Vox (political party)

Vox (Latin for "voice", often stylized as VOX; Spanish pronunciation: [ˈboks]) is a political party in Spain. Founded in 2013, the party is led by party president Santiago Abascal and secretary general Javier Ortega Smith.[25] While Vox self-identifies as a conservative party, it is identified as right-wing to far-right by academics and mainstream journalists.[19]

Vox
PresidentSantiago Abascal
Secretary-GeneralJavier Ortega Smith
Founded17 December 2013
Split fromPeople's Party
HeadquartersC / Bambú 12 28036 Madrid, Spain
Membership (2020)Increase 62,374[1]
Ideology
Political positionRight-wing[18] to far-right[19][a]
European affiliationEuropean Conservatives and Reformists Party
European Parliament groupEuropean Conservatives and Reformists[21]
Colours  Green
Congress of Deputies
52 / 350
Senate
3 / 265
European Parliament
4 / 59
Regional parliaments
70 / 1,268
Mayors in Spain
5 / 8,122
Town councillors
525 / 67,121
Website
www.voxespana.es

^ a: Vox is considered part of the radical right, a subset of the far-right that does not oppose democracy.[4][22][23][24]

The party entered the Spanish parliament for the first time in the April 2019 general election, having become the country's third political force after the November 2019 Spanish general election that same year, in which it secured 3.6 million votes and 52 seats in the Congress of Deputies.

HistoryEdit

 
Javier Ortega Smith giving a speech in 2018

OriginsEdit

Vox was founded on 17 December 2013,[26] and publicly launched at a press conference in Madrid on 16 January 2014[27][28] as a split from the People's Party. This schism was interpreted as an offshoot of "neoconservative"[29] or "social conservative"[30] PP party members.[a] The party platform sought to rewrite the constitution to abolish regional autonomy and parliaments.[28] Several of their promoters (for example: Alejo Vidal-Quadras, José Antonio Ortega Lara, and Santiago Abascal) had been members of the platform "reconversion.es" that issued a manifesto in 2012 vouching for the recentralization of the State.[31] Vidal-Quadras was proclaimed as the first chairman in March 2014.[32][b]

The initial funding, totalling nearly 972,000 euros, came from individual money transfers by supporters of the People's Mujahedin of Iran (MEK).[31][34]

Vox ran for the first time in the 2014 European elections but narrowly failed to win a seat in the European Parliament.[35]

In September 2014, the party elected Santiago Abascal, one of the founders, as new President, and Iván Espinosa de los Monteros, also a founder, as General Secretary. Eleven members of the National Executive Committee were also elected.

The party participated in the 2015 and the 2016 elections, but did not do well, scoring 0.23% and 0.20% of votes respectively.

After the Catalan referendum of 2017 and the start of a Spanish constitutional crisis, Vox opted to not participate in the Catalan regional elections of 2017.[36] After the Catalan declaration of independence, the party sued the Parliament of Catalonia and several independentist politicians[37] the number of its members increased by 20% in forty days.[38]

Entrance into institutionsEdit

On 10 September 2018, Vox enlisted an independent legislator in the regional parliament of Extremadura (who had dropped out of the PP parliamentary group) as party member.[39] On 2 December 2018, they won 12 parliamentary seats in the Andalusian regional election,[40] [41] entering a regional parliament for the first time. It supported the coalition regional government by Ciudadanos and the Popular Party. With this result, Vox was also given a first seat in the Senate of Spain, which was taken by Francisco José Alcaraz.[42]

The party obtained 10.26% of votes in the April 2019 general election, electing 24 Deputies and entering the Congress of Deputies for the first time in its history.[43] Later, the party entered for its first time in the European Parliament with 6.2% of the votes and three Eurodeputies, which after Brexit became four. After this election, the party joined the European Conservatives and Reformists group and the Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe.[21] In the second general election of the year in November, Vox came third and increased its number of deputies from 24 to 52.[44] It was the most-voted party in the Region of Murcia and the autonomous city of Ceuta.[45]

