13]

Immigrants from the European UnionEdit

Immigrants from the European Union make up a growing proportion of immigrants in Spain. The main countries of origin are Romania, the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, and Bulgaria.

The British authorities estimate that the real population of UK citizens living in Spain is much bigger than Spanish official figures suggest, establishing them at about 1,000,000, about 800,000 being permanent residents.[14] Of these, according to the BBC and contrary to popular belief, only about 21.5% are over the age of 65.[15]

In fact, according to the Financial Times, Spain is the most favoured destination for West Europeans considering to move from their own country and seek jobs elsewhere in the EU.[16]

Social attitudes to immigrationEdit

Unlike other countries in the EU, Spain has not recorded any relevant anti-immigration bout to date.[17] According to some analysts, the causes behind this are multiple. In addition to the lack of strong right-wing political parties, it also must be added that the legacy of Francoist Spain left an ingrained skepticism towards rightwing authoritarianism. Drawing from the experience of many Spaniards during the 1960s and then again in the beginning of the 21st century when the crisis struck the country, there may be also a collective understanding that hardships force people to seek work abroad.[17]

A January 2004 survey by Spanish newspaper El País showed that the "majority" of Spaniards believe immigration was too high.[18] Small parties, such as Movimiento Social Español, openly campaign using nationalist or anti-immigrant rhetoric as do other small far-right parties such as National Democracy (Spain) and España 2000. These parties have never won national or regional parliamentary seats.

Immigration by country of originEdit

Major immigrationEdit

This chart shows the numbers and difference of foreign nationals in Spain after 2001. European Union member states are indicated with the EU flag in regional European sub-divisions. The number of Latin American immigrants decreased massively after 2009 mostly due to the naturalization of hundreds of thousands of these citizens who achieved the Spanish citizenship and therefore don't count as immigrants anymore on the official statistics.[19] See the chart from below from the "Naturalizations" paragraph for further information.

Origin 2014[20] 2011[21] 2007[22] 2006 2001 Growth
2001–2011
% Change Article
   Romania 730,340 798,104 527,019 407,159 31,641 766,463 +2,522% Romanians in Spain
  Morocco 714,221 769,920 582,923 563,012 233,415 536,505 +230% Moroccans in Spain
   United Kingdom 311,774 390,880 314,951 274,722 107,326 283,554 +264% British migration to Spain
  Ecuador 212,970 359,076 427,099 461,310 139,022 220,054 +158% Ecuadorians in Spain
   Italy 182,249 187,847 135,108 115,791 34,689 153,158 +441% Italians in Spain
  Colombia 172,368 271,773 261,542 265,141 87,209 184,564 +212% Colombians in Spain
  China 164,555 166,223 106,652 104,681 27,574 138,649 +503% Chinese people in Spain
   Germany 149,522 195,842 164,405 150,490 99,217 96,625 +97% Germans in Spain
   Bulgaria 140,206 172,634 122,057 101,617 12,035 160,599 +1,334% Bulgarians in Spain
  Bolivia 126,421 197,895 200,496 139,802 6,619 191,276 +2,890% Bolivians in Spain
   Portugal 109,568 140,706 100,616 80,635 47,064 93,642 +199% Portuguese in Spain
   France 100,448 122,385 100,408 90,021 51,582 70,803 +137% French in Spain
  Peru 83,583 131,886 103,650 95,903 34,975 96,911 +277% Peruvians in Spain
  Ukraine 81,625 85,913 69,983 69,893 10,318 75,595 +733% Ukranians in Spain
  Argentina 80,910 120,012 141,159 150,252 32,429 87,583 +270% Argentines in Spain
  Dominican Republic 77,280 90,612 65,119 61,071 31,153 59,459 +191% Dominicans in Spain
   Poland 70,606 85,862 61,464 45,797 13,469 72,393 +537% Poles in Spain
  Brazil 63,365 106,908 90,161 72,441 17,078 89,830 +526% -
  Russia 62,452 52,832 39,798 39,904 10,047 42,785 +426% Russians in Spain
  Algeria 56,282 60,538 45,813 47,079 18,265 42,273 +231% -
  Paraguay 55,524 87,406 46,238 28,587 928 86,478 +9,319% Paraguayans in Spain
  Pakistan 55,452 69,841 42,105 42,138 8,274 61,567 +744% Pakistanis in Spain
  Senegal 51,046 63,248 36,955 35,079 10,627 52,621 +495% -
  Cuba 49,992 54,406 45,698 44,739 24,534 29,872 +122% -
   Netherlands 46,914 54,424 44,398 39,484 23,146 31,278 +135% -
  Venezuela 44,290 59,453 51,481 51,261 16,549 42,904 +259% Venezuelans in Spain
  Nigeria 38,546 44,870 32,119 31,588 7,598 37,272 +490% -
   Belgium 31,128 35,876 31,412 29,526 19,869 16,007 +80% -
  Philippines 30,079 - 54,385 51,368 - 3,017 - Filipinos in Spain
  Uruguay 28,437 42,581 46,069 45,508 6,828 35,753 +524% Uruguayans in Spain
  Chile 27,064 41,712 40,844 39,704 11,674 30,038 +257% -
  Mexico 22,486 Mexicans in Spain
TOTAL 4,676,022 5,730,667 4,519,554 4,144,166 1,370,657 4,360,010 +318%

