In prehistoric times, humans hunted aurochs and later domesticated them. Since then, numerous breeds of cattle have been bred specifically for the quality or quantity of their meat. Today, beef is the third most widely consumed meat in the world, after pork and poultry. As of 2018, the United States, Brazil, and China were the largest producers of beef. In the United States, beef production has come to rely heavily on factory farms. The prevalence of manure in these farms has been linked to contamination of beef with E. coli, leading to large recalls, as well as increased antibiotic usage. The now-restricted use of meat and bone meal feed was historically responsible for outbreaks of bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease").
Beef can be prepared in various ways; cuts are often used for steak, which can be cooked to varying degrees of doneness, while trimmings are often ground or minced, as found in most hamburgers. Beef contains protein, iron, and vitamin B12. Along with other kinds of red meat, high consumption is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer and coronary heart disease, especially when processed. Beef has a high environmental impact, with the highest per gram greenhouse gas emissions of any agricultural product. Requiring high land use, it is the primary driver of deforestation in the Amazon rainforest, with approximately 80% of deforested land used for beef production.
The word beef is from the Latin bōs, in contrast to cow which is from Middle English cou (both words have the same Indo-European root *gʷou-). After the Norman Conquest, the French-speaking nobles who ruled England naturally used French words to refer to the meats they were served. Thus, various Anglo-Saxon words were used for the animal (such as nēat, or cu for adult females) by the peasants, but the meat was called boef (ox) (Modern French bœuf) by the French nobles — who did not often deal with the live animal — when it was served to them. This is one example of the common English dichotomy between the words for animals (with largely Germanic origins) and their meat (with Romanic origins) that is also found in such English word-pairs as pig/pork, deer/venison, sheep/mutton and chicken/poultry (also the less common goat/chevon). Beef is cognate with bovine through the Late Latin bovīnus. The rarely used plural form of beef is beeves.
People have eaten the flesh of bovines from prehistoric times; some of the earliest known cave paintings, such as those of Lascaux, show aurochs in hunting scenes. People domesticated cattle to provide ready access to beef, milk, and leather. Cattle have been domesticated at least twice over the course of evolutionary history. The first domestication event occurred around 10,500 years ago with the evolution of Bos taurus. The second was more recent, around 7,000 years ago, with the evolution of Bos indicus in the Indus Valley. There is a possible third domestication even 8,500 years ago, with a potential third species Bos africanus arising in Africa. Most cattle originated in the Old World, with the exception of bison hybrids, which originated in the Americas. Examples include the Wagyū from Japan, Ankole-Watusi from Egypt, and longhorn Zebu from the Indian subcontinent.
It is unknown exactly when people started cooking beef. Cattle were widely used across the Old World as draft animals (oxen), for milk, or specifically for human consumption. With the mechanization of farming, some breeds were specifically bred to increase meat yield, resulting in Chianina and Charolais cattle, or to improve the texture of meat, giving rise to the Murray Grey, Angus, and Wagyū. Some breeds have been selected for both meat and milk production, such as the Brown Swiss (Braunvieh).
In the United States, the growth of the beef business was largely due to expansion in the Southwest. Upon the acquisition of grasslands through the Mexican–American War of 1848, and later the expulsion of the Plains Indians from this region and the Midwest, the American livestock industry began, starting primarily with the taming of wild longhorn cattle. Chicago and New York City were the first to benefit from these developments in their stockyards and in their meat markets.
Beef cattle are raised and fed using a variety of methods, including feedlots, free range, ranching, backgrounding and intensive animal farming. Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs), commonly referred to as factory farms, are commonly used to meet the demand of beef production. CAFOs supply 70.4% of cows in the US market and 99% of all meat in the United States supply. Cattle CAFOs can also be a source of E. coli contamination in the food supply due to the prevalence of manure in CAFOs. These E. coli contaminations include one strain, E. coli O157:H7, which can be toxic to humans, because cattle typically hold this strain in their digestive system. Another consequence of unsanitary conditions created by high-density confinement systems is increased use of antibiotics in order to prevent illness. An analysis of FDA sales data by the Natural Resources Defense Council found 42% of medically important antibiotic use in the U.S. was on cattle, posing concerns about the development of antibiotic resistant bacteria.