In the beginning of 2020, during the onset of global COVID-19 pandemic, Vox called for travel restrictions on travels between China and Spain, and later between Italy and Spain, to safeguard against the "Chinese virus".[46] At that time the epidemic was already in full swing in those countries, but it was prior to any COVID cases were officially confirmed within Spain in significant numbers. That position found no support among other parties, and it was criticized as the usual xenophobic rhetoric of Vox.[47][48] The party claims that serious counter-COVID measures were deliberately delayed in Spain by the government, which hid the information and downplayed known risks to allow for mass manifestations on the International Women's Day (8 March) to take place, as these manifestations were important for the leftists agenda of newly formed coalition government of PSOE and UP.[49] At the same time, Vox went forward with their own global party conference on 8 March in Vistalegre, where party supporters from all parts of Spain were invited. The conference resulted in numerous cases of COVID infection, including confirmed cases of COVID transmission between members of Vox leadership.[50][51] This fact was often brought up by Vox opponents to criticize Vox attitude towards COVID situation in Spain.[52]

During the anti-COVID lockdown and follow-up restrictions Vox routinely criticized government measures as inefficient, partisan, and partially unconstitutional.[53] In April 2020 the party appealed to the Constitutional Court of Spain against the first State of Alarm (15 March – 21 June) declared by the government.[54] In October 2020 the Vox's parliamentary group at the Congress of Deputies tabled a motion of no confidence against the current Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez, bringing Santiago Abascal as alternative candidate.[55] The motion failed to track any support among the rest of parliamentary forces, gathering 52 'yes' votes (those of Vox legislators) and 298 'no' votes (the rest of the chamber).[56] In November 2020 Vox appealed to the Constitutional Court of Spain against the second State of Alarm (October 25, 2020 – May 9, 2021) declared by the government.[57]

In the face of the 2020 United States presidential election, Vox was fully supportive of President Donald Trump's candidacy,[58] even tweeting from its official account that Joe Biden was the preferred candidate of "El País, Podemos, Otegi, Maduro, China, Iran and pedophiles", which according to the international news agency EFE was echoing QAnon conspiracy theories.[59] Vox took part in the 2021 CPAC conference and refused to acknowledge Biden's victory.[60]

In the beginning of 2021 Vox's abstention was instrumental to secure European COVID-recovery funds on socialist terms,[61] criticized by independent experts for allowing the government inefficient partisan spendings without any effective independent control.[citation needed] Many Vox supporters considered this as the "largest error in Vox's history",[62] leading to party leaders admitting it as a mistake and apologizing.[citation needed]

During 2020 and 2021 electoral campaigns for regional elections in Basque Country,[63] Catalonia,[64] and Community of Madrid[65] multiple legal electoral events of Vox were physically attacked by radical political opponents on the premises of "Vox's legitimate electoral events in some regions being provocative acts". The view on Vox's legal and peaceful electoral events as provocations was endorsed by high ranking UP members, including their speaker Pablo Echenique, and their leader, the Second Deputy Prime Minister of Spain at the time, Pablo Iglesias.[66]

On 14 July 2021, in response to the Vox's appeal the previous year, the Constitutional Court of Spain declared[67] by a narrow majority (6 votes in support vs. 5 votes against) that the first anti-COVID State of Alarm was unconstitutional in the part of suppressing the freedom of movement established by the Article 19 of the Constitution. In September 2021 news reported that the Constitutional Court of Spain will declare the second State of Alarm appealed by Vox as unconstitutional as well, the final official verdict is expected in October 2021.[68][69]

IdeologyEdit

Vox's ideology is a polarizing and debated topic. The party sees itself as a more right-wing alternative to the centre-right People's Party, from which it split in 2013. This point of view is shared by some Spanish media,[c] while some journalists and academics routinely describe it as a far-right party.[22] Adding to the confusion is the exact understanding of the "far-right" term by different sources. While some of scholars cited below, who qualify Vox as a far-right or radical right party, make a clear fundamental distinction between "far-right", "radical right", and "extreme right", other sources and laymen often treat these terms as equivalent. As a young party, Vox somewhat lacks a well-elaborated ideology basis, and might still be considered as "a party under construction", subject to day-to-day ideology adjustments, further complicating its analysis.[75]

