States and union territories of India

(Redirected from States of India)

India is a federal union comprising 28 states and 8 union territories, for a total of 36 entities.[1] The states and union territories are further subdivided into 785 districts and smaller administrative divisions.[2]

States and union territories of India
CategoryFederated states
LocationRepublic of India
Number28 States
8 Union territories
PopulationsStates: Sikkim – 610,577 (lowest)
Uttar Pradesh – 199,812,341 (highest)
Union Territories: Lakshadweep – 64,473 (lowest)
Delhi – 16,787,941 (highest)
AreasStates: Goa – 3,702 km2 (1,429 sq mi) (smallest)
Rajasthan – 342,269 km2 (132,151 sq mi) (largest)
Union territories: Lakshadweep – 32 km2 (12 sq mi) (smallest)
Ladakh – 59,146 km2 (22,836 sq mi) (largest)
Government
Subdivisions

The states of India are self-governing administrative divisions, each having a state government. The governing powers of the states are shared between the state government and the union government. On the other hand, the union territories are directly governed by the union government.[a]

History

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1876–1919

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Administrative divisions of the Indian Empire in 1909

The Indian Empire was a very complex political entity consisting of various imperial divisions and states and territories of varying autonomy. At the time of its establishment in 1876, it was made up of 584 constituent states and the directly ruled territories of the Crown. The entire empire was divided into provinces and agencies.

A province consisted of territory under the direct rule of the Emperor of India (who was also the King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions) and a few minor states, ruled by Indian princes under the suzerainty of the Emperor. A Governor or Lieutenant-Governor acted as the representative of the Emperor to that province and head of government of the directly ruled territories in the province. The governor or lieutenant-governor also served as the Emperor's representative to the constituent states of the province. The first three of the lieutenant-governorships were territories annexed to India from other powers and temporarily governed by the erstwhile Bengal Presidency before being made into their own separate provinces. Agra and Bengal were still considered de jure parts of the defunct Bengal Presidency for judicial and legal purposes. Agra was finally separated in 1878 and merged with Oudh. The Bengal Presidency was re-established in 1912 as a governorship. All these provinces had their own legislatures established by the Indian Councils Acts and high courts established by Indian High Courts Acts. Laws passed by these legislatures needed the dual ascent of the governor or lieutenant-governor of the province and the governor-general of India who functioned as the representative of the Emperor.

In addition to these, there were certain territories ruled directly by the Government of India through nominated chief commissioners. These were former independent states annexed to India and since ruled directly by the Supreme Government.

  • There were the three chief commissioner's provinces. These did not have a legislature or a high court. These were:

A vast majority of the Indian states in the late nineteenth century were, in terms of imperial divisions, organised within the provinces. However a good number of states were organised into imperial structures called agencies (or residencies). An Agent to the Governor-General (AGG) functioned as the Emperor's representative to all the states in the agency.

1919–1935

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In 1919, the fourth Government of India was enacted by the Crown. This saw many major changes. The legislatures of the provinces were made elected ones rather than nominated ones. Some provinces were given bicameral legislatures. All provinces were elevated to governorships and all lieutenant governors were made governors. Burma was given a special status and made an autonomous province.

The Chamber of Princes was established by Emperor George V in 1920. One the major consequences of this was the creation of many more agencies from the states of the provinces, thus granting them direct relations with the Emperor instead of with the Governors.

This saw the separation of all the states from the provinces and addition to before-mentioned agencies. This left all the provinces with only territories under direct Crown rule.

1935–1947

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The latter years of the Indian Empire saw the enactment of the last Government of India Act by the Crown. This act granted full autonomy to Indian provinces. Provincial laws no longer needed the ascent of the governor-general. This act also created the office of a Premier in each province who functioned as the new head of government and was responsible to the provincial legislature. Bengal, Madras and Bombay which had been till now styled Presidencies, were now officially styled as provinces. The provinces of Orissa and Sind were created from Bihar and Bombay respectively. The Province of Burma which had previously functioned as an autonomous province of India was now separated from the Indian Empire and established as the Crown Colony of Burma.