|Food Types||Greenhouse Gas Emissions (g CO2-Ceq per g protein)|
|Food Types||Land Use (m2year per 100g protein)|
|Lamb and Mutton|
The consumption of beef poses numerous threats to the natural environment. Of all agricultural products, beef requires some of the most land and water, and its production results in the greatest amount of greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, and water pollution. Cattle populations occupy around 24% of all land on Earth, not including the large agricultural fields that are used to grow cattle feed. According to FAO, "Ranching-induced deforestation is one of the main causes of loss of some unique plant and animal species in the tropical rainforests of Central and South America as well as carbon release in the atmosphere." Beef is also the primary driver of deforestation in the Amazon, with around 80% of all converted land being used to rear cattle. 91% of Amazon land deforested since 1970 has been converted to cattle ranching. 41% of global deforestation from 2005 to 2013 has been attributed to the expansion of beef production. This is due to the higher ratio of net energy of gain to net energy of maintenance where metabolizable energy intake is higher. It takes seven pounds of feed to produce a pound of beef (live weight), compared to more than three pounds for a pound of pork and less than two pounds for a pound of chicken. Between 70 and 80% of all grain produced in the United States is used as cattle feed. However, assumptions about feed quality are implicit in such generalizations. For example, production of a pound of beef cattle live weight may require between 4 and 5 pounds of feed high in protein and metabolizable energy content, or more than 20 pounds of feed of much lower quality. A simple exchange of beef to soy beans (a common feed source for cattle) in Americans' diets would, according to one estimate, result in meeting between 46 and 74 percent of the reductions needed to meet the 2020 greenhouse gas emission goals of the United States as pledged in 2009.[needs update] Australian scientists discovered that adding the seaweed Asparagopsis taxiformis to a cow's diet can reduce methane by up to 99%, and reported a 3% seaweed diet resulted in an 80% reduction in methane.
Some scientists claim that the demand for beef is contributing to significant biodiversity loss as it is a significant driver of deforestation and habitat destruction; species-rich habitats, such as significant portions of the Amazon region, are being converted to agriculture for meat production. The 2019 IPBES Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services also concurs that the beef industry plays a significant role in biodiversity loss. Around 25% to nearly 40% of global land surface is being used for livestock farming, which is mostly cattle.
Some kinds of beef may receive special certifications or designations based on criteria including their breed (Certified Angus Beef, Certified Hereford Beef), origin (Kobe beef, Carne de Ávila, Belgian Blue), or the way the cattle are treated, fed or slaughtered (organic, grass-fed, Kosher, or Halal beef). Some countries regulate the marketing and sale of beef by observing criteria post-slaughter and classifying the observed quality of the meat.
In 2018, the United States, Brazil, and China produced the most beef with 12.22 million tons, 9.9 million tons, and 6.46 million tons respectively. The top 3 beef exporting countries in 2019 were Australia (14.8% of total exports), the United States (13.4% of total exports), and Brazil (12.6% of total exports). Beef production is also important to the economies of Japan, Argentina, Uruguay, Canada, Paraguay, Mexico, Belarus and Nicaragua.
Top 5 cattle and beef exporting countries (2016)
|Rank||Country||2016||%of the World|
Top 10 cattle and beef producing countries (2009, 2010)
Beef production (1000 Metric Tons CWE) (2009)
National cattle herds (Per 1000 Head)
Most beef can be used as is by merely cutting into certain parts, such as roasts, short ribs or steak (filet mignon, sirloin steak, rump steak, rib steak, rib eye steak, hanger steak, etc.), while other cuts are processed (corned beef or beef jerky). Trimmings, on the other hand, which are usually mixed with meat from older, leaner (therefore tougher) cattle, are ground, minced or used in sausages. The blood is used in some varieties called blood sausage. Other parts that are eaten include other muscles and offal, such as the oxtail, liver, tongue, tripe from the reticulum or rumen, glands (particularly the pancreas and thymus, referred to as sweetbread), the heart, the brain (although forbidden where there is a danger of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, BSE, commonly referred to as mad cow disease), the kidneys, and the tender testicles of the bull (known in the United States as calf fries, prairie oysters, or Rocky Mountain oysters). Some intestines are cooked and eaten as is, but are more often cleaned and used as natural sausage casings. The bones are used for making beef stock. Meat from younger cows (calves) is called veal. Beef from steers and heifers is similar.
Beef is first divided into primal cuts, large pieces of the animal initially separated by butchering. These are basic sections from which steaks and other subdivisions are cut. The term "primal cut" is quite different from "prime cut", used to characterize cuts considered to be of higher quality. Since the animal's legs and neck muscles do the most work, they are the toughest; the meat becomes more tender as distance from hoof and horn increases. Different countries and cuisines have different cuts and names, and sometimes use the same name for a different cut; for example, the cut described as "brisket" in the United States is from a significantly different part of the carcass than British brisket.