According to the book by Rama, Zanotti, Turnbull-Dugarte, and Santana, Vox is a populist radical right party, in contrast to an extreme right. They view the party to be ideologically radical but not extreme since discursively it does not go against the central tenets of democracy. They write that "however, belonging to the populist radical right family means that the party communicates and advocates for policies that are somewhat at odds with some of the core principles of liberal democracy such as the rule of law, individual liberties or the rights of minorities." According to their analysis the central to Vox's ideology are: (i) a strong anti-immigration stance, and advocation for stricter law and order policies; (ii) a strong defence of the unity of Spain against all who allegedly want to break or undermine it; (iii) an opposition to what it labels as the "progressive dictatorship"; and aggressive defence of the Catholic religion and traditional moral values.[76]

Carles Ferreira in his analysis comes to the conclusion that Vox is a far-right organization as it fits the characteristics of the radical right party family. He sums up: "Vox's ideology is based on a combination of nationalism and xenophobia (nativism) and an authoritarian view of society, attached to the values of law and order. This authoritarianism, however, represents neither the willingness to establish an autocratic regime nor the use of violence to reach political goals." According to Ferreira, the nationalism, nativism, authoritarianism, and traditionalism are central to Vox's ideology; the neoliberalism is present but not central; the populism is indicated, but not explicit; and there is no antidemocratic views in the party's ideology.[23]

According to Xavier Casals the unifying part of Vox's ideology up to this point is a warlike ultranationalism, that is identified by the party with a palingenetic and biological vision of the country, the so-called España Viva, but also with a Catholic-inspired culture.[3] He says that ideological roots of the party's ultranationalism lie in the incondicionalismo ("unconditionalism"), the nationalist discourse based on the "fear of amputation of the homeland" coined in the 19th century in Colonial Cuba against Cuban separatism and also autonomist concessions (replicated in Catalonia in the 1910s).[77] Casals writes that their specific brand of Spanish nationalism is linked to the unconditional support to the State Security Forces and Corps,[78] and the party's discourse has also revived the myth of the Antiespaña ("Anti-Spain"), an umbrella term created in the 1930s by the domestic ultranationalist forces to designate the (inner) "Enemies of Spain",[5][79] creating a simplistic España viva/Antiespaña duality that comes handy for the communication in brief messages characteristic of social media.[78] Casals notes regarding the external projection of their discourse that the party has reanimated the concept of "Hispanidad"; party leader Abascal has stated that an immigrant coming from a "brotherly Hispanic-American country" is not comparable to the immigration coming from "Islamic countries".[80]

According to Guillermo Fernández Vázquez, Vox's discourse, which he described as "economically anti-statist and neoliberal" as well as "morally authoritarian", is similar to Jörg Haider's FPÖ or Jean Marie Le Pen's National Front from the 1980s, thus likening the emergence of the party to an archaic stage of current radical right parties, more worried about the need to modernize their image than Vox; the latter's approach to cultural issues would be in line with old school Spanish nationalist parties, restricting the scope of "culture" to "language and tradition".[81][82]

Vox supports the State of Israel within the context of Israeli–Palestinian conflict.[83] On the other hand, the party has appealed to conspiracy theories invoking the figure of George Soros as a mastermind behind Catalan separatism and the alleged "Islamization" of Europe.[84] A support of anti-Soros conspiracy is widely considered as a sign of antisemitism,[85] though leading figures of Vox never brought up the roots of Soros in their anti-Soros discourse. Vox used to feature some former neo-Nazis in party cadres and lists;[86][87] some of them have been expelled from the party or have resigned.[88][89] In November 2018, during a party event in Murcia, the party leader Santiago Abascal defined his party as "antifascist, anti-Nazi and anticommunist".[90]

Vox promotes the "pin parental" policy: changes in laws aimed to guarantee the rights of parents to control public education of their children, and veto their children from obligatory attendance to classes contradicting values of parents.[91] Party representatives claim that Spanish national and regional authorities abuse the control of the public education system to impose their political and ideological agenda on children.[91]

The party's discourse about the environment has evolved over time, going from climate change denial to a conservationist approach.[92] However, the party still opposes the mainstream environmental views, labelling them as "Green religion", and as recent as April 2021 voted against the Law for Climate Change and Energy Transition, which was adopted anyway.[93]