In 1947, the last Act of the Crown was passed. The act dissolved the Indian Empire, the Imperial Legislative Council and the Chamber of Princes and the Union of India was consequently established from 9 former Indian provinces (East Punjab, United Provinces, Central Provinces, Madras, Bombay, Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal and Assam) and 562 former Indian states.

1947–1950

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Administrative divisions of the Union of India in 1949

Between 1947 and 1950 the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the new Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces; others were organised into new provinces and states, such as Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, Malwa Union, Baghelkhand and Bundelkhand States Union, and Patiala and East Punjab States Union, made up of multiple princely states; a few, including Mysore, Hyderabad, Bhopal, and Bilaspur, became separate states. The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was also declared to be a "Union of States". The constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states:[3]

States reorganisation (1951–1956)

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Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State.[4]

The French enclave of Chandernagore was transferred to West Bengal in 1954. In the same year Pondicherry, comprising the former French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karikal, Yanaon and Mahé, was transferred to India; this became a union territory in 1962.[5]

Also in 1954, pro-India forces liberated the Portuguese-held enclaves of Dadrá and Nagar Aveli, declaring the short-lived de facto state of Free Dadra and Nagar Haveli. In 1961, India annexed it as the Union Territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli.[6][7][8][9]

The States Reorganisation Act, 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states.[3]

As a result of this act:

Post-1956

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Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act.[10] The former Union Territory of Nagaland achieved statehood on 1 December 1963.[11] The Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh.[12] The act also designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana.[13]

Madras State was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1969. The north-eastern states of Manipur, Meghalaya and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972.[14] Mysore State was renamed Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished.[15] In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while erstwhile union territory of Goa, Daman and Diu's northern exclaves Damão and Diu became a separate union territory as Daman and Diu.[16]

In November 2000, three new states were created, namely:

Pondicherry was renamed Puducherry in 2007 and Orissa was renamed Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 from ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh.[21][22]

In August 2019, the Parliament of India passed the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019, which contains provisions to reorganise the state of Jammu and Kashmir into two union territories; Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh, effective from 31 October 2019.[23] Later that year in November, the Government of India introduced legislation to merge the union territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli into a single union territory to be known as Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, effective from 26 January 2020.[24][25][26]

Current proposals

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States and Union territories