Aging and tenderizationEdit
To improve tenderness of beef, it is often aged (i.e., stored refrigerated) to allow endogenous proteolytic enzymes to weaken structural and myofibrillar proteins. Wet aging is accomplished using vacuum packaging to reduce spoilage and yield loss. Dry aging involves hanging primals (usually ribs or loins) in humidity-controlled coolers. Outer surfaces dry out and can support growth of molds (and spoilage bacteria, if too humid), resulting in trim and evaporative losses.
Evaporation concentrates the remaining proteins and increases flavor intensity; the molds can contribute a nut-like flavor. After two to three days there are significant effects. The majority of the tenderizing effect occurs in the first 10 days. Boxed beef, stored and distributed in vacuum packaging, is, in effect, wet aged during distribution. Premium steakhouses dry age for 21 to 28 days or wet age up to 45 days for maximum effect on flavor and tenderness.
Meat from less tender cuts or older cattle can be mechanically tenderized by forcing small, sharp blades through the cuts to disrupt the proteins. Also, solutions of exogenous proteolytic enzymes (papain, bromelin or ficin) can be injected to augment the endogenous enzymes. Similarly, solutions of salt and sodium phosphates can be injected to soften and swell the myofibrillar proteins. This improves juiciness and tenderness. Salt can improve the flavor, but phosphate can contribute a soapy flavor.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (July 2021)
These methods are applicable to all types of meat and some other foodstuffs.
|Grilling||Cooking the beef over or under a high radiant heat source, generally in excess of 340 °C (650 °F). This leads to searing of the surface of the beef, which creates a flavorsome crust. In Australia, New Zealand, the United States, Canada, the UK, Germany and The Netherlands, grilling, particularly over charcoal, is sometimes known as barbecuing, often shortened to "BBQ". When cooked over charcoal, this method can also be called charbroiling.|
|Barbecue||A technique of cooking that involves cooking meat for long periods of time at low temperatures with smoke from a wood fire.|
|Broiling||A term used in North America. It is similar to grilling, but with the heat source always above the meat. Elsewhere this is considered a way of grilling.|
|Griddle||Meat may be cooked on a hot metal griddle. A little oil or fat may be added to inhibit sticking; the dividing line when the method becomes shallow frying is not well-defined.|
|Roasting||A way of cooking meat in a hot oven, producing roast beef. Liquid is not usually added; the beef may be basted by fat on the top, or by spooning hot fat from the oven pan over the top. A gravy may be made from the cooking juices, after skimming off excess fat. Roasting is suitable for thicker pieces of meat; the other methods listed are usually for steaks and similar cuts.|
Beef can be cooked to various degrees, from very rare to well done. The degree of cooking corresponds to the temperature in the approximate center of the meat, which can be measured with a meat thermometer. Beef can be cooked using the sous-vide method, which cooks the entire steak to the same temperature, but when cooked using a method such as broiling or roasting it is typically cooked such that it has a "bulls eye" of doneness, with the least done (coolest) at the center and the most done (warmest) at the outside.
Meat can be cooked in boiling oil, typically by shallow frying, although deep frying may be used, often for meat enrobed with breadcrumbs as in milanesas or finger steaks. Larger pieces such as steaks may be cooked this way, or meat may be cut smaller as in stir frying, typically an Asian way of cooking: cooking oil with flavorings such as garlic, ginger and onions is put in a very hot wok. Then small pieces of meat are added, followed by ingredients which cook more quickly, such as mixed vegetables. The dish is ready when the ingredients are 'just cooked'.
Moist heat cooking methods include braising, pot roasting, stewing and sous-vide. These techniques are often used for cuts of beef that are tougher, as these longer, lower-temperature cooking methods have time to dissolve connecting tissue which otherwise makes meat remain tough after cooking.
- simmering meat, whole or cut into bite-size pieces, in a water-based liquid with flavorings. This technique may be used as part of pressure cooking.
- cooking meats, in a covered container, with small amounts of liquids (usually seasoned or flavored). Unlike stewing, braised meat is not fully immersed in liquid, and usually is browned before the oven step.
- Sous-vide, French for "under vacuum", is a method of cooking food sealed in airtight plastic bags in a water bath for a long time—72 hours is not unknown—at an accurately determined temperature much lower than normally used for other types of cooking. The intention is to maintain the integrity of ingredients and achieve very precise control of cooking. Although water is used in the method, only moisture in or added to the food bags is in contact with the food.