Vox has proposed that citizens should be allowed to keep arms at home, and supports the castle doctrine,[94][95] but does not support the right to carry arms or the free sale of firearms.[95] Current party leaders, Santiago Abascal and Javier Ortega, are both licensed to carry handgun for self-defence due to recurrent threats to their lives for their political activities.[96][97] Under strict Spanish gun laws, such licenses are rarely granted to civilians, only when authorities consider proven a real high risk of individual to be attacked (about 0.02% of the Spanish population holds such licenses).[98]

Social issuesEdit

Vox is considered anti-feminist,[99] and wants to repeal the gender violence law,[100] which they see as "discriminant against one of the sexes" and replace it with a "family violence law that will afford the same protection to the elderly, men, women and children who suffer from abuse".[101] Vox undermines the importance of feminist struggle in the advance of liberties of women by means of linking the latter to a culture with "Christian foundations".[102] Notable female figures in Vox leadership include: Rocío Monasterio, Macarena Olona, Rocío de Meer, among others.

Vox takes a pro-life stance when it comes to abortion.[103][104] The party advocates for life sentence to sex offenders and abusers.[105][106]

Vox opposes the legalization of euthanasia.[104] The party supports bullfighting, which it considers an important element of Spanish culture that should be defended.[107]

IslamEdit

While Vox's platform only espouses proposals against Islamic fundamentalism, the statements in the public sphere by party figures espouse a wider Islamophobia, helping to underpin, according to Casals, their discourse against Maghrebi immigration, the development of a closer bond to Catholicism.[102] The party pleads for the closure of fundamentalist mosques as well as the arrest and expulsion of extremist imams.[101] Vox has openly called for the deportation of tens of thousands of Muslims from Spain.[108] In 2019, the party's leader demanded a Reconquista or reconquest of Spain,[109] explicitly referencing a new expulsion of Muslim immigrants from the country.[110]

LGBTEdit

Vox opposes same-sex marriage[111] while supporting same-sex civil unions.[112] The party has been accused of homophobia[113][114] which the party denies.[111][94] Multiple Vox politicians have made disparaging statements about homosexuals.[114] Vox congratulated the Hungarian parliament for passing legislation[115] that would ban media and educational content which may be seen by underage persons from depicting LGBT individuals or addressing LGBT issues.[116]

Party leader Santiago Abascal has denied allegations of homophobia, stating in an interview that Vox is in no way a homophobic party and that it merely opposes "LGBT ideology", going on to say that party membership includes many homosexuals, and that he personally has friends that are gay.[94] José María Marco, Spanish essayist, liberal-conservative opinion journalist, and an open gay conservative contested the April 2019 Senate election in Madrid as the candidate from Vox, and also ran second in the party list for the 2019 Madrilenian regional election.[111][117]

In some discourses, party leaders suggest that their opposition to mass immigration from Islamic countries effectively protects the LGBT community,[citation needed] as homosexuality is largely prosecuted in Islamic cultures, and most immigrants do not alter their attitude upon arrival to Spain.

EconomyEdit

Vox's economic position is often described as economically liberal[118][119] or neo-liberal.[120] The party defends liberalization of Spanish labour laws, lower taxation, and support for self-employed workers.[101] Some public declarations of party members demonstrate understanding of emerging trends in modern economy; thus, Ivan Espinosa compared to dinosaurs many politicans who approach modern tax affairs the conservative way, willing to subdue to high taxation easily dislocatable cutting edge businesses.[121] At the same time, Vox's discourse includes protectionist ideas for national companies, and criticism of globalization, and large multinational corporations, which can be viewed as anti-liberal.[citation needed]

The party's economic rhetoric includes elements aimed to attract the working class electorate, traditionally supportive of left-oriented parties, like PSOE. In 2020, Vox declared the launch of its own workers union named Solidaridad[122] (Solidarity, the name reminiscent of numerous historic organizations in Spain, e.g. Solidaridad Española; and other countries, e.g. Polish Solidarity, UK Solidarity, etc.). According to some declarations, the union is just endorsed, but independent from Vox party.[citation needed]

Vox's discourse includes calls to cut inefficient and superfluous government spending.[101] In particular, the costs associated with the administration of autonomous communities and local governments (which also should be downscaled according to the views of the party on internal politics), and "ideological chiringuitos", the party's label for various organizations, recipients of public funds, considered by Vox as just promotors of government agenda.[citation needed]