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States

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State ISO Vehicle
code
Zone Capital Largest city Statehood Population
(2011)[27][28]
Area
(km2)
Official
languages[29]
Additional official
languages[29]
Andhra Pradesh IN-AP AP Southern Amaravati Visakhapatnam 1 November 1956 49,506,799 162,975 Telugu Urdu[30]
Arunachal Pradesh IN-AR AR North-Eastern Itanagar 20 February 1987 1,383,727 83,743 English
Assam IN-AS AS North-Eastern Dispur Guwahati 26 January 1950 31,205,576 78,438 Assamese, Boro Bengali
Bihar IN-BR BR Eastern Patna 26 January 1950 104,099,452 94,163 Hindi Urdu
Chhattisgarh IN-CG CG Central Raipur[b] 1 November 2000 25,545,198 135,194 Hindi Chhattisgarhi
Goa IN-GA GA Western Panaji Vasco da Gama 30 May 1987 1,458,545 3,702 Konkani Marathi
Gujarat IN-GJ GJ Western Gandhinagar Ahmedabad 1 May 1960 60,439,692 196,024 Gujarati, Hindi
Haryana IN-HR HR Northern Chandigarh Faridabad 1 November 1966 25,351,462 44,212 Hindi Punjabi[31]
Himachal Pradesh IN-HP HP Northern Shimla (Summer)
Dharamshala (Winter)[32]
Shimla 25 January 1971 6,864,602 55,673 Hindi Sanskrit[33]
Jharkhand IN-JH JH Eastern Ranchi Jamshedpur 15 November 2000 32,988,134 79,714 Hindi Angika, Bengali, Bhojpuri, Bhumij, Ho, Kharia, Khortha, Kurmali, Kurukh, Magahi, Maithili, Mundari, Nagpuri, Odia, Santali, Urdu[34][35]
Karnataka IN-KA KA Southern Bangalore 1 November 1956 61,095,297 191,791 Kannada
Kerala IN-KL KL Southern Thiruvananthapuram 1 November 1956 33,406,061 38,863 Malayalam English[36]
Madhya Pradesh IN-MP MP Central Bhopal Indore 1 November 1956 72,626,809 308,252 Hindi
Maharashtra IN-MH MH Western Mumbai (Summer)
Nagpur (Winter)[37][38]
Mumbai 1 May 1960 112,374,333 307,713 Marathi
Manipur IN-MN MN North-Eastern Imphal 21 January 1972 2,855,794 22,327 Meitei English
Meghalaya IN-ML ML North-Eastern Shillong 21 January 1972 2,966,889 22,429 English
Mizoram IN-MZ MZ North-Eastern Aizawl 20 February 1987 1,097,206 21,081 Mizo, English
Nagaland IN-NL NL North-Eastern Kohima Dimapur 1 December 1963 1,978,502 16,579 English
Odisha IN-OD OD Eastern Bhubaneswar 26 January 1950 41,974,218 155,707 Odia
Punjab IN-PB PB Northern Chandigarh Ludhiana 1 November 1966 27,743,338 50,362 Punjabi
Rajasthan IN-RJ RJ Northern Jaipur 26 January 1950 68,548,437 342,239 Hindi English
Sikkim IN-SK SK North-Eastern Gangtok 16 May 1975 610,577 7,096 Nepali, Sikkimese, Lepcha, English[39] Gurung, Limbu, Magar, Mukhia, Newari, Rai, Sherpa, Tamang
Tamil Nadu IN-TN TN Southern Chennai 1 November 1956 72,147,030 130,058 Tamil English
Telangana IN-TS TG[40] Southern Hyderabad[c] 2 June 2014 35,193,978[44] 112,077[44] Telugu Urdu[45]
Tripura IN-TR TR North-Eastern Agartala 21 January 1972 3,673,917 10,491 Bengali, English, Kokborok
Uttar Pradesh IN-UP UP Central Lucknow 26 January 1950 199,812,341 240,928 Hindi Urdu
Uttarakhand IN-UK UK Central Bhararisain (Summer)
Dehradun (Winter)[46]
Dehradun 9 November 2000 10,086,292 53,483 Hindi Sanskrit[47]
West Bengal IN-WB WB Eastern Kolkata 26 January 1950 91,276,115 88,752 Bengali, English Nepali,[d] Hindi, Odia, Punjabi, Santali, Telugu, Urdu, Kamatapuri, Rajbanshi, Kurmali, Kurukh
  1. ^ A few union territories have their own representative territorial governments.
  2. ^ Nava Raipur is planned to replace Raipur as the capital city of Chhattisgarh.
  3. ^ Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014.[41][21] Hyderabad, located entirely within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as the capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years.[42] The Government of Andhra Pradesh and the Andhra Pradesh Legislature completed the process of relocating to temporary facilities in the envisaged new capital city Amaravati in early 2017.[43]
  4. ^ Bengali and Nepali are the official languages in the Darjeeling and Kurseong sub-divisions of the Darjeeling district.

Union territories

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State[48] ISO[49] Vehicle
code
[50]
Zone[51] Capital[48] Largest city[52] Established[53] Population
(2011)[54]
Area
(km2)[55]
Official
languages[56]
Additional official
languages[56]
Andaman and Nicobar Islands IN-AN AN Eastern Port Blair 1 November 1956 380,581 8,249 Hindi, English
Chandigarh IN-CH CH Northern Chandigarh 1 November 1966 1,055,450 114 English
Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu IN-DH DD Western Daman Silvassa 26 January 2020 587,106 603 Hindi, English Gujarati
Delhi IN-DL DL Northern New Delhi Delhi 1 November 1956 16,787,941 1,484 Hindi, English Urdu, Punjabi[57]
Jammu and Kashmir IN-JK JK Northern Srinagar (Summer)
Jammu (Winter)[58]
Srinagar 31 October 2019 12,258,433 42,241 Dogri, English, Hindi, Kashmiri, Urdu
Ladakh IN-LA LA Northern Leh (Summer)
Kargil (Winter)[59]
Leh 31 October 2019 290,492 59,146 Hindi, English
Lakshadweep IN-LD LD Southern Kavaratti Andrott 1 November 1956 64,473 32 Hindi, English Malayalam
Puducherry IN-PY PY Southern Pondicherry 16 August 1962 1,247,953 479 Tamil, French, English Telugu, Malayalam