From other countriesEdit

EuropeEdit

European Union member states are indicated with the EU flag in regional European sub-divisions.

Origin 2007 2006 Ref.
  Albania 1,353 1,316 [23]
  Andorra 1,022 1,075
   Austria 8,651 7,776
  Belarus 3,135 3,262
  Bosnia and Herzegovina 1,659 1,827
   Croatia 1,649 1,788
   Cyprus 146 130
   Czech Republic 6,423 5,160
   Denmark 10,906 9,977
   Estonia 984 784
   Finland 9,990 9,313
   Greece 3,567 3,027
   Hungary 4,597 3,344
  Iceland 1,083 920
   Ireland 13,279 11,495
   Latvia 2,128 1,741
  Liechtenstein 48 117
   Lithuania 18,528 15,200
   Luxembourg 562 1,336
  North Macedonia 407 440
   Malta 152 129
  Moldova 12,801 11,330
  Norway 15,630 14,154
  Serbia 3,133 3,474
   Slovakia 5,999 4,515
   Slovenia 799 619
   Sweden 20,058 18,096
   Switzerland 16,361 15,385
Rest of European countries 66 83
TOTAL EUROPE 1,895,727 1,609,856

AfricaEdit

Origin 2007 2006 Article
  Angola 2,114 3,698
  Cape Verde 2,998 3,611
  Cameroon 4,029 3,955
  Republic of the Congo 1,801 1,888
  Ivory Coast 1,636 1,759
  Egypt 2,566 3,634 Egyptians in Spain
  Gambia 17,393 13,627
  Ghana 12,699 13,133
  Guinea 9,159 9,901
  Equatorial Guinea 13,129 19,456 Spanish Equatoguineans
  Guinea-Bissau 5,229 5,274
  Liberia 581 1,167
  Mali 17,094 14,497
  Mauritania 9,271 9,308
  DR Congo 1,008 1,548
  Sierra Leone 989 1,487
  South Africa 704 2,086
  Tunisia 1,544 2,194 Tunisians in Spain
Rest of African countries 5,041 8,679
TOTAL 806.795

Central AmericaEdit

Origin 2007 2006
  Costa Rica 1,320 2,373
  El Salvador 3,795 5,102
  Guatemala 2,417 4,321
  Honduras 14,253 10,652
  Nicaragua 4,547 4,204
  Panama 1,794 3,520
Rest of Central America countries 1,002 2,517
TOTAL 139.945

North AmericaEdit

Origin 2007 2006
  Canada 2,419 5,420
  United States 22,082 32,626
  Mexico 21,107 40,574
TOTAL 45.608

AsiaEdit

Origin 2007 2006 Article
  Armenia 9,582 9,365 Armenians in Spain
  Georgia 7,355 6,284
  Philippines 54,385 51,368 Filipinos in Spain
  South Korea 22,465 13,144 Koreans in Spain
  India 21,296 23,296
  Bangladesh 6,480 6,130
  Iran 12,334 4,568 Iranians in Spain
  Iraq 880 1,706 Iraqi people in Spain
  Israel 1,713 2,427
  Japan 11,636 7,684 Japanese Spaniards
  Jordan 1,088 2,082 Jordanian people in Spain
  Lebanon 6,250 2,750 Lebanese people in Spain
  Syria 6,129 4,575 Syrian people in Spain
  Turkey 1,758 1,656 Turks in Spain
Rest of Asian countries 6,430 2,517
TOTAL 219.843

