Hispanic America

region comprising the American countries inhabited by Spanish-speaking populations
"Spanish America" redirects here. For colonial Spanish America, see Spanish colonization of the Americas.
Map of countries that make up Hispanic America, in green.
Spanish speakers in the Americas.
European colonies and territories in the Americas in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries.

Hispanic America, more generally called Spanish America, (Spanish: Hispanoamérica, América española or América hispana) is the region comprising the Spanish-speaking nations in the Americas.[1][2]

These countries have significant commonalities with each other and with Spain, its former European metropolis. In all of these countries, Spanish is the main language, sometimes sharing official status with one or more indigenous languages (such as Guaraní, Quechua, Aymara, or Mayan), or English (in Puerto Rico).[3] Catholic Christianity is the predominant religion.[4]

Hispanic America is sometimes grouped together with Brazil under the term "Ibero-America", meaning those countries in the Americas with cultural roots in the Iberian Peninsula.[5] Hispanic America also contrasts with Latin America, which includes not only Hispanic America, but also Brazil, as well as the former French colonies in the Western Hemisphere (except areas that are now in either the United States or Canada).[6]

Contents

HistoryEdit

The Spanish conquest of the Americas began in 1492, and ultimately was part of a larger historical process of world discovery, through which various European powers incorporated a considerable amount of territory and peoples in the Americas, Asia, and Africa between the 15th and 20th centuries. Hispanic America became the main part of the vast Spanish Empire.

Napoleon's takeover of Spain in 1808 and the consequent chaos initiated the dismemberment of the Spanish Empire, as the Hispanic American territories began their struggle for emancipation. By 1830, the only remaining Spanish American and Asian territories were Philippine archipelago and the islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico, until the 1898 Spanish–American War.

CountriesEdit

Only GDP in billion $USD (2014 est.)
Country Population Area[a] GDP (nominal)[b] GDP (nominal)
per capita[c]
GDP (PPP) GDP (PPP)
per capita
  Argentina 43,514,000 2,780,400 $775.00 $12,622 $972 $27,500
  Bolivia 10,227,299 1,098,581 $27.43 $3,040 $74.4 $5,400
  Chile[7] 17,094,275 756,950 $268.20 $13,383 $422.4 $22,500
  Colombia 48,873,936 1,141,748 $427.13 $6,056 $667.4 $13,400
  Costa Rica 4,579,000 51,000 $45.13 $10,625 $75 $15,000
  Cuba 11,451,652 110,861 $72.30 $6,790 $234.6 $10,200
  Dominican Republic 10,090,000 48,730 $59.00 $6,373 $149.7 $10,060
  Ecuador 14,067,000 256,370 $80.93 $6,250 $183.4
  El Salvador 7,185,000 21,040 $23.82 $4,217 $53
  Guatemala 14,655,189 108,890 $49.88 $3,904 $125.8
  Honduras 7,793,000 112,492 $18.39 $2,494 $41
  Mexico 113,724,226 1,972,550 $1,177.00 $9,009 $2,227
  Nicaragua 5,743,000 129,494 $10.51 $2,088 $31.33
  Panama 3,450,349 75,571 $36.25 $13,265 $87.2
  Paraguay 6,996,245 406,752 $26.00 $4,160 $61
  Peru 29,885,340 1,285,220 $217.60 $6,121 $389
  Puerto Rico (U.S.) 3,994,259 9,104 $93.52 $29,620 $125.86
  Uruguay 3,415,920 176,215 $49.40 $15,581 $73.46
  Venezuela 28,549,745 916,445 $205.70 $11,936 $515.74
Total 376,607,614 11,466,903 $3,460.16 $9,188 $6,505.29 $17,273