Meat has usually been cooked in water which is just simmering, such as in stewing; higher temperatures make meat tougher by causing the proteins to contract. Since thermostatic temperature control became available, cooking at temperatures well below boiling, 52 °C (126 °F) (sous-vide) to 90 °C (194 °F) (slow cooking), for prolonged periods has become possible; this is just hot enough to convert the tough collagen in connective tissue into gelatin through hydrolysis, with minimal toughening.
With the adequate combination of temperature and cooking time, pathogens, such as bacteria will be killed, and pasteurization can be achieved. Because browning (Maillard reactions) can only occur at higher temperatures (above the boiling point of water), these moist techniques do not develop the flavors associated with browning. Meat will often undergo searing in a very hot pan, grilling or browning with a torch before moist cooking (though sometimes after).
Thermostatically controlled methods, such as sous-vide, can also prevent overcooking by bringing the meat to the exact degree of doneness desired, and holding it at that temperature indefinitely. The combination of precise temperature control and long cooking duration makes it possible to be assured that pasteurization has been achieved, both on the surface and the interior of even very thick cuts of meat, which can not be assured with most other cooking techniques. (Although extremely long-duration cooking can break down the texture of the meat to an undesirable degree.)
Beef can be cooked quickly at the table through several techniques. In hot pot cooking, such as shabu-shabu, very thinly sliced meat is cooked by the diners at the table by immersing it in a heated pot of water or stock with vegetables. In fondue bourguignonne, diners dip small pieces of beef into a pot of hot oil at the table. Both techniques typically feature accompanying flavorful sauces to complement the meat.
Steak tartare is a French dish made from finely chopped or ground (minced) raw meat (often beef). More accurately, it is scraped so as not to let even the slightest of the sinew fat get into the scraped meat. It is often served with onions, capers, seasonings such as fresh ground pepper and Worcestershire sauce, and sometimes raw egg yolk.
The Belgian or Dutch dish filet américain is also made of finely chopped ground beef, though it is seasoned differently, and either eaten as a main dish or can be used as a dressing for a sandwich. Kibbeh nayyeh is a similar Lebanese and Syrian dish. And in Ethiopia, a ground raw meat dish called tire siga or kitfo is eaten (upon availability).
Carpaccio of beef is a thin slice of raw beef dressed with olive oil, lemon juice and seasoning. Often, the beef is partially frozen before slicing to allow very thin slices to be cut.
Yukhoe is a variety of hoe, raw dishes in Korean cuisine which is usually made from raw ground beef seasoned with various spices or sauces. The beef part used for yukhoe is tender rump steak. For the seasoning, soy sauce, sugar, salt, sesame oil, green onion, and ground garlic, sesame seed, black pepper and juice of bae (Korean pear) are used. The beef is mostly topped with the yolk of a raw egg.
Cured, smoked, and dried beefEdit
Bresaola is an air-dried, salted beef that has been aged about two to three months until it becomes hard and a dark red, almost purple, colour. It is lean, has a sweet, musty smell and is tender. It originated in Valtellina, a valley in the Alps of northern Italy's Lombardy region. Bündnerfleisch is a similar product from neighbouring Switzerland. Chipped beef is an American industrially produced air-dried beef product, described by one of its manufacturers as being "similar to bresaola, but not as tasty."
Beef jerky is dried, salted, smoked beef popular in the United States.
Biltong is a cured, salted, air dried beef popular in South Africa.
Corned beef is a cut of beef cured or pickled in a seasoned brine. The corn in corned beef refers to the grains of coarse salts (known as corns) used to cure it. The term corned beef can denote different styles of brine-cured beef, depending on the region. Some, like American-style corned beef, are highly seasoned and often considered delicatessen fare.
Spiced beef is a cured and salted joint of round, topside, or silverside, traditionally served at Christmas in Ireland. It is a form of salt beef, cured with spices and saltpetre, intended to be boiled or broiled in Guinness or a similar stout, and then optionally roasted for a period after. There are various other recipes for pickled beef. Sauerbraten is a German variant.
In absolute numbers, the United States, Brazil, and the People's Republic of China are the world's three largest consumers of beef; Uruguay, however, has the highest beef and veal consumption per capita, followed by Argentina and Brazil. According to the data from OECD, the average Uruguayan ate over 42 kg (93 lb) of beef or veal in 2014, representing the highest beef/veal consumption per capita in the world. In comparison, the average American consumed only about 24 kg (53 lb) beef or veal in the same year, while African countries, such as Mozambique, Ghana, and Nigeria, consumed the least beef or veal per capita.
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||1,047 kJ (250 kcal)|
|Dietary fiber||0 g|
|†Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. |
Source: USDA FoodData Central
Beef is a source of complete protein and it is a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of Niacin, Vitamin B12, iron and zinc. Red meat is the most significant dietary source of carnitine and, like any other meat (pork, fish, veal, lamb etc.), is a source of creatine. Creatine is converted to creatinine during cooking.