OceaniaEdit

Origin 2007 2006
  Australia 1,455 5,131
  New Zealand 301 298
Rest of Oceanian countries 494 1,099
TOTAL 2.271

Comparison with other countries from European UnionEdit

According to Eurostat 47.3 million people lived in the European Union in 2010 who were born outside their resident country. This corresponds to 9.4% of the total EU population. Of these, 31.4 million (6.3%) were born outside the EU and 16.0 million (3.2%) were born in another EU member state. The largest absolute numbers of people born outside the EU were in Germany (6.4 million), France (5.1 million), the United Kingdom (4.7 million), Spain (4.1 million), Italy (3.2 million), and the Netherlands (1.4 million).[24]

Country Total population (millions) Total Foreign-born (millions) % Born in other EU state (millions) % Born in a non EU state (millions) %
Germany 81.802 9.812 12.0 3.396 4.2 6.415 7.8
France 64.716 7.196 11.1 2.118 3.3 5.078 7.8
United Kingdom 62.008 7.012 11.3 2.245 3.6 4.767 7.7
Spain 45.989 6.422 14.0 2.328 5.1 4.094 8.9
Italy 60.343 4.798 8.0 1.592 2.6 3.205 5.3
Netherlands 16.575 1.832 11.1 0.428 2.6 1.404 8.5
Greece 11.305 1.256 11.1 0.315 2.8 0.940 8.3
Sweden 9.340 1.337 14.3 0.477 5.1 0.859 9.2
Austria 8.367 1.276 15.2 0.512 6.1 0.764 9.1
Belgium 10.666 1.380 12.9 0.695 6.5 0.685 6.4
Portugal 10.637 0.793 7.5 0.191 1.8 0.602 5.7
Denmark 5.534 0.500 9.0 0.152 2.8 0.348 6.3
EU 27 501.098 47.348 9.4 15.980 3.2 31.368 6.3

Irregular migrationEdit

Irregular migration to Spain is the act of foreign nationals entering Spain, without government permission and in violation of the given nationality law, or staying beyond the termination date of a visa, also in violation of the law.

In order to deal with the overwhelming numbers of illegal immigrants the government has initiated an amnesty in 2005 to reduce the problem. Some critics believe this will only encourage Chain migration.[25][26][27][28]

NaturalizationsEdit

Since the end of the 20th century the number of foreigners who have obtained Spanish nationality has grown steadily, as Spain has been the EU country with the biggest number of approved naturalizations since 2010 until 2015. 1 out of 4 naturalizations made in the European Union in 2014 were belonging to Spain. Most of these naturalizations went to citizens coming from Latin America (which explains the massive decrease of these citizens counting as immigrants in Spain) mainly from Colombia, Ecuador and Perú, although Morocco was amongst the top 3 as well.[29] After 4 years being the first, Spain dropped to the 3rd position in 2015 due to the stricter laws to naturalize citizens. Still, 114.351 foreigners became Spanish citizens in 2015, the majority being Latin Americans. [30]

New Spanish nationals by naturalization, 2005-2015[31]
Year Naturalizations
2005 42.829
2006 62.339
2007 71.810
2008 84.170
2009 79.597
2010 123.721
2011 114.599
2012 115.557
2013 261.295
2014 205.880
2015 114.351

