Vox (political party)
Vox (Latin for "voice", often stylized as VOX; Spanish pronunciation: [ˈboks]) is a political party in Spain. Founded in 2013, the party is led by party president Santiago Abascal and secretary general Javier Ortega Smith. While Vox self-identifies as a conservative party, it is identified as right-wing to far-right by academics and mainstream journalists.
|Secretary-General||Javier Ortega Smith|
|Founded||17 December 2013|
|Split from||People's Party|
|Headquarters||C / Bambú 12 28036 Madrid, Spain|
|Political position||Right-wing to far-right[a]|
|European affiliation||European Conservatives and Reformists Party|
|European Parliament group||European Conservatives and Reformists|
|Congress of Deputies|
52 / 350
3 / 265
4 / 59
70 / 1,268
|Mayors in Spain|
5 / 8,122
525 / 67,121
^ a: Vox is considered part of the radical right, a subset of the far-right that does not oppose democracy.
The party entered the Spanish parliament for the first time in the April 2019 general election, having become the country's third political force after the November 2019 Spanish general election that same year, in which it secured 3.6 million votes and 52 seats in the Congress of Deputies.
Vox was founded on 17 December 2013, and publicly launched at a press conference in Madrid on 16 January 2014 as a split from the People's Party. This schism was interpreted as an offshoot of "neoconservative" or "social conservative" PP party members.[a] The party platform sought to rewrite the constitution to abolish regional autonomy and parliaments. Several of their promoters (for example: Alejo Vidal-Quadras, José Antonio Ortega Lara, and Santiago Abascal) had been members of the platform "reconversion.es" that issued a manifesto in 2012 vouching for the recentralization of the State. Vidal-Quadras was proclaimed as the first chairman in March 2014.[b]
In September 2014, the party elected Santiago Abascal, one of the founders, as new President, and Iván Espinosa de los Monteros, also a founder, as General Secretary. Eleven members of the National Executive Committee were also elected.
After the Catalan referendum of 2017 and the start of a Spanish constitutional crisis, Vox opted to not participate in the Catalan regional elections of 2017. After the Catalan declaration of independence, the party sued the Parliament of Catalonia and several independentist politicians the number of its members increased by 20% in forty days.
Entrance into institutionsEdit
On 10 September 2018, Vox enlisted an independent legislator in the regional parliament of Extremadura (who had dropped out of the PP parliamentary group) as party member. On 2 December 2018, they won 12 parliamentary seats in the Andalusian regional election,  entering a regional parliament for the first time. It supported the coalition regional government by Ciudadanos and the Popular Party. With this result, Vox was also given a first seat in the Senate of Spain, which was taken by Francisco José Alcaraz.
The party obtained 10.26% of votes in the April 2019 general election, electing 24 Deputies and entering the Congress of Deputies for the first time in its history. Later, the party entered for its first time in the European Parliament with 6.2% of the votes and three Eurodeputies, which after Brexit became four. After this election, the party joined the European Conservatives and Reformists group and the Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe. In the second general election of the year in November, Vox came third and increased its number of deputies from 24 to 52. It was the most-voted party in the Region of Murcia and the autonomous city of Ceuta.
In the beginning of 2020, during the onset of global COVID-19 pandemic, Vox called for travel restrictions on travels between China and Spain, and later between Italy and Spain, to safeguard against the "Chinese virus". At that time the epidemic was already in full swing in those countries, but it was prior to any COVID cases were officially confirmed within Spain in significant numbers. That position found no support among other parties, and it was criticized as the usual xenophobic rhetoric of Vox. The party claims that serious counter-COVID measures were deliberately delayed in Spain by the government, which hid the information and downplayed known risks to allow for mass manifestations on the International Women's Day (8 March) to take place, as these manifestations were important for the leftists agenda of newly formed coalition government of PSOE and UP. At the same time, Vox went forward with their own global party conference on 8 March in Vistalegre, where party supporters from all parts of Spain were invited. The conference resulted in numerous cases of COVID infection, including confirmed cases of COVID transmission between members of Vox leadership. This fact was often brought up by Vox opponents to criticize Vox attitude towards COVID situation in Spain.
During the anti-COVID lockdown and follow-up restrictions Vox routinely criticized government measures as inefficient, partisan, and partially unconstitutional. In April 2020 the party appealed to the Constitutional Court of Spain against the first State of Alarm (15 March – 21 June) declared by the government. In October 2020 the Vox's parliamentary group at the Congress of Deputies tabled a motion of no confidence against the current Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez, bringing Santiago Abascal as alternative candidate. The motion failed to track any support among the rest of parliamentary forces, gathering 52 'yes' votes (those of Vox legislators) and 298 'no' votes (the rest of the chamber). In November 2020 Vox appealed to the Constitutional Court of Spain against the second State of Alarm (October 25, 2020 – May 9, 2021) declared by the government.
In the face of the 2020 United States presidential election, Vox was fully supportive of President Donald Trump's candidacy, even tweeting from its official account that Joe Biden was the preferred candidate of "El País, Podemos, Otegi, Maduro, China, Iran and pedophiles", which according to the international news agency EFE was echoing QAnon conspiracy theories. Vox took part in the 2021 CPAC conference and refused to acknowledge Biden's victory.
In the beginning of 2021 Vox's abstention was instrumental to secure European COVID-recovery funds on socialist terms, criticized by independent experts for allowing the government inefficient partisan spendings without any effective independent control. Many Vox supporters considered this as the "largest error in Vox's history", leading to party leaders admitting it as a mistake and apologizing.
During 2020 and 2021 electoral campaigns for regional elections in Basque Country, Catalonia, and Community of Madrid multiple legal electoral events of Vox were physically attacked by radical political opponents on the premises of "Vox's legitimate electoral events in some regions being provocative acts". The view on Vox's legal and peaceful electoral events as provocations was endorsed by high ranking UP members, including their speaker Pablo Echenique, and their leader, the Second Deputy Prime Minister of Spain at the time, Pablo Iglesias.