Coronary heart diseaseEdit
A 2010 meta-analysis found that processed red meat (and all processed meat) was correlated with a higher risk of coronary heart disease, although based on the limited studies that separated the two, no such association was found for unprocessed red meat. As of 2020, there is substantial evidence for a link between high consumption of red meat and coronary heart disease.
E. coli recallsEdit
- January 2011, One Great Burger expands recall.
- February 2011, American Food Service, a Pico Rivera, Calif. establishment, is recalling approximately 1,440 kg (3,170 lb) of fresh ground beef patties and other bulk packages of ground beef products that may be contaminated with E. coli O157:H7.
- March 2011, 6,400 kg (14,000 lb) beef recalled by Creekstone Farms Premium Beef due to E. coli concerns.
- April 2011, National Beef Packaging recalled more than 27,000 kg (60,000 lb) of ground beef due to E. coli contamination.
- May 2011, Irish Hills Meat Company of Michigan, a Tipton, Mich., establishment is recalling approximately 410 kg (900 lb) of ground beef products that may be contaminated with E. coli O157:H7.
- September 2011, Tyson Fresh Meats recalled 59,500 kg (131,100 lb) of ground beef due to E. coli contamination.
- December 2011, Tyson Fresh Meats recalled 18,000 kg (40,000 lb) of ground beef due to E. coli contamination.
- January 2012, Hannaford Supermarkets recalled all ground beef with sell by dates 17 December 2011 or earlier.
- September 2012, XL Foods recalled more than 1800 products believed to be contaminated with E. coli 0157:H7. The recalled products were produced at the company's plant in Brooks, Alberta, Canada; this was the largest recall of its kind in Canadian History.
Mad cow diseaseEdit
Since then, other countries have had outbreaks of BSE:
- In May 2003, after a cow with BSE was discovered in Alberta, Canada, the American border was closed to live Canadian cattle, but was reopened in early 2005.
- In June 2005, Dr. John Clifford, chief veterinary officer for the United States Department of Agriculture animal health inspection service, confirmed a fully domestic case of BSE in Texas. Clifford would not identify the ranch, calling that "privileged information." The 12-year-old animal was alive at the time when Oprah Winfrey raised concerns about cannibalistic feeding practices on her show which aired 16 April 1996.
In 2010, the EU, through the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), proposed a roadmap to gradually lift the restrictions on the feed ban. In 2013, the ban on feeding mammal-based products to cattle, was amended to allow for certain milk, fish, eggs, and plant-fed farm animal products to be used.
Religious and cultural prohibitionsEdit
Most Indic religions reject the killing and eating of cows. Hinduism prohibits cow beef known as Go-Maans in Sanskrit. Bovines have a sacred status in India especially the cow, due to their provision of sustenance for families. Bovines are generally considered to be integral to the landscape. However, they do not consider the cow to be a god.
Many of India's rural economies depend on cattle farming; hence they have been revered in society. Since the Vedic period, cattle, especially cows, were venerated as a source of milk, and dairy products, and their relative importance in transport services and farming like ploughing, row planting, ridging. Veneration grew with the advent of Jainism and the Gupta period. In medieval India, Maharaja Ranjit Singh issued a proclamation on stopping cow slaughter. Conflicts over cow slaughter often have sparked religious riots that have led to loss of human life and in one 1893 riot alone, more than 100 people were killed for the cause.
For religious reasons, the ancient Egyptian priests also refrained from consuming beef. Buddhists and Sikhs are also against wrongful slaughtering of animals, but they don't have a wrongful eating doctrine. In the Indigenous American tradition a white buffalo calf is considered sacred; they call it Pte Ska Win (White Buffalo Calf Woman).
In ancient China, the killing of cattle and consumption of beef was prohibited, as they were valued for their role in agriculture. This custom is still followed by a few Chinese families across the world.
During the season of Lent, Orthodox Christians and Catholics periodically give up meat and poultry (and sometimes dairy products and eggs) as a religious act. Observant Jews and Muslims may not eat any meat or poultry which has not been slaughtered and treated in conformance with religious laws.