Largest citiesEdit

City Country Population Metro
Mexico City   Mexico 8,851,080 23,137,152
Buenos Aires   Argentina 3,050,728 15,941,973
Bogotá   Colombia 7,878,783 9,348,588
Lima   Peru 7,605,742 9,367,587
Santiago   Chile 5,428,590 7,200,000
Caracas   Venezuela 3,273,863 5,239,364
Guatemala City   Guatemala 2,149,188 4,500,000
Guadalajara   Mexico 1,564,514 4,424,584
Monterrey   Mexico 1,133,814 4,106,054
Medellín   Colombia 2,636,101 3,731,447
Guayaquil   Ecuador 2,432,233 3,328,534
Santo Domingo   Dominican Republic 1,111,838 3,310,171[8]
Havana   Cuba 2,350,000 3,073,000
Maracaibo   Venezuela 2,201,727 2,928,043
Puebla   Mexico 1,399,519 2,728,790
Cali   Colombia 2,068,386 2,530,796
San Juan   Puerto Rico 434,374 2,509,007
San José, Costa Rica   Costa Rica 1,543,00 2,158,898
Asunción   Paraguay 1,543,000 2,158,898
Toluca   Mexico 820,000 1,936,422
Montevideo   Uruguay 1,325,968 1,868,335
Quito   Ecuador 1,397,698 1,842,201
Managua   Nicaragua 1,380,300 1,825,000
Barranquilla   Colombia 1,148,506 1,798,143
Santa Cruz   Bolivia 1,594,926 1,774,998
Valencia   Venezuela 894,204 1,770,000
Tijuana   Mexico 1,286,157 1,751,302
Tegucigalpa   Honduras 1,230,000 1,600,000
La Paz   Bolivia 872,480 1,590,000
San Salvador   El Salvador 540,090 2,223,092
Barquisimeto   Venezuela 1,116,000 1,500,000
León   Mexico 1,278,087 1,488,000
Córdoba   Argentina 1,309,536 1,452,000
Juárez   Mexico 1,301,452 1,343,000
San Pedro Sula   Honduras 1,250,000 1,300,000
Maracay   Venezuela 1,007,000 1,300,000
Rosario   Argentina 908,163 1,203,000
Panama City   Panama 990,641 1,500,000
Torreón   Mexico 548,723 1,144,000
Bucaramanga   Colombia 516,512 1,055,331

FlagEdit

 
Flag of Hispanic Heritage. Motto: Justicia, Paz, Unión y Fraternidad ("Justice, Peace, Union and Fraternity").[9]

While relatively unknown, there is a flag representing the countries of Spanish America, its people, history and shared cultural legacy.

It was created in October 1933 by Ángel Camblor, captain of the Uruguayan army. It was adopted by all the states of Spanish America during the Pan-American Conference of the same year in Montevideo, Uruguay.[9]

The white background stands for peace, the Inti sun god of Inca mythology symbolizes the light shining on the Americas, and the three crosses represent Christopher Columbus' caravels, the Niña, Pinta, and Santa María, used in his first voyage from Spain to the New World in 1492. The deep lilac color of the crosses evokes the color of the lion on the coat of arms of the medieval Crown of Castile.[10]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Values listed in km².
  2. ^ Values listed in billions USD.
  3. ^ Data refers mostly to the year 2015.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ All of the following dictionaries only list "Spanish America" as the name for this cultural region. None list "Hispanic America." All list the demonym for the people of the region discussed in this article as the sole definition, or one of the definitions, for "Spanish American". Some list "Hispanic," "Hispanic American" and "Hispano-American" as synonyms for "Spanish American." (All also include as a secondary definition for these last three terms, persons residing in the United States of Hispanic ancestry.) The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (3rd ed.) (1992). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-44895-6. Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (11th ed.) (2003). Springfield: Merriam-Webster. ISBN 0-87779-807-9. The Random House Dictionary of the English Language (2nd ed.) (1987). New York: Random House. ISBN 0-394-50050-4. Shorter Oxford English Dictionary on Historical Principles (2007). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-920687-2. Webster's New Dictionary and Thesaurus (2002). Cleveland: Wiley Publishing. ISBN 978-0-471-79932-0
  2. ^ "Hispanic America" is used in some older works such as Charles Edward Chapman's 1933 Colonial Hispanic America: A History and 1937 Republican Hispanic America: A History (both New York: The Macmillan Co.); or translated titles that faithfully reproduce Hispanoamérica, such as Edmund Stephen Urbanski (1978), Hispanic America and its Civilization: Spanish Americans and Anglo-Americans, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. The Cambridge University Press textbook by two distinguished historians of early Latin America, James Lockhart and Stuart B. Schwartz is entitled, Early Latin America: A History of Colonial Spanish America and Brazil 1983.
  3. ^ "CIA – The World Factbook – Field Listing – Languages". Retrieved 2009-04-11. 
  4. ^ "CIA – The World Factbook – Field Listing – Religions". Retrieved 2009-04-11. 
  5. ^ The adjective "Ibero-American" usually refers only to countries of the Western Hemisphere, but in the title of the Organization of Ibero-American States it refers to Iberian and (Ibero-)American countries, plus Equatorial Guinea.
  6. ^ "Latin America" The Free Online Dictionary (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 2000, 4th ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2003.)
  7. ^ "Demografia de Chile" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 27, 2009. 
  8. ^ "República Dominicana; Población estimada y proyectada por año y sexo, según región, provincia y municipio. 2000-2010" (in Spanish). Oficina Nacional de Estadística (ONE). Retrieved 2010-04-13.  Context page: [1] ("Poblacion estimada y proyectada región provincia y municipio 2000-2010.xls")
  9. ^ a b Raeside, Rob (ed.) (1999-10-11). "Flag of the Race". Flags of the World. Retrieved 2006-12-23. 
  10. ^ Image of the standard of the Crown of Castile