ImmigrationEdit

According to the party's platform, and numerous interviews of its leaders, Vox positions itself strongly against illegal immigration, which they claim is a significant contributor to crime in Spain (in 2019, according to INE data,[123] 25% of convicts in Spain were foreign nationals, 16% of convicts were non-European nationals; there is no official statistics on immigration status of foreign convicts). Vox calls for unconditional deportation of illegal immigrants; tightening of Spanish immigration laws; legal and police actions against non-profits (e.g. Proactiva Open Arms) and organized crime facilitating illegal immigration; and the militarization of problematic frontiers. The party emphasizes its support for legal immigration complied with the Spanish law. At the same time, they promote stricter regulation of immigration according to the needs of national economy; with preference for immigration from Hispanic cultures, on the premises of easier integration of such immigrants into Spanish society, compared to immigrants from Islamic countries.[124][125][126][127][128]

Opponents of Vox describe and criticize the party's position as xenophobic, anti-immigrant and Islamophobic. With especially strong criticism of Vox's harsh position against vulnerable immigrant groups, such as unaccompanied minors, refugees or victims of crime in their country of origin.[129][130]

The party is critical of multiculturalism[131][132][128] and demographic change,[133][134][135] supporting natalist politics and opposing population replacement.[134][135]

There are persons of non-European descent among Vox members and supporters. Notable figures of African descent associated with the party include Ignacio Garriga and Bertrand Ndongo.[136]

Internal politicsEdit

Vox supports the constitutional monarchy,[137] advocates for the recentralization of Spain[138] by abolishing Spain's autonomous communities,[139] and strongly opposes separatist movements in the country, in particular the Catalan independence movement and Basque nationalism. Fighting the latter one is also a personal question for multiple founding members, including the current president Santiago Abascal, whose family was threatened by the terrorist group ETA during his youth in the Basque country,[140] and José Antonio Ortega Lara who was kidnapped by ETA and kept hostage for 532 days. Vox promotes the illegalization of separatist parties in Spain,[141] e.g. EH Bildu, ERC, etc., and opposes the indulgence of Catalonia independence leaders convicted for the organization of illegal independence referendum of 1 October 2017 (in mid-2021 the indulgence was granted by the Prime Minister of Spain Pedro Sánchez[142] in spite of his commitments two years earlier,[143] something that is further disputed by Vox and Cs in the Supreme Court of Spain[144]). The party's centralist discourse incorporates economic arguments, claiming that current structure of autonomous and local governments in Spain are responsible for significant superfluous budget spending.

Vox calls for recuperation of Spanish sovereignty over Gibraltar,[145] and extra efforts for safeguarding Spanish control of Ceuta and Melilla.[127]

Foreign policy and international relationsEdit

Since its formation, Vox was close to Matteo Salvini's Lega Nord party in Italy. In March 2021, Salvini said there were no longer any links between the two parties, with Vox growing closer to Giorgia Meloni's Brothers of Italy party instead.[146]

A member of the European Conservatives and Reformists, Vox shares group with parties such as Polish Law and Justice, Brothers of Italy, Dutch JA21 or the Sweden Democrats.[147]

Vox was supportive of Donald Trump and his political ideals during his presidency.[58][60]

Vox holds a Eurosceptic view of the European Union, arguing that Spain should make no sovereignty concessions to the EU, because according to the Constitution of Spain national sovereignty is vested in the Spanish people, from whom emanate the powers of the State.[15][148][149] In July 2021, party leader Abascal signed a statement about Europe's future that opposed the EU's federalist drift with Viktor Orbán (Prime Minister of Hungary and president of Fidesz), Marine Le Pen (President of the National Rally), Jarosław Kaczyński (leader of PiS and ex-Prime Minister of Poland), Giorgia Meloni and Matteo Salvini, among others.[150]

Electoral performanceEdit

A 2021 study of the influence of Spanish party leaders on Twitter during the April 2019 general election campaign[151] found that the messages twitted during the electoral campaign by Santiago Abascal (Vox) reached the highest diffusion and viralization capacity compared to Twitter messages by leaders of Cs, PSOE, PP and UP. The main focus of Abascal tweets, according to the authors, was Spanish territorial model (27.2%), government and parties (19.3%) and economy (14.5%).