Most of the States in India prohibit the killing of cow and consumption of beef for religious reasons. Certain Hindu castes and sects continue to avoid beef from their diets. Article 48 of the Constitution of India mandates the state may take steps for preserving and improving the bovine breeds, and prohibit the slaughter, of cows and calves and other milch and draught cattle. Article 47 of the Constitution of India provides states must raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health as among its primary duties, based on this a reasonableness in slaughter of common cattle was instituted, if the animals ceased to be capable of breeding, providing milk, or serving as draught animals. The overall mismanagement of India's common cattle is dubbed in academic fields as "India's bovine burden." In 2017, a rule against the slaughter of cattle and the eating of beef was signed into law by presidential assent as a modified version of Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960. The original act, however, did permit the humane slaughter of animals for use as food.
Existing meat export policy in India prohibits the export of beef (meat of cow, oxen and calf). Bone-in meat, a carcass, or half carcass of buffalo is also prohibited from export. Only the boneless meat of buffalo, meat of goat and sheep and birds is permitted for export. In 2017, India sought a total "beef ban" and Australian market analysts predicted that this would create market opportunities for leather traders and meat producers there and elsewhere. Their prediction estimated a twenty percent shortage of beef and a thirteen percent shortage of leather in the world market.
- Harper, Douglas. "beef". Online Etymology Dictionary.
- "Beef". The Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia. Thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
- The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, 2000: beef.
- "Beef". The American Heritage College Dictionary, 4th ed.
- "beeves". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 1 May 2021.
- Piatti-Farnell, Lorna (2013). Beef: A Global History. London: Reaktion Books. p. 7. ISBN 978-1780231174 – via EBL Reader.
- "Late Neolithic megalithic structures at Nabta Playa". Archived from the original on 13 February 2008. Retrieved 27 February 2008.
- Hirst, K. Kris. "History of the Domestication of Cows and Yaks". ThoughtCo.
- "History of Cattle Breeds". Archived from the original on 27 April 2007. Retrieved 17 April 2007.
- Horowitz, Roger (2006). Putting Meat on the American Table: Taste, Technology, Transformation. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0801882419.
- Reese, Jacy (11 April 2019). "US Factory Farming Estimates". Estimates. Cite journal requires
- "Why are CAFOs bad?". Sierra Club. 24 February 2015.
- Lim, Ji Youn; Yoon, Jang W.; Hovde, Carolyn J. (2010). "A Brief Overview of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Its Plasmid O157". Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 20 (1): 5–14. doi:10.4014/jmb.0908.08007. PMC 3645889. PMID 20134227.
- Evans, Judith (21 January 2021). "Overuse of antibiotics for meat production drives resistance in humans". Financial Times.
- Dall, Chris (26 June 2020). "Report slams beef industry for overuse of antibiotics". Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy.
- Michael Clark; Tilman, David (November 2014). "Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health". Nature. 515 (7528): 518–522. Bibcode:2014Natur.515..518T. doi:10.1038/nature13959. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 25383533. S2CID 4453972.
- Nemecek, T.; Poore, J. (1 June 2018). "Reducing food's environmental impacts through producers and consumers". Science. 360 (6392): 987–992. Bibcode:2018Sci...360..987P. doi:10.1126/science.aaq0216. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 29853680.
- Nemecek, T.; Poore, J. (1 June 2018). "Reducing food's environmental impacts through producers and consumers". Science. 360 (6392): 987–992. Bibcode:2018Sci...360..987P. doi:10.1126/science.aaq0216. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 29853680.
- "Cattle ranching is encroaching on forests in Latin America". Fao.org. 8 June 2005. Archived from the original on 23 May 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
- Wang, George C. (9 April 2017). "Go vegan, save the planet". CNN. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
- Liotta, Edoardo (23 August 2019). "Feeling Sad About the Amazon Fires? Stop Eating Meat". Vice. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
- Steinfeld, Henning; Gerber, Pierre; Wassenaar, T. D.; Castel, Vincent (2006). Livestock's Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. ISBN 978-92-5-105571-7. Retrieved 19 August 2008.
- Margulis, Sergio (2004). Causes of Deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon (PDF). World Bank Working Paper No. 22. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. p. 9. ISBN 0-8213-5691-7. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 September 2008. Retrieved 4 September 2008.
- Ritchie, Hannah. "Drivers of Deforestation". Our World in Data. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
- National Research Council. 2000. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle. National Academy Press.
- Adler, Jerry; Lawler, Andrew (June 2012). "How the Chicken Conquered the World". Smithsonian. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
- "Beef". www.globalissues.org.
- Hamblin, James (2 August 2017). "If Everyone Ate Beans Instead of Beef". The Atlantic. Retrieved 26 September 2019.
- McCarthy, Marty (20 April 2017). "Seaweed-fed cows could solve livestock industry's methane problems". ABC News (Australia). Retrieved 5 August 2021.