On 14 July 2021, in response to the Vox's appeal the previous year, the Constitutional Court of Spain declared by a narrow majority (6 votes in support vs. 5 votes against) that the first anti-COVID State of Alarm was unconstitutional in the part of suppressing the freedom of movement established by the Article 19 of the Constitution. In September 2021 news reported that the Constitutional Court of Spain will declare the second State of Alarm appealed by Vox as unconstitutional as well, the final official verdict is expected in October 2021.
Vox's ideology is a polarizing and debated topic. The party sees itself as a more right-wing alternative to the centre-right People's Party, from which it split in 2013. This point of view is shared by some Spanish media,[c] while some journalists and academics routinely describe it as a far-right party. Adding to the confusion is the exact understanding of the "far-right" term by different sources. While some of scholars cited below, who qualify Vox as a far-right or radical right party, make a clear fundamental distinction between "far-right", "radical right", and "extreme right", other sources and laymen often treat these terms as equivalent. As a young party, Vox somewhat lacks a well-elaborated ideology basis, and might still be considered as "a party under construction", subject to day-to-day ideology adjustments, further complicating its analysis.
According to the book by Rama, Zanotti, Turnbull-Dugarte, and Santana, Vox is a populist radical right party, in contrast to an extreme right. They view the party to be ideologically radical but not extreme since discursively it does not go against the central tenets of democracy. They write that "however, belonging to the populist radical right family means that the party communicates and advocates for policies that are somewhat at odds with some of the core principles of liberal democracy such as the rule of law, individual liberties or the rights of minorities." According to their analysis the central to Vox's ideology are: (i) a strong anti-immigration stance, and advocation for stricter law and order policies; (ii) a strong defence of the unity of Spain against all who allegedly want to break or undermine it; (iii) an opposition to what it labels as the "progressive dictatorship"; and aggressive defence of the Catholic religion and traditional moral values.
Carles Ferreira in his analysis comes to the conclusion that Vox is a far-right organization as it fits the characteristics of the radical right party family. He sums up: "Vox's ideology is based on a combination of nationalism and xenophobia (nativism) and an authoritarian view of society, attached to the values of law and order. This authoritarianism, however, represents neither the willingness to establish an autocratic regime nor the use of violence to reach political goals." According to Ferreira, the nationalism, nativism, authoritarianism, and traditionalism are central to Vox's ideology; the neoliberalism is present but not central; the populism is indicated, but not explicit; and there is no antidemocratic views in the party's ideology.
According to Xavier Casals the unifying part of Vox's ideology up to this point is a warlike ultranationalism, that is identified by the party with a palingenetic and biological vision of the country, the so-called España Viva, but also with a Catholic-inspired culture. He says that ideological roots of the party's ultranationalism lie in the incondicionalismo ("unconditionalism"), the nationalist discourse based on the "fear of amputation of the homeland" coined in the 19th century in Colonial Cuba against Cuban separatism and also autonomist concessions (replicated in Catalonia in the 1910s). Casals writes that their specific brand of Spanish nationalism is linked to the unconditional support to the State Security Forces and Corps, and the party's discourse has also revived the myth of the Antiespaña ("Anti-Spain"), an umbrella term created in the 1930s by the domestic ultranationalist forces to designate the (inner) "Enemies of Spain", creating a simplistic España viva/Antiespaña duality that comes handy for the communication in brief messages characteristic of social media. Casals notes regarding the external projection of their discourse that the party has reanimated the concept of "Hispanidad"; party leader Abascal has stated that an immigrant coming from a "brotherly Hispanic-American country" is not comparable to the immigration coming from "Islamic countries".
According to Guillermo Fernández Vázquez, Vox's discourse, which he described as "economically anti-statist and neoliberal" as well as "morally authoritarian", is similar to Jörg Haider's FPÖ or Jean Marie Le Pen's National Front from the 1980s, thus likening the emergence of the party to an archaic stage of current radical right parties, more worried about the need to modernize their image than Vox; the latter's approach to cultural issues would be in line with old school Spanish nationalist parties, restricting the scope of "culture" to "language and tradition".
Vox supports the State of Israel within the context of Israeli–Palestinian conflict. On the other hand, the party has appealed to conspiracy theories invoking the figure of George Soros as a mastermind behind Catalan separatism and the alleged "Islamization" of Europe. A support of anti-Soros conspiracy is widely considered as a sign of antisemitism, though leading figures of Vox never brought up the roots of Soros in their anti-Soros discourse. Vox used to feature some former neo-Nazis in party cadres and lists; some of them have been expelled from the party or have resigned. In November 2018, during a party event in Murcia, the party leader Santiago Abascal defined his party as "antifascist, anti-Nazi and anticommunist".
Vox promotes the "pin parental" policy: changes in laws aimed to guarantee the rights of parents to control public education of their children, and veto their children from obligatory attendance to classes contradicting values of parents. Party representatives claim that Spanish national and regional authorities abuse the control of the public education system to impose their political and ideological agenda on children.
The party's discourse about the environment has evolved over time, going from climate change denial to a conservationist approach. However, the party still opposes the mainstream environmental views, labelling them as "Green religion", and as recent as April 2021 voted against the Law for Climate Change and Energy Transition, which was adopted anyway.
Vox has proposed that citizens should be allowed to keep arms at home, and supports the castle doctrine, but does not support the right to carry arms or the free sale of firearms. Current party leaders, Santiago Abascal and Javier Ortega, are both licensed to carry handgun for self-defence due to recurrent threats to their lives for their political activities. Under strict Spanish gun laws, such licenses are rarely granted to civilians, only when authorities consider proven a real high risk of individual to be attacked (about 0.02% of the Spanish population holds such licenses).