Former states and union territories

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Former states

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Map State Capital Years Present-day state(s)
  Ajmer State Ajmer 1950–1956 Rajasthan
  Andhra State Kurnool 1953–1956 Andhra Pradesh
  Bhopal State Bhopal 1949–1956 Madhya Pradesh
  Bilaspur State Bilaspur 1950–1954 Himachal Pradesh
  Bombay State Bombay 1950–1960 Maharashtra, Gujarat, and partially Karnataka
  Coorg State Madikeri 1950–1956 Karnataka
  East Punjab Shimla (1947–1953)
Chandigarh (1953–1966)
1947–1966 Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Chandigarh UT
  Hyderabad State Hyderabad 1948–1956 Telangana, and partially Maharashtra and Karnataka
 
Jammu and Kashmir Srinagar (Summer)
Jammu (Winter)
1952–2019 Jammu and Kashmir UT and

Ladakh UT

  Kutch State Bhuj 1947–1956 Gujarat
  Madhya Bharat Indore (Summer)
Gwalior (Winter)
1948–1956 Madhya Pradesh
  Madras State Madras 1950–1969 Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and partially Karnataka and Kerala
  Mysore State Bangalore 1947–1973 Karnataka
  Patiala and East Punjab States Union Patiala 1948–1956 Punjab and Haryana
  Saurashtra Rajkot 1948–1956 Gujarat
  Travancore–Cochin Trivandrum 1949–1956 Kerala and partially Tamil Nadu
  Vindhya Pradesh Rewa 1948–1956 Madhya Pradesh

Former union territories

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Former union territories of India[53][60]
Name Zone Capital Area Begin End Successor(s) Map
Arunachal Pradesh North-Eastern Itanagar 83,743 km2 (32,333 sq mi) 21 January 1972 20 February 1987 As an Indian state  
Dadra and Nagar Haveli Western Silvassa 491 km2 (190 sq mi) 11 August 1961 26 January 2020 Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu (UT)  
Daman and Diu Western Daman 112 km2 (43 sq mi) 30 May 1987 26 January 2020 Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu (UT)  
Goa, Daman and Diu Western Panaji 3,814 km2 (1,473 sq mi) 19 December 1961 30 May 1987 Goa (state), Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu (UT)  
Himachal Northern Shimla 55,673 km2 (21,495 sq mi) 1 November 1956 25 January 1971 As an Indian state  
Manipur North-Eastern Imphal 22,327 km2 (8,621 sq mi) 1 November 1956 21 January 1972 As an Indian state  
Mizoram North-Eastern Aizawl 21,081 km2 (8,139 sq mi) 21 January 1972 20 February 1987 As an Indian state  
Nagaland North-Eastern Kohima 16,579 km2 (6,401 sq mi) 29 November 1957 1 December 1963 As an Indian state  
Tripura North-Eastern Agartala 10,491 km2 (4,051 sq mi) 1 November 1956 21 January 1972 As an Indian state  

Responsibilities and authorities

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The Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any state between the Union and that state.[61]