- Roque, Breanna M.; Venegas, Marielena; Kinley, Robert D.; Nys, Rocky de; Duarte, Toni L.; Yang, Xiang; Kebreab, Ermias (17 March 2021). "Red seaweed (Asparagopsis taxiformis) supplementation reduces enteric methane by over 80 percent in beef steers". PLOS ONE. 16 (3): e0247820. Bibcode:2021PLoSO..1647820R. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0247820. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 7968649. PMID 33730064.
- Hance, Jeremy (20 October 2015). "How humans are driving the sixth mass extinction". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
- Morell, Virginia (2015). "Meat-eaters may speed worldwide species extinction, study warns". Science.
- Machovina, B.; Feeley, K. J.; Ripple, W. J. (2015). "Biodiversity conservation: The key is reducing meat consumption". Science of the Total Environment. 536: 419–431. Bibcode:2015ScTEn.536..419M. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.07.022. PMID 26231772.
- Watts, Jonathan (6 May 2019). "Human society under urgent threat from loss of Earth's natural life". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 May 2019.
- McGrath, Matt (6 May 2019). "Nature crisis: Humans 'threaten 1m species with extinction'". BBC. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
- Sutter, John D. (12 December 2016). "How to stop the sixth mass extinction". CNN. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
- "Certified Angus Beef in Ireland". Angus producer group. Archived from the original on 15 February 2013. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
- "Exported Beef". Kobe Beef Marketing & Distribution Promotion Association. Archived from the original on 11 October 2014.
- "Protected Designation of Origin (PDO)/Protected Geographical Indication (PGI)". European Commission — Agriculture and Rural Development. Archived from the original on 18 August 2007. Retrieved 10 August 2007.
- "Is a Halal food market boom on its way?". 27 September 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- Ritchie, Hannah; Roser, Max (25 August 2017). "Meat and Dairy Production". Our World in Data.
- "Top Beef Exporting Countries". World's Top Exports. 1 April 2020.
- "World Beef Exports: Ranking Of Countries".
- Daily Livestock Report – Vol. 8, No. 126/ 30 June 2010
- Dejohn, Irving (29 March 2011), You got the guts to try Argentinian chinchulini - cow intestine delicacy?, NY Daily News, archived from the original on 5 September 2017, retrieved 27 April 2018
- Schweihofer, Jeannine and Buskirk, Dan (10 April 2014) Do steers or heifers produce better beef?. Michigan State University.
- "Dried Beef Products". Hormel. Archived from the original on 11 March 2007. Retrieved 3 September 2008.
- Recipe for traditional dry spiced beef Archived 26 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine – An Bord Bia
- Raloff, Janet (31 May 2003). Food for Thought: Global Food Trends. Science News.
- "Beef, lean organic". WHFoods. 18 October 2004. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
- Oh, Mirae; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Tang, Yujiao (2016). "Chemical compositions, free amino acid contents and antioxidant activities of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) beef by cut". Meat Science. 119: 16–21. doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2016.04.016. PMID 27115864.
Beef is one of the main animal food resources providing protein and essential nutrients, including essential amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids, minerals, and vitamins, for human consumption.
- "Eating Cooked Meat Can Distort CKD Stage in Diabetes". Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- "Bowel cancer risk factors". Cancer Research UK. 17 December 2013. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
- American Institute for Cancer Research (2007). Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-9722522-2-5.
- Xue XJ, Gao Q, Qiao JH, Zhang J, Xu CP, Liu J (2014). "Red and processed meat consumption and the risk of lung cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis of 33 published studies". Int J Clin Exp Med (Meta-analysis). 7 (6): 1542–53. PMC 4100964. PMID 25035778.
- Micha, R.; Wallace, S. K.; Mozaffarian, D. (2010). "Red and Processed Meat Consumption and Risk of Incident Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, and Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". Circulation. 121 (21): 2271–83. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.924977. PMC 2885952. PMID 20479151.
- Al-Shaar, Laila; Satija, Ambika; Wang, Dong D.; Rimm, Eric B.; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Hu, Frank B.; Willett, Walter C. (2 December 2020). "Red meat intake and risk of coronary heart disease among US men: prospective cohort study". BMJ. 371: m4141. doi:10.1136/bmj.m4141. ISSN 1756-1833. PMC 8030119.
- "What's the beef with red meat?". Harvard Health. 1 February 2020.
- "Increasing red meat consumption linked with higher risk of premature death". Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. 13 June 2019.
- "USDA Emerging Issues" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 January 2012.
- Cochran, Catherine (14 January 2011). "One Great Burger expands ground beef recall". USDA.gov. Archived from the original on 31 May 2013.