Voter profileEdit

A 2020 study based on a statistical analysis of April 2019 general election results found that Vox's support is stronger among middle-aged, urban population (bourgeoisie) with higher secondary education and at the higher end of income distribution. Authors say that such voter profile is in direct contrast with that of a typical supporter of radical right parties in other European states, expected to be a man from a rural area with low education and low income. Vox's support is stronger among electorate dissatisfied with the current political situation in Spain, and voters who identify themselves as Spaniards.[152]

Cortes GeneralesEdit

Cortes Generales
Election Congress Senate Leading candidate Status in legislature
Votes % # Seats +/– Seats +/–
2015 58,114 0.23% 15th
0 / 350
 0
0 / 208
 0 Santiago Abascal No seats
2016 47,182 0.20% 13th
0 / 350
 0
0 / 208
 0 Santiago Abascal No seats
2019 (Apr) 2,688,092 10.26% 5th
24 / 350
 24
0 / 208
 0 Santiago Abascal New election
2019 (Nov) 3,656,979 15.08% 3rd
52 / 350
 28
2 / 208
 2 Santiago Abascal Opposition

European ParliamentEdit

European Parliament
Election Votes % # Seats +/– Leading candidate
2014 246,833 1.57% 11th
0 / 54
 0 Alejo Vidal-Quadras
2019 1,393,684 6.21% 5th
4 / 59
 4 Jorge Buxadé

Regional parliamentsEdit

Region Election Votes % # Seats Status in legislature
Andalusia 2018 396,607 10.96% 5th
12 / 109
Confidence and supply
Aragon 2019 40,671 6.08% 6th
3 / 67
Opposition
Asturias 2019 34,210 6.43% 7th
2 / 45
Opposition
Balearic Islands 2019 34,871 8.12% 6th
3 / 59
Opposition
Basque Country 2020 17,569 1.94% 6th
1 / 75
Opposition
Catalonia 2021 218,364 7.68% 4th
11 / 135
Opposition
Canary Islands 2019 22,021 2.47% 7th
0 / 70
No seats
Cantabria 2019 16,496 5.06% 5th
2 / 35
Opposition
Castile and León 2019 75,731 5.50% 4th
1 / 81
Opposition
Castilla–La Mancha 2019 75,813 7.02% 4th
0 / 33
No seats
Ceuta 2019 7,566 22.37% 3rd
6 / 25
Opposition
Extremadura 2019 28,992 4.71% 5th
0 / 65
No seats
Galicia 2020 26,485 2.03% 5th
0 / 75
No seats
La Rioja 2019 6,314 3.87% 6th
0 / 33
No seats
Madrid 2021 333,403 9.15% 4th
13 / 136
Confidence and supply
Melilla 2019 2,655 7.76% 4th
2 / 25
Opposition
Murcia 2019 61,998 9.47% 4th
4 / 45
Confidence and supply
Navarre 2019 4,546 1.31% 7th
0 / 50
No seats
Valencian Community 2019 281,608 10.59% 5th
10 / 99
Opposition

Party membershipEdit

According to the party's annual reports.

Year Joined Left Num. of members at 31 December
2016   3,496 [153]
2017 2,045 569   4,792 [153]
2018 20,153 1,102   23,843 [154]
2019 29,927 1,363   52,407 [154]
2020 17,253 7,286   62,374 [155]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b Pablo Carmona suggests Vox can be indeed adequately interpreted as a sort of evolution of the People's Party from the last years of the leadership of José María Aznar.[20]
  2. ^ Vidal Quadras later left the party after the political failure at the European election and his inability to impose his stances in the party. He would argue in 2018 that the party shifted from a "liberal conservative, Europeanist, and reformist" proposal (represented by himself), to a "Nationalist, revisionist, euroesceptic and confessional" one.[33]
  3. ^ Some media that identify Vox as a right-wing party: El Mundo,[70] COPE,[71] ABC[72] periodistadigital.com,[73] El Español.[74]