See also

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Notes

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References

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  1. ^ "States and Union Territories". Know India Programme. Archived from the original on 18 August 2017. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
  2. ^ "Local Government Directory, Government of India". Government of India. 21 June 2024. Retrieved 21 June 2024.
  3. ^ a b Constitution of India (PDF). Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 October 2023. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  4. ^ Andhra State Act, 1953 (PDF). Parliament of India. 1953. Retrieved 15 October 2023.
  5. ^ Reorganisation of states (PDF) (Report). Economic Weekly. 15 October 1955. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 February 2016. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
  6. ^ "Dadra and Nagar Haveli Celebrated Its 60th Liberation Day". Jagran Josh. 2 August 2013. Archived from the original on 29 February 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  7. ^ Dasgupta, Reshmi R. (10 August 2019). "Dadra and Nagar Haveli: When an IAS officer became the instrument of accession". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 17 February 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  8. ^ "When an IAS Officer Was The Prime Minister of Dadra & Nagar Haveli". The Better India. 28 March 2018. Archived from the original on 21 March 2021. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  9. ^ "Constitutional Amendment". Government of India. Archived from the original on 29 February 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  10. ^ J.C. Aggarwal; S.P. Agrawal (1995). Uttarakhand: Past, Present, and Future. New Delhi: Concept Publishing. pp. 89–90.
  11. ^ "Nagaland History & Geography-Source". Government of India. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  12. ^ Himachal Pradesh Tenth Five Year Plan (PDF) (Report). Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 May 2014. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  13. ^ The Punjab Reorganisation Act 1966 (PDF). Parliament of India. 1966. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  14. ^ Snapshot of North Eastern States (PDF) (Report). IBC India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2009. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
  15. ^ "About Sikkim". Government of Sikkim. Archived from the original on 25 May 2009. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
  16. ^ "Goa Chronology". Goa online. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
  17. ^ "Official Website of Government of Jharkhand". Government of Jharkhand. Archived from the original on 21 June 2013. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  18. ^ "Chhattisgarh state – History". Government of Chattisgarh. Archived from the original on 4 July 2010. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  19. ^ Chopra, Jasi Kiran (2 January 2007). "Uttaranchal is Uttarakhand, BJP cries foul". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 10 May 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
  20. ^ "About Us: Uttarakhand Government Portal, India". Government of Uttarakhand. 9 November 2000. Archived from the original on 13 May 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  21. ^ a b The Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 (PDF). Parliament of India. 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 January 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  22. ^ "Telangana bill passed by upper house". The Times of India. 20 February 2014. Archived from the original on 15 April 2022. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
  23. ^ Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Bill (No. XXIX of) 2019 (PDF). Parliament of India. 5 August 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  24. ^ Dutta, Amrita Nayak (10 July 2019). "There will be one UT less as Modi govt plans to merge Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu". The Print. New Delhi. Archived from the original on 23 November 2021. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  25. ^ "Govt plans to merge 2 UTs – Daman and Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli". Devdiscourse. Archived from the original on 23 November 2021. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  26. ^ The Dadra And Nagar Haveli And Daman And Diu (Merger Of Union Territories) Bill (PDF). Parliament of India. 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 February 2021. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  27. ^ List of states with Population, Sex Ratio and Literacy Census 2011 (Report). Census commissioner, Government of India. Archived from the original on 28 November 2018. Retrieved 30 April 2023.
  28. ^ "Census 2011: Population in States and Union Territories of India". Jagran Josh. 14 October 2016. Archived from the original on 30 April 2023. Retrieved 30 April 2023.
  29. ^ a b Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 50th report (July 2012 to June 2013) (PDF) (Report). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  30. ^ "Bill recognising Urdu as second official language passed". The Hindu. 23 March 2022. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 30 October 2022. Retrieved 8 December 2022.