- McIntire, Richard J. (5 February 2011). "California firm recalls ground beef". USDA.gov. Archived from the original on 31 May 2013.
- "Kansas City firm recalls beef products". CNN. 10 March 2011.
- Warner, Jennifer (15 August 2011). "E. coli in Southeastern US". WebMD.
- Lindenberger, Joan (31 May 2011). "Michigan firm recalls ground beef". USDA.gov. Archived from the original on 31 May 2013.
- "Tyson recalls beef over E. coli concerns". Reuters. 28 September 2011. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
- "Tyson recalls beef due to E. coli contamination". The Wall Street Journal. 16 December 2011.
- "Hannaford Supermarket recalls hamburger". wickedlocal.com. 7 January 2012. Archived from the original on 14 January 2012.
- "XL Foods recall was product of preventable errors, review finds". Retrieved 30 January 2018.
- Agency, Canadian Food Inspection (31 October 2011). "Food Safety - Independent Review of XL Foods Inc. Beef Recall 2012". www.foodsafety.gc.ca. Archived from the original on 12 February 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
- "Timeline: BSE and vCJD". NewScientist.com news service. 13 December 2004. Retrieved 10 August 2007.
- Fletcher, Anthony (4 May 2005). "Canadian beef industry loses patience over border dispute". Foodproductiondaily.com. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
- Mcneil, Donald G. (30 June 2005). "reported Case of Mad Cow in Texas Is First to Originate in U.S." The New York Times.
- "Oprah transcript from recording 15 April 1996". Mcspotlight.org. 15 April 1996. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
- "Food and Feed Safety, TSE/BSE". Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
- "Regulation No 999/2001". EU. 22 May 2001. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
- "EU Commission Regulation No 56/2013". EU Commission. 16 January 2013. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
- Bankim Chandra Chatterji (1940). Letters on Hinduism. M.M. Bose. p. 39.
- "Holy Cows: Hinduism's Blessed Bovines". Hinduism.about.com. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
- "Switzerland loves its cows. But unlike India, there is no merging of the bovine and divine". The Wire. Retrieved 2 April 2017.
- Chatterjee, Suhas (1998). Indian Civilization and Culture. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. p. 232. ISBN 978-81-7533-083-2.
- "The cow keepers: Some cattle vigilante groups operating in Delhi and neighbouring states". 11 October 2015.
- Kenneth F. Kiple (30 April 2007). A Movable Feast: Ten Millennia of Food Globalization. Cambridge University Press. pp. 53+. ISBN 978-1-139-46354-6.
- Benn, Charles. (2002). China's Golden Age: Everyday Life in the Tang Dynasty. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517665-0. p. 122
- Maimonodies, Yad Hachazaka; Kedusha; Hilchos Shechita 1:1
- "The states where cow slaughter is legal in India".
- "Milking beef issue could tear social fabric". 28 May 2017.
- Safi, Michael (5 April 2017). "Muslim man dies in India after attack by Hindu 'cow protectors'". The Guardian.
- "Women raped in fatal attack over beef". 12 September 2016 – via www.bbc.com.
- Doshi, Vidhi (6 June 2017). "To protest Modi, these Indians are cooking beef in public". The Washington Post.
- "Holy cow: World's 2nd-largest beef exporter may ban cattle slaughter - FarmIreland.ie". independent.ie.
- "Explained: Holiness of the Cow and Controversy Over Beef-Eating In Ancient India". Indian Express. 8 June 2015.
- "Beef eating: strangulating history". The Hindu. 14 August 2001. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015.
- John R. K. Robson (1980). Food, Ecology, and Culture: Readings in the Anthropology of Dietary Practices. Taylor & Francis. p. 126. ISBN 978-0-677-16090-0.
- Kazmin, Amy (21 November 2017). "Modi's India: the high cost of protecting holy cows". Financial Times. Retrieved 5 August 2018.
- Prashad, Vijay. "A political stampede over India's sacred cow". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 March 2017.
- "Beef, ban and bloodshed". India Today. 7 October 2015.
- "Buffalo meat exports at over Rs 21K cr in 10 mths in FY'17". 27 March 2017.
- "Nirmala slams Akhilesh, says beef exports already banned". 2 October 2015.
- Long, Warwick (30 May 2017). "World's second-largest beef exporter bans sale of slaughter cattle".
- "Nepal declares Cow as its National animal". IndiaToday.
- "Law banning cow slaughter infringe Indigenous Peoples' rights in Nepal". Indigenous Voice.
- Cuba bans cow slaughter. Articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com (13 September 2003). Retrieved on 19 December 2016.