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Sube el número de inmigrantes que viven en España". Datosmacro (in Spanish). 2017. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
  2. ^ R. Sanmartín, Olga (25 June 2018). "La llegada de inmigrantes a España aumenta un 28% y hace crecer la población por segundo año consecutivo". El Mundo (in Spanish). Madrid: Unidad Editorial. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
  3. ^ "Official report on Spanish recent Macroeconomics, including data and comments on immigration" (PDF). La Moncloa: 13–43. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 July 2008. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
  4. ^ "Evolution of the foreign population in Spain since 1998". Instituto Nacional de Estadística (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
  5. ^ Fuente: para los años 1981, 1986 y 1991, los datos se refieren tan sólo a extranjeros con permiso de residencia a 31 de diciembre y proceden del Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales, citado en [1][permanent dead link] (tomando, para el porcentaje de 1986, la población española de hecho según la estimación intercensal del INE para el 1 de julio [2]). Para los datos de 1996 y posteriores, todos los datos proceden del INE [3]
  6. ^ For 2013 and 2014
  7. ^ http://www.ine.es/jaxi/Datos.htm?path=/t20/e245/p08/l0/&file=02002.px
  8. ^ https://datosmacro.expansion.com/demografia/migracion/inmigracion/espana
  9. ^ 6.5% of the EU population are foreigners and 9.4% are born abroad Archived August 12, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Eurostat, Katya VASILEVA, 34/2011.
  10. ^ Eurostat – Population in Europe in 2005 Archived August 19, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. (PDF) . Retrieved on 2011-11-14.
  11. ^ Kern, Soeren (2009-05-13), "Immigration Policy a Casualty of Unemployment in Spain", World Politics Review, retrieved 2009-06-29
  12. ^ Zelmenis, Artis (2013-09-11), "Spanish Immigration Policy", Baltic Legal
  13. ^ Membrado, Joan Carles (May 21, 2014). "Pensioners' Coast. Migration of Elderly North Europeans to the Costa Blanca". Mètode (in Catalan). University of Valencia (81). doi:10.7203/metode.81.3111. Retrieved August 10, 2017.
  14. ^ [4] [5] [6] [7] "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 23, 2010. Retrieved January 25, 2011.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)[8] [9] [10]
  15. ^ Special Reports | Brits Abroad. BBC News. Retrieved on 2011-11-14.
  16. ^ News.bg – Europeans Favour Spain for Expat Jobs. International.ibox.bg. Retrieved on 2011-11-14.
  17. ^ a b Buck, Tobias (17 January 2017). "No right turn for Spanish politics". Financial Times. Retrieved 2017-01-19.
  18. ^ Staff writer (23 June 2004). "Immigration time-bomb". Expatica. Bram Lebo. Archived from the original on 28 May 2006. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
  19. ^ http://www.elperiodico.com/es/sociedad/20160613/espana-fue-el-pais-de-la-ue-que-mas-nacionalidades-concedio-5201076
  20. ^ Govan, Fiona (22 April 2014). "End to Mediterranean dream for 90,000 Britons who left Spain last year". Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
  21. ^ "Avance del Padrón municipal a 1 de enero de 2011" (PDF). INE (in Spanish). 4 April 2011. pp. 1–5. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
  22. ^ "Población extranjera por sexo, país de nacionalidad y edad (hasta 85 y más)". Instituto Nacional de Estadística (in Spanish). 2007. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
  23. ^ "Población extranjera por Nacionalidad, Sexo y Año". Instituto Nacional de Estadística (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 June 2019.
  24. ^ 6.5% of the EU population are foreigners and 9.4% are born abroad Archived August 12, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Eurostat, Katya VASILEVA, 34/2011.
  25. ^ "Spain Helping Mauritania Slow Illegal Immigration". Voice of America. Retrieved 2012-04-01.
  26. ^ "Spain, Like U.S., Grapples With Immigration". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-04-01.
  27. ^ "Spain sees significant drop in illegal immigrants in 2009". Xinhuanet. Retrieved 2012-04-01.
  28. ^ Katya Adler, "Spain stands by immigrant amnesty," BBC (25 May 2005). Retrieved 29-10-2013.
  29. ^ Martínez, Silvia (13 June 2016). "Uno de cada cuatro extranjeros que obtuvieron la nacionalidad en la UE en 2014 la lograron en España". El Periódico (in Spanish). Grupo Zeta. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
  30. ^ "España fue el tercer país de la UE que más extranjeros nacionalizó en 2015, según Eurostat". Europa Press (in Spanish). 23 April 2017. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
  31. ^ "Población (españoles/extranjeros) por País de Nacimiento, sexo y año". Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Retrieved 7 June 2019.

External linksEdit