Vox is considered anti-feminist, and wants to repeal the gender violence law, which they see as "discriminant against one of the sexes" and replace it with a "family violence law that will afford the same protection to the elderly, men, women and children who suffer from abuse". Vox undermines the importance of feminist struggle in the advance of liberties of women by means of linking the latter to a culture with "Christian foundations". Notable female figures in Vox leadership include: Rocío Monasterio, Macarena Olona, Rocío de Meer, among others.
While Vox's platform only espouses proposals against Islamic fundamentalism, the statements in the public sphere by party figures espouse a wider Islamophobia, helping to underpin, according to Casals, their discourse against Maghrebi immigration, the development of a closer bond to Catholicism. The party pleads for the closure of fundamentalist mosques as well as the arrest and expulsion of extremist imams. Vox has openly called for the deportation of tens of thousands of Muslims from Spain. In 2019, the party's leader demanded a Reconquista or reconquest of Spain, explicitly referencing a new expulsion of Muslim immigrants from the country.
Vox opposes same-sex marriage while supporting same-sex civil unions. The party has been accused of homophobia which the party denies. Multiple Vox politicians have made disparaging statements about homosexuals. Vox congratulated the Hungarian parliament for passing legislation that would ban media and educational content which may be seen by underage persons from depicting LGBT individuals or addressing LGBT issues.
Party leader Santiago Abascal has denied allegations of homophobia, stating in an interview that Vox is in no way a homophobic party and that it merely opposes "LGBT ideology", going on to say that party membership includes many homosexuals, and that he personally has friends that are gay. José María Marco, Spanish essayist, liberal-conservative opinion journalist, and an open gay conservative contested the April 2019 Senate election in Madrid as the candidate from Vox, and also ran second in the party list for the 2019 Madrilenian regional election.
In some discourses, party leaders suggest that their opposition to mass immigration from Islamic countries effectively protects the LGBT community, as homosexuality is largely prosecuted in Islamic cultures, and most immigrants do not alter their attitude upon arrival to Spain.
Vox's economic position is often described as economically liberal or neo-liberal. The party defends liberalization of Spanish labour laws, lower taxation, and support for self-employed workers. Some public declarations of party members demonstrate understanding of emerging trends in modern economy; thus, Ivan Espinosa compared to dinosaurs many politicans who approach modern tax affairs the conservative way, willing to subdue to high taxation easily dislocatable cutting edge businesses. At the same time, Vox's discourse includes protectionist ideas for national companies, and criticism of globalization, and large multinational corporations, which can be viewed as anti-liberal.
The party's economic rhetoric includes elements aimed to attract the working class electorate, traditionally supportive of left-oriented parties, like PSOE. In 2020, Vox declared the launch of its own workers union named Solidaridad (Solidarity, the name reminiscent of numerous historic organizations in Spain, e.g. Solidaridad Española; and other countries, e.g. Polish Solidarity, UK Solidarity, etc.). According to some declarations, the union is just endorsed, but independent from Vox party.
Vox's discourse includes calls to cut inefficient and superfluous government spending. In particular, the costs associated with the administration of autonomous communities and local governments (which also should be downscaled according to the views of the party on internal politics), and "ideological chiringuitos", the party's label for various organizations, recipients of public funds, considered by Vox as just promotors of government agenda.
According to the party's platform, and numerous interviews of its leaders, Vox positions itself strongly against illegal immigration, which they claim is a significant contributor to crime in Spain (in 2019, according to INE data, 25% of convicts in Spain were foreign nationals, 16% of convicts were non-European nationals; there is no official statistics on immigration status of foreign convicts). Vox calls for unconditional deportation of illegal immigrants; tightening of Spanish immigration laws; legal and police actions against non-profits (e.g. Proactiva Open Arms) and organized crime facilitating illegal immigration; and the militarization of problematic frontiers. The party emphasizes its support for legal immigration complied with the Spanish law. At the same time, they promote stricter regulation of immigration according to the needs of national economy; with preference for immigration from Hispanic cultures, on the premises of easier integration of such immigrants into Spanish society, compared to immigrants from Islamic countries.
Opponents of Vox describe and criticize the party's position as xenophobic, anti-immigrant and Islamophobic. With especially strong criticism of Vox's harsh position against vulnerable immigrant groups, such as unaccompanied minors, refugees or victims of crime in their country of origin.
Vox supports the constitutional monarchy, advocates for the recentralization of Spain by abolishing Spain's autonomous communities, and strongly opposes separatist movements in the country, in particular the Catalan independence movement and Basque nationalism. Fighting the latter one is also a personal question for multiple founding members, including the current president Santiago Abascal, whose family was threatened by the terrorist group ETA during his youth in the Basque country, and José Antonio Ortega Lara who was kidnapped by ETA and kept hostage for 532 days. Vox promotes the illegalization of separatist parties in Spain, e.g. EH Bildu, ERC, etc., and opposes the indulgence of Catalonia independence leaders convicted for the organization of illegal independence referendum of 1 October 2017 (in mid-2021 the indulgence was granted by the Prime Minister of Spain Pedro Sánchez in spite of his commitments two years earlier, something that is further disputed by Vox and Cs in the Supreme Court of Spain). The party's centralist discourse incorporates economic arguments, claiming that current structure of autonomous and local governments in Spain are responsible for significant superfluous budget spending.
Foreign policy and international relationsEdit
Since its formation, Vox was close to Matteo Salvini's Lega Nord party in Italy. In March 2021, Salvini said there were no longer any links between the two parties, with Vox growing closer to Giorgia Meloni's Brothers of Italy party instead.