ReferencesEdit

Citations
  1. ^ "Cuentas anuales ejercicio 2020" (PDF). Retrieved 8 April 2021.
  2. ^ Fredrik Engelstad; Trygve Gulbrandsen (7 October 2019). Elites and People: Challenges to Democracy. Comparative Social Research. p. 199. ISBN 978-1838679156.
  3. ^ a b Casals, Xavier (19 January 2019). "Vox habla sobre Vox. Tres libros para conocer el partido". Agenda Pública. Su ideario parece hallarse aún en construcción y tiene como eje vertebrador un ultranacionalismo bélico asociado a la "Reconquista" o a una "Covadonga 2.0", El partido lo identifica con una visión biológica y palingenética de la patria, la "España viva", pero también con una cultura de inspiración católica.
  4. ^ a b Acha, Beatriz (6 January 2019). "No, no es un partido (neo)fascista". Agenda Pública.
  5. ^ a b c Antón-Mellón, Joan (29 April 2019). "Vox. Del nacional-catolicismo al ultranacionalismo neoliberal". Agenda Pública. Archived from the original on 3 May 2019. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
  6. ^ Nordsieck, Wolfram (2019). "Spain". Parties and Elections in Europe.
  7. ^ Rama, José; J. Turnbull-Dugarte, Stuart; Santana, Andrés (30 July 2020). "Who are Vox, and who are their voters?". The London School of Economics and Political Science. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
  8. ^ Guy Hedgecoe (11 November 2019). "Spanish elections: How the far-right Vox party found its footing". BBC News.
  9. ^ "Spanish election: victory for Socialists as VOX surge fragments right-wing vote". Yahoo News. 29 April 2019.
  10. ^ a b "Factbox: The rise of Spain's far-right - Vox becomes third-biggest party". Reuters. 10 November 2019.
  11. ^ "Far-right claims first victories in Spain since Franco era". Axios. 5 December 2018.
  12. ^ Álvarez Barba, Yago. "Si a HSBC y Goldman Sachs les gusta Vox, a ti no te debería gustar". elsaltodiario.com. Diría eso de que "con esto a Vox se le ha caído la careta", pero es que no creo que Vox se haya puesto nunca caretas que oculten su vertiente neoliberal y de servidumbre a las élites financieras.
  13. ^ "En España el partido más liberal en materia económica es VOX". panampost.com (in Spanish). 6 December 2018.
  14. ^ "Vox es más ultraderecha clásica que populismo contemporáneo". letraslibres.com (in Spanish). su nacionalismo se conjuga con [...] un discurso económico liberal
  15. ^ a b Macías, C. S. (1 March 2019). "El discurso de Vox en Europa". La Razón (in Spanish). Retrieved 11 November 2019.
  16. ^ "El programa de Vox para "reconquistar" España". RTVE. 3 December 2018.
  17. ^ Remírez de Ganuza, Carmen (17 January 2014). "Nace Vox pidiendo la eliminación de los parlamentos regionales". El Mundo.
  18. ^
  19. ^ a b
  20. ^ Carmona Pascual 2020, p. 161.
  21. ^ a b Press, Europa (13 June 2019). "Vox compartirá grupo en la Eurocámara con el partido que apoyó a Puigdemont". elperiodico.
  22. ^ a b Turnbull-Dugarte 2019.
  23. ^ a b Ferreira 2019.
  24. ^ Mendes, Mariana S.; Dennison, James (19 June 2020). "Explaining the emergence of the radical right in Spain and Portugal: salience, stigma and supply". West European Politics. 44 (4): 752–775. doi:10.1080/01402382.2020.1777504. S2CID 225650718.
  25. ^ "VOX elige por tercera vez a Santiago Abascal como su presidente". Europa Press. 10 March 2018. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
  26. ^ "Política de privacidad de VOX España". voxespana.es/aviso-legal (in Spanish). Aviso Legal. Archived from the original on 17 July 2014.
  27. ^ Quintero, L.F.; Alonsof, Mariano (14 January 2014). "Nace Vox, el partido político de Santiago Abascal y Ortega Lara". Libertad Digital. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  28. ^ a b O'Leary, Elisabeth (16 January 2014). "Spanish ruling party rebels launch new conservative party". Reuters. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  29. ^ Fernández, Guillermo (10 October 2018). "Vox abre la puerta". ctxt.es. Vistalegre dibuja a Vox como la expresión de que una parte de la derecha "neocon" española se ha desgajado de la nave nodriza del Partido Popular
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Bibliography

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