  31. ^ "Haryana grants second language status to Punjabi". Hindustan Times. 28 January 2010. Archived from the original on 3 September 2015.
  32. ^ "Dharamsala: Himachal Pradesh gets its second capital in Dharamsala". The Times of India. 2 March 2017. Archived from the original on 26 July 2021. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
  33. ^ Pratibha Chauhan (17 February 2019). "Bill to make Sanskrit second official language of HP passed". The Tribune. Shimla. Archived from the original on 18 February 2019. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
  34. ^ "Jharkhand gives 2nd language status to Magahi, Angika, Bhojpuri and Maithali". UNI India. Archived from the original on 14 April 2021. Retrieved 24 January 2021.
  35. ^ "Jharkhand notifies Bhumij as second state language". The Avenue Mail. 5 January 2019. Archived from the original on 23 April 2022. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  36. ^ Kerala Official Languages Act, 1969. Kerala Legislative Assembly. 1969. Archived from the original on 21 September 2021. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
  37. ^ "History | District Nagpur,Government of Maharashtra | India". Archived from the original on 26 July 2021. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
  38. ^ Raghunatha, TN (2 June 2018). "Monsoon session to start in Maha's winter Capital Nagpur from July 4". Daily Pioneer. Archived from the original on 2 August 2018. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
  39. ^ 1977 Sikkim government gazette (PDF). Sikkim Legislative Assembly. p. 188. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2018. Retrieved 13 September 2023.
  40. ^ "Centre gives nod; TG replaces TS as State code in Telangana vehicle registration plates". The Hindu. 13 March 2024. Archived from the original on 20 March 2024. Retrieved 1 May 2024.
  41. ^ "Bifurcated into Telangana State and residual Andhra Pradesh State". The Times of India. 2 June 2014. Archived from the original on 30 November 2018. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
  42. ^ Sanchari Bhattacharya (1 June 2014). "Andhra Pradesh Minus Telangana: 10 Facts". NDTV. Archived from the original on 4 June 2014. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  43. ^ "AP Assembly building inaugurated". BusinessLine. 2 March 2017. Archived from the original on 26 September 2023. Retrieved 26 September 2023.
  44. ^ a b "Telangana State Profile". Telangana government portal. p. 34. Archived from the original on 5 December 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
  45. ^ "Urdu is second official language now". The Hindu. 17 November 2017. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 27 July 2020. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  46. ^ "Bhararisain declared as summer capital of Uttarakhand". Times Now. 8 June 2020. Archived from the original on 24 November 2021. Retrieved 24 November 2021.
  47. ^ Singh, Pallavi (19 April 2010). "Sanskrit: reviving the language in today's India". mint. Archived from the original on 29 October 2020. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  48. ^ a b "State/UTs and capitals". Government of India. Retrieved 1 January 2024.
  49. ^ "ISO codes". International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 1 January 2024.
  50. ^ "Registration statecodes". Government of India. Retrieved 1 January 2024.
  51. ^ "Zonal council". Government of India. Retrieved 1 January 2024.
  52. ^ Towns and urban agglomerations classified by population size class in 2011 with variation between 1901 and 2011 – Class I (Report). Government of India. Retrieved 1 January 2024.
  53. ^ a b States Reorganisation (PDF) (Report). Parliament of India. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  54. ^ State-wise population (Report). Government of India. Retrieved 1 January 2024.
  55. ^ Socio-economic statistics (PDF) (Report). Government of India. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  56. ^ a b "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 52nd report" (PDF). Government of India. Retrieved 1 January 2024.
  57. ^ "Official Language Act 2000" (PDF). Government of Delhi. 2 July 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2015.
  58. ^ "Jammu and Kashmir capital". Jammu and Kashmir Legal Services Authority. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  59. ^ "LG, UT Hqrs, Head of Police to have Sectts at both Leh, Kargil: Mathur". Daily Excelsior. 12 November 2019. Archived from the original on 13 February 2020. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  60. ^ "Article 1". Constitution of India (PDF) (Report). Government of India. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  61. ^ Balwant Singh Malik (1998). "Territoriality of executive powers of states in India". Constitutional Law. Archived from the original on 31 December 2009. Article 73 broadly stated, provides that the executive power of the Union shall extend to the matters with respect to which Parliament has power to make laws. Article 162 similarly provides that the executive power of a State shall extend to the matters with respect to which the Legislature of a State has power to make laws. The Supreme Court has reiterated this position when it ruled in the Ramanaiah case that the executive power of the Union or of the State broadly speaking, is coextensive and coterminous with its respective legislative power
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