Vox holds a Eurosceptic view of the European Union, arguing that Spain should make no sovereignty concessions to the EU, because according to the Constitution of Spain national sovereignty is vested in the Spanish people, from whom emanate the powers of the State. In July 2021, party leader Abascal signed a statement about Europe's future that opposed the EU's federalist drift with Viktor Orbán (Prime Minister of Hungary and president of Fidesz), Marine Le Pen (President of the National Rally), Jarosław Kaczyński (leader of PiS and ex-Prime Minister of Poland), Giorgia Meloni and Matteo Salvini, among others.
A 2021 study of the influence of Spanish party leaders on Twitter during the April 2019 general election campaign found that the messages twitted during the electoral campaign by Santiago Abascal (Vox) reached the highest diffusion and viralization capacity compared to Twitter messages by leaders of Cs, PSOE, PP and UP. The main focus of Abascal tweets, according to the authors, was Spanish territorial model (27.2%), government and parties (19.3%) and economy (14.5%).
A 2020 study based on a statistical analysis of April 2019 general election results found that Vox's support is stronger among middle-aged, urban population (bourgeoisie) with higher secondary education and at the higher end of income distribution. Authors say that such voter profile is in direct contrast with that of a typical supporter of radical right parties in other European states, expected to be a man from a rural area with low education and low income. Vox's support is stronger among electorate dissatisfied with the current political situation in Spain, and voters who identify themselves as Spaniards.
|Election||Congress||Senate||Leading candidate||Status in legislature|
0 / 350
0 / 208
|0||Santiago Abascal||No seats|
0 / 350
0 / 208
|0||Santiago Abascal||No seats|
24 / 350
0 / 208
|0||Santiago Abascal||New election|
52 / 350
2 / 208
0 / 54
4 / 59
|Region||Election||Votes||%||#||Seats||Status in legislature|
12 / 109
|Confidence and supply|
3 / 67
2 / 45
3 / 59
1 / 75
11 / 135
0 / 70
2 / 35
|Castile and León||2019||75,731||5.50%||4th||
1 / 81
0 / 33
6 / 25
0 / 65
0 / 75
0 / 33
13 / 136
|Confidence and supply|
2 / 25
4 / 45
|Confidence and supply|
0 / 50
10 / 99
According to the party's annual reports.
|Year||Joined||Left||Num. of members at 31 December|
- Pablo Carmona suggests Vox can be indeed adequately interpreted as a sort of evolution of the People's Party from the last years of the leadership of José María Aznar.
- Vidal Quadras later left the party after the political failure at the European election and his inability to impose his stances in the party. He would argue in 2018 that the party shifted from a "liberal conservative, Europeanist, and reformist" proposal (represented by himself), to a "Nationalist, revisionist, euroesceptic and confessional" one.
- Some media that identify Vox as a right-wing party: El Mundo, COPE, ABC periodistadigital.com, El Español.
- "Cuentas anuales ejercicio 2020" (PDF). Retrieved 8 April 2021.
- Fredrik Engelstad; Trygve Gulbrandsen (7 October 2019). Elites and People: Challenges to Democracy. Comparative Social Research. p. 199. ISBN 978-1838679156.
- Casals, Xavier (19 January 2019). "Vox habla sobre Vox. Tres libros para conocer el partido". Agenda Pública.
Su ideario parece hallarse aún en construcción y tiene como eje vertebrador un ultranacionalismo bélico asociado a la "Reconquista" o a una "Covadonga 2.0", El partido lo identifica con una visión biológica y palingenética de la patria, la "España viva", pero también con una cultura de inspiración católica.
- Acha, Beatriz (6 January 2019). "No, no es un partido (neo)fascista". Agenda Pública.
- Antón-Mellón, Joan (29 April 2019). "Vox. Del nacional-catolicismo al ultranacionalismo neoliberal". Agenda Pública. Archived from the original on 3 May 2019. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- Nordsieck, Wolfram (2019). "Spain". Parties and Elections in Europe.
- Rama, José; J. Turnbull-Dugarte, Stuart; Santana, Andrés (30 July 2020). "Who are Vox, and who are their voters?". The London School of Economics and Political Science. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
- Guy Hedgecoe (11 November 2019). "Spanish elections: How the far-right Vox party found its footing". BBC News.
- "Spanish election: victory for Socialists as VOX surge fragments right-wing vote". Yahoo News. 29 April 2019.
- "Factbox: The rise of Spain's far-right - Vox becomes third-biggest party". Reuters. 10 November 2019.
- "Far-right claims first victories in Spain since Franco era". Axios. 5 December 2018.
- Álvarez Barba, Yago. "Si a HSBC y Goldman Sachs les gusta Vox, a ti no te debería gustar". elsaltodiario.com.
Diría eso de que "con esto a Vox se le ha caído la careta", pero es que no creo que Vox se haya puesto nunca caretas que oculten su vertiente neoliberal y de servidumbre a las élites financieras.
- "En España el partido más liberal en materia económica es VOX". panampost.com (in Spanish). 6 December 2018.
- "Vox es más ultraderecha clásica que populismo contemporáneo". letraslibres.com (in Spanish).
su nacionalismo se conjuga con [...] un discurso económico liberal
- Macías, C. S. (1 March 2019). "El discurso de Vox en Europa". La Razón (in Spanish). Retrieved 11 November 2019.
- "El programa de Vox para "reconquistar" España". RTVE. 3 December 2018.
- Remírez de Ganuza, Carmen (17 January 2014). "Nace Vox pidiendo la eliminación de los parlamentos regionales". El Mundo.
- "WELCOME TO VOX Spain". The Leader. 4 September 2017. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
- Stokes, Bradley (25 July 2018). "Spain's new PP leader seeks to move the party 'back to its roots'". The Olive Press. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
- Mudde, Cas (2019). The Far Right Today. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 40, 41, 174. ISBN 978-1-5095-3685-6.
- Ferreira 2019, p. 73
- Mudde, Cas (12 November 2019). "Nativism is driving the far-right surge in Europe – and it is here to stay". The Guardian.
- Gould, Robert (2019). "Vox España and Alternative für Deutschland: Propagating the Crisis of National Identity". Genealogy. 3 (4): 64. doi:10.3390/genealogy3040064.
- Ribera Payá, Pablo; Díaz Martínez, José Ignacio (16 July 2020). "The end of the Spanish exception: the far right in the Spanish Parliament". European Politics and Society. 22 (3): 410–434. doi:10.1080/23745118.2020.1793513. S2CID 225618005.
- Carmona Pascual 2020, p. 161.
- Press, Europa (13 June 2019). "Vox compartirá grupo en la Eurocámara con el partido que apoyó a Puigdemont". elperiodico.
- Turnbull-Dugarte 2019.
- Ferreira 2019.
- Mendes, Mariana S.; Dennison, James (19 June 2020). "Explaining the emergence of the radical right in Spain and Portugal: salience, stigma and supply". West European Politics. 44 (4): 752–775. doi:10.1080/01402382.2020.1777504. S2CID 225650718.
- "VOX elige por tercera vez a Santiago Abascal como su presidente". Europa Press. 10 March 2018. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
- "Política de privacidad de VOX España". voxespana.es/aviso-legal (in Spanish). Aviso Legal. Archived from the original on 17 July 2014.
- Quintero, L.F.; Alonsof, Mariano (14 January 2014). "Nace Vox, el partido político de Santiago Abascal y Ortega Lara". Libertad Digital. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- O'Leary, Elisabeth (16 January 2014). "Spanish ruling party rebels launch new conservative party". Reuters. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
- Fernández, Guillermo (10 October 2018). "Vox abre la puerta". ctxt.es.
Vistalegre dibuja a Vox como la expresión de que una parte de la derecha "neocon" española se ha desgajado de la nave nodriza del Partido Popular
- Hennig, Anja; Meyer-Resende, Madalena (2016). Bedingungen der Aktivierung von moralpolitischen Konflikten. In: Ines-Jacqueline Werkner y Oliver Hidalgo (Eds.). Springer. pp. 304–305. doi:10.1007/978-3-658-11793-1. ISBN 978-3-658-11792-4.
- Casals, Xavier (1 April 2019). "Catalunya i 'la España viva' de Vox". Política & Prosa (5).
- "Vox elige a Vidal-Quadras como su primer presidente". Crónica Global. 8 March 2014.
- "Las caras y los apoyos de Vox". El Periódico. 1 November 2018.
- Jannessari, Sohail; Loucaides, Darren (27 April 2019). "Spain's Vox Party Hates Muslims—Except the Ones Who Fund It". Foreign Policy.
- "Tristeza y decepción en Vox tras los resultados de las Elecciones Europeas". Libertad Digital (in Spanish). 26 May 2014.
- Paradinas, Marcos (3 November 2017). "VOX: "El 21D es fruto de un pacto oculto entre Rajoy y los golpistas"". elplural.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 18 April 2018.
- García, Jesús (11 October 2017). "El TSJ catalán admite la querella de Vox por rebelión contra Puigdemont". El País (in Spanish). Retrieved 30 August 2018.
- "La afiliación al partido ultraderechista VOX aumenta un 20% en 40 días". Público (in Spanish). Retrieved 18 April 2018.
- "Los ex 'populares' Juan Antonio Morales y Antonio Pozo se incorporan a Vox". Región Digital (in Spanish). 10 September 2018. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
- Turnbull-Dugarte 2019, pp. 1–2.
- "Spain far-right Vox party gains foothold in Andalusia election". BBC News. 3 December 2018. Archived from the original on 3 December 2018.
- "¿Quién es Francisco José Alcaraz, el primer senador de Vox?". 20 Minutos (in Spanish). 19 February 2019. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- Vox enters Congress for the first time but falls short of expectations in elpais.com
- Jones, Sam (11 November 2019). "Spain election: grand coalition ruled out as far-right Vox surges". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 November 2019.
- "Vox gana las elecciones en Murcia y Ceuta". El Plural (in Spanish). 10 November 2019. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
- Ortega, Esther (24 February 2020). "Vox pide que los extranjeros que hayan visitado China no entren en España". Redaccion Medica.
- Vilasero, Manuel (10 March 2020). "España descarta restringir los vuelos o el comercio con China por el coronavirus". El Periodico.
- "La embajada china critica por racista a Ortega Smith tras hablar de "malditos virus chinos"". La Vanguardia. 14 March 2020.
- "Vox pide declarar el 8 de marzo Día Nacional de las Víctimas de Coronavirus". Europa Press. 22 February 2021.
- "Los besos y apretones de manos de Ortega Smith en Vistalegre: su baño de masas con el coronavirus". El Espanol. 10 March 2020.
- "Vox confirma que Ortega Smith tiene coronavirus y pide perdón por su mitin del domingo". El Pais. 10 March 2020.
- "8 de marzo de 2020: las marchas más criticadas". Agencia EFE. 4 March 2021.
- "Vox convoca una manifestación para el 12-O contra el estado de alarma decretado por Sánchez en Madrid". Libertad Digital. 9 October 2020.
- "Vox lleva al Tribunal Constitucional el estado de alarma de Sánchez por "abusivo"". El Confidencial. 27 April 2020.
- Hermida, Xosé (21 October 2020). "Vox's motion of no confidence against the government: what you need to know about the two-day debate". EL PAÍS. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
- "La moción de censura de Vox fracasa con 298 'no', 52 'sí' y un Gobierno respaldado por la mayoría". La Sexta. 22 October 2020.
- "VOX recurre ante el TC el estado de alarma". Confilegal. 6 November 2020.
- "Vox se entrega al trumpismo". ABC. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
- Labrados, Fernando (23 November 2020). "¿Qué es QAnon?". EFE. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
- "Vox se niega a reconocer la derrota de Trump y aún no considera vencedor a Biden". 20 Minutos. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
- "Vox salva con su abstención el decreto del Gobierno sobre los fondos europeos". ABC.
- "Sectores de Vox consideran "el mayor error de su historia" la abstención en los fondos europeos". ABC.
- "Vox arranca la campaña en Euskadi con mítines blindados entre piedras y botellas". El Independiente. 26 June 2020.
- "Lanzan piedras a Abascal en un acto de Vox en Girona". Huffington Post. 30 January 2021.
- "Vox sufre un nuevo ataque en un mitin y Abascal amenaza con responder si la Policía no les protege". El Mundo. 21 April 2021.
- "Podemos justifica la violencia contra Vox en Vallecas: "Son unos pijos que han ido a provocar"". ABC. 9 April 2021.
- "Un Constitucional dividido anula el confinamiento domiciliario impuesto en el primer estado de alarma". El Mundo. 14 July 2021.
- "El segundo estado de alarma también fue inconstitucional". ABC. 9 September 2021.
- "El TC deliberará en octubre la ponencia que ve inconstitucional el segundo estado de alarma". La Vanguardia. 9 September 2021.
- Sin espacio en España para la nueva derecha populista. El Mundo, 26 December 2017
- Herrera, Carlos (8 October 2018). "¿Qué opina Herrera sobre Vox?". COPE (in Spanish). Retrieved 25 November 2018.
Algunos insisten en etiquetar rápidamente de ultraderecha o partido de extrema derecha. Vox es un partido de derechas
- de Prada, Juan Manuel (13 October 2018). "Voxeando". Diario ABC (in Spanish). Madrid, España. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
Los medios de adoctrinamiento de masas tildan a Vox, con desmelenada hipérbole, de «formación ultraderechista». Pero lo cierto es que Vox ha sido siempre una formación de derecha homologada
- Rodríguez, Antonio (9 October 2018). "Ferreras llama a Verstrynge para que advierta del peligro de VOX, pero el gurú podemita le chafa la tarde: 'No son extrema derecha'" (in Spanish). Retrieved 25 November 2018.
Hay un matiz, porque VOX tiene obsesión con el Islam. Para mí VOX no es extrema derecha, yo diría que son la Alianza Popular de 1977.
- "Vox retiene a Salvador Monedero y prescinde de Carmen Lomana". El Español (in Spanish). 23 May 2016. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
Vox, el partido de derechas liderado por Santiago Abascal
- Casals, Xavier (October 2020). "¿Cómo definir a Vox? Cinco claves interpretativas". Barcelona Metropolis.
- VOX. The Rise of the Spanish Populist Radical Right. Taylor & Francis Group. 2021. pp. 139, 143. ISBN 9781003049227.
- Casals 2020, p. 27.
- Casals 2020, p. 30.
- Segovia Vara, Marina; Fernández Pasalodos, Arnau (18 April 2019). "Ha vuelto la Antiespaña. Vox y su violencia discursiva". El Salto.
- Casals 2020, pp. 31–32.
- Lenore, Víctor (24 April 2019). "Morante, Calamaro y Abascal: ¿son los toros el nuevo rock and roll?". Voz Pópuli.
- Fernández Vázquez, Guillermo (24 April 2019). "Vox, la extrema derecha de siempre". CTXT.
A tenor de lo que muestra el programa, cultura es para Vox lengua y tradición, siguiendo el viejo lema de los partidos nacionalistas.
- Rubio, Ricardo (17 May 2021). "Vox muestra su apoyo a Israel y condena el "ataque del terrorismo yihadista" a un país que defiende "sus fronteras"". Europa Press.
- Baer, Alejandro (2 May 2019). "The Rise of Spain's Pro-Israel, Far-Right Party". Tablet Mag.
- Wilson, Jason (25 October 2018). "'Dripping with poison of antisemitism': the demonization of George Soros". The Guardian.
- Maestre, Antonio (2 May 2015), "Un histórico ultra condenado a prisión por el asalto a Blanquerna, en Vox", La Sexta
- "El pasado nazi de un candidato de Vox en Alcalá de Henares". ABC. 7 May 2015.
- Pérez, Sergio (13 April 2019). "El número 7 de Vox en Alcalá renuncia por su nexo con una organización nazi". La Vox de Asturias.
Según informa Vox Alcalá de Henares en un comunicado, Bonito ya ha presentado ante la Junta Electoral de Zona un «escrito de renuncia a formar parte de dicha candidatura y a su acta de concejal electo» en el caso de que la obtuviera.
- Redacción (13 April 2019). "Vox expulsa al abogado José María Ruiz Puerta por haber presidido la asociación CEDADE". Alerta Nacional.
Tanto a Ortega Smith como a Rocío Monasterio les ha faltado tiempo para desvincularse de Ruiz Puerta. Sostienen que nunca ha militado ni pertenecido a Vox, lo que desdice lo que él mismo ha publicado en redes sociales y también lo que manifestó en "Alt News". En el espacio radial dirigido y conducido por Santiago Fontenla sostuvo que él tenía "acceso directo" a Abascal y daba por consumada su incorporación a ese proyecto político.
- Gómez, David (15 November 2018). "Abascal: "Para callarnos nos tendrán que meter en la cárcel"". La Verdad.
Santiago Abascal [...]definió a su formación como «antifascista, antinazi»
- País, El (21 January 2020). "¿Qué es lo que Vox llama 'pin parental'?". El País (in Spanish). ISSN 1134-6582. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
- Alías, Marina (4 July 2021). "Del 'camelo climático' al conservacionismo: el giro de Vox frente al ecologismo 'urbanita'". www.vozpopuli.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 4 July 2021.
- "Un diputado de Vox: "Que se caliente un poquito el planeta evitará muertes por frío"". La Vanguardia. 8 April 2021.
- "Santiago Abascal: "En Vox no hay homofobia, estamos contra la ideología LGTB"". Marca. 8 April 2019.
- Press, Europa (20 March 2019). "Vox explica que su propuesta sobre armas no está pensada para llevarlas por la calle y venderlas en supermercados". www.europapress.es. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
- "El permiso tipo B que tiene Abascal: ¿qué armas permite llevar, qué requisitos tiene y cómo se concede?". 20 Minutos. 18 June 2020.
- "Javier Ortega Smith, el francotirador de Vox". El Pais. 1 February 2020.
- "Who are Spain's gun owners?". El Pais. 25 October 2016.
- Jones, Sam (9 December 2018). "Far right victories in Andalucía send shockwave through Spanish politics". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
- Álvarez, Pilar; Valdés, Isabel (3 December 2018). "Derogar la ley de violencia de género y otros planes de Vox contra el feminismo". El Pais. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
- Arroyo, Jorge Rodriguez (3 December 2018). "Far-right Spanish political party Vox: What are its policies?". El Pais.
- Casals 2020, pp. 30–31.
- Diego, Sara (25 December 2019). "Vox coge la bandera contra el aborto proponiendo una baja escolar para madres adolescentes". El Español.
- "Far right Vox commits to blocking access to abortion and euthanasia in Madrid". El Pais. 29 April 2021.
- "Vox apuesta por la cadena perpetua tanto si el maltratador agrede o insulta como si asesina". El Español. 26 November 2019.
- "PSOE, PP, Cs y Podemos reclaman la reforma de los delitos sexuales mientras Vox pide cadena perpetua para violadores". Heraldo. 8 November 2019.
- Madueno, Juan Diego (2 June 2020). "Los políticos que han defendido la tauromaquia: "Está ineludiblemente unida a nuestras raíces"". El Mundo.
- "As Spain elects its first far-right MPs since Franco, the party's leader invokes the Inquisition years". The Jewish Chronicle. 2 May 2019.
- "Spain's far-right makes election gains using anti-Muslim sentiment". The National (Abu Dhabi). 29 April 2019.
- Bryan, Kenza (9 December 2018). "Spain's far right eyes role as kingmaker in April elections". The Times.
- "José María Marco, candidato de Vox: "El matrimonio homosexual es cuestión de dignidad"". El Mundo. 30 March 2019.
- "Abascal, sobre el matrimonio gay: "Es una unión civil como la que podrían tener dos hermanas viudas"". Antena3 (in Spanish). 8 April 2019. Retrieved 26 June 2021.
El líder de Vox afirma que su partido defiende que las personas del mismo sexo puedan tener una unión civil, pero no de matrimonio.
- Alberto Suárez (30 October 2019). "Vox considera que la homosexualidad no debe hacerse pública". Cadena SER (in Spanish).
- "Hablamos con cuatro votantes gais de Vox: "Es el único partido que da prioridad a la familia"". El Pais. 28 June 2019.
- "Una divulgadora científica lleva más de 5.000 'me gusta' con su implacable réplica a este tuit de Vox". El HuffPost (in Spanish). 25 June 2021. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
- "Hungary passes law banning LGBT content in schools or kids' TV". the Guardian. 15 June 2021. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
- "Vox presenta a Monasterio y Ortega Smith para Madrid". El Pais. 19 April 2019.
- "Vox es más ultraderecha clásica que populismo contemporáneo". Letras Libres (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 June 2021.
- ""En España el partido más liberal en materia económica es VOX": PanAm Podcast". PanAm Post (in Spanish). 6 December 2018. Retrieved 29 June 2021.
- "Vox, del nacional-catolicismo al ultranacionalismo neoliberal - Agenda Pública". 3 May 2019. Archived from the original on 3 May 2019. Retrieved 29 June 2021.
- "Espinosa de los Monteros defiende a los youtubers que se van a Andorra: "Lo que hacen es legal"". La Sexta. 3 February 2021.
- Press, Europa (1 May 2021). "Vox presenta su sindicato "anticomunista" Solidaridad frente al "sindicalismo corrompido" de UGT y CCOO". www.europapress.es. Retrieved 29 June 2021.
- "Condenados según sexo, nacionalidad y número de delitos - Resultados nacionales".
- Fernandez-Miranda, Juan (21 December 2020). "Casado dio una patada a la esperanza de una alternativa a Sánchez". ABC.
- Espinosa de los Monteros (14 June 2019). "Deberíamos elegir qué inmigrantes queremos por razón de origen y de cualificación". ABC (newspaper).
- Buxadé, Jorge (25 September 2020). "Entrevista a Jorge Buxadé (VOX): "El mensaje de Bruselas es que aquí damos 'paguitas' a quienes entren ilegalmente"". Periodista Digital.
- Macias (18 May 2021). "Abascal intensifica su discurso anti inmigración ilegal, pide una "respuesta de fuerza"y bloquear los visados marroquíes". La Razon.
- Saleem, Aasim (9 May 2019). "Vox party: Rise of the far right in Spain and what it means for vulnerable communities". Info Migrants.
- Llaneras, Kiko (19 February 2019). "Spain's far-right party Vox takes its anti-immigration message to Madrid". El Pais.
- "Vox party puts 'menace' of migrant children at centre of election drive". The Guardian. 10 November 2019.
- Casals, Xavier (21 April 2015). "Vox y su campaña contra la inmigración masiva". ElManifiesto.com.
- Digital, Confidencial (29 October 2020). "Vox condena el "terror multicultural" en Francia: "El fundamentalismo islámico ha declarado la guerra"". Confidencial Digital (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 June 2021.
- "Spain First: The Return of the Falange – Centre for Analysis of the Radical Right". Retrieved 3 July 2021.
- EFE, Agencia (18 February 2020). "Congreso rechaza propuesta de Vox para fomentar natalidad y proteger familia". COPE (in Spanish). Retrieved 3 July 2021.
- H, Creada 18 February 2020 | 19:41 H/Última actualización 18 February 2020 | 20:44 (18 February 2020). "Vox acusa al Gobierno de Sánchez de invertir 34 millones en abortos". La Razón (in Spanish). Retrieved 3 July 2021.
- Abascal, Luis (19 February 2020). "Bertrand Ndongo, asesor de Vox en Madrid, rompe su silencio tras la decisión de Twitter de cerrar su cuenta por "incitación al odio"". El Plural.
- "VOX - A new political party, an offshoot of the PP - Spain News in English". www.typicallyspanish.com. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
- Rtve.es, Laboratorio. "El programa de Vox para "reconquistar" España" Check
|url=value (help). Las Claves (in Spanish). Retrieved 3 July 2021.
- Cañizares, María Jesús (17 December 2018). "Vox: ¿fenómeno mediático o real?". Crónica Global.
- "Abascal revive sus dos dramas con ETA: el ataque familiar y el asesinato de su amigo cartero". El Español. 9 November 2020.
- "Vox pide ilegalizar a partidos independentistas en su presentación en Barcelona". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 3 June 2018. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
- "El Gobierno aprueba los indultos parciales y condicionados a los presos del 'procés' "para abrir un nuevo tiempo de diálogo"". El Pais. 22 June 2021.
- "Sánchez aleja un indulto y defiende el fallo: "Garantizamos su absoluto cumplimiento"". El Pais. 14 October 2019.
- "Ciudadanos y Vox recurren ante el Supremo los indultos a los líderes del 'procés'". El Pais. 24 June 2021.
- Spain's Vox party wins seats as far-right party surges for first time since Franco, CNN, 3 December 2018
- "Salvini dice que ya no tiene relación con Vox porque está a favor "de los derechos y libertad"". El Confidencial (in Spanish). 30 March 2021. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
- "Who we are // ECR Group". ECR Group. Retrieved 3 July 2021.
- Abascal, Santiago (8 November 2015). "Cádiz, Covadonga y Bruselas". Libertad Digital (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 July 2018.
Porque estamos convencidos de que nación y soberanía son conceptos íntimamente relacionados. Si somos soberanos es porque somos una Nación y no tenemos derecho a entregar lo que hemos recibido de nuestros mayores. España debe estar en Europa pero sin complejos, reivindicando el papel histórico, industrial y agrícola que merecemos. No debemos ser vasallos de Merkel ni de Tsipras. Ni camareros de Merkel ni paganos de las propinas de Tsipras. Las Cortes de Cádiz proclamaron que la Nación española era libre e independiente y que no podía ser patrimonio de ninguna familia o persona. Proclamaron asimismo que la soberanía reside esencialmente en la Nación, que es la única que tiene derecho a establecer sus leyes fundamentales. Esta declaración de soberanía ha sido una constante en toda nuestra historia constitucional.
- "The Spanish Constitution" (PDF).
- "Abascal firma una declaración sobre el Futuro de Europa con Orban, Marine Le Pen, Georgia Meloni y Salvini". ELMUNDO (in Spanish). 2 July 2021. Retrieved 3 July 2021.
- Pérez-Curiel, Concha; Jiménez-Marín, Gloria; Pulido-Polo, Marta (7 January 2021). "Corrupción política, liderazgo e influencia en Twitter. Un análisis sobre la transparencia pública en el marco de las elecciones del 28 de abril en España" (PDF). Revista Mediterránea de Comunicación. 12 (2): 209–226. doi:10.14198/MEDCOM000029. hdl:10045/116063.
- Turnbull-Dugarte, Stuart (18 June 2020). "The Baskerville's dog suddenly started barking: voting for VOX in the 2019 Spanish general elections". Political Research Exchange. 2. doi:10.1080/2474736X.2020.1781543. S2CID 221707202.
- "Cuentas ejercicio 2018" (PDF).
- "Cuentas anuales VOX 2019". VOX (in Spanish). 11 June 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021.
- "Cuentas anuales ejercicio 2020" (PDF). Retrieved 8 April 2021.
- Carmona Pascual, Pablo (2020). "Vox y el dilema de las derechas". Familia, raza y nación en tiempos de posfascismo (PDF). Traficantes de Sueños. pp. 161–186. ISBN 978-84-121259-4-8.
- Casals, Xavier (2020). "El ultranacionalismo de Vox. Cinco claves para comprender 'la España viva'". Grand Place. Pensamiento y Cultura. Zarautz: Mario Onaindia Fundazioa. 13: 27–35. ISSN 2386-429X.
- Ferreira, Carles (2019). "Vox como representante de la derecha radical en España: un estudio sobre su ideología" [Vox as Representative of the Radical Right in Spain: A study of its Ideology]. Revista Española de Ciencia Política (in Spanish). 51 (51): 73–98. doi:10.21308/recp.51.03. ISSN 2173-9870.
- Turnbull-Dugarte, Stuart J. (2019). "Explaining the end of Spanish exceptionalism and electoral support for Vox". Research & Politics. SAGE. 6 (2). doi:10.1177/2053168019851680.
- Turnbull-Dugarte, Stuart; Rama, José; Santana, Andrés (2020). "The Baskerville's dog suddenly started barking: voting for VOX in the 2019 Spanish general elections". Political Research Exchange. 2 (1). doi:10.1080/2474736X.2020.1781543.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vox.|