Kurnool is the headquarters of Kurnool district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The city is often referred as The Gateway of Rayalaseema. It was the capital of Andhra State from 1 October 1953 to 31 October 1956. As of 2011[update] census, it is the fifth most populous city in the state with a population of 460,184.
The Gateway of Rayalaseema
|• Type||Municipal corporation|
|• City||69.51 km2 (26.84 sq mi)|
|Elevation||274 m (899 ft)|
|• City||457,633, 25,376, 26,040, 27,908, 35,314, 45,250, 60,222, 100,815, 136,710, 206,362, 236,800, 269,122|
|• Rank||106th (India)|
5th (Andhra Pradesh)
|• Official||Telugu Urdu|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
518001, 518002, 518003, 518004, 518005, 518006, 518007
|Website||Kurnool Municipal Corporation|
The name Kurnool is derived from Kandanavooru or Kandanavolu. The name Kandanavolu is combination of Kandana and volu. Kandana means grease. During the days when Bullock Cart is a form of transport, bullock cart riders used to stop on the banks of Tungabhadra River to apply grease to the bullock cart wheels before crossing the river. Hence the name 'Kandanavolu'. Later the name formerly Kandanavolu changed to Kandanavooru, and then gradually to Kurnool.
The Ketavaram rock paintings from the Paleolithic era and are (18 kilometres from Kurnool). Also the Jurreru Valley, Katavani Kunta and Yaganti in Kurnool District have some important rock art and paintings in the vicinity, may be dated from 35,000 to 40,000 years ago.
Belum Caves are geologically and historically important caves in the district. There are indications that Jain and Buddhist monks were occupying these caves centuries ago. Many Buddhists relics were found inside the caves. These relics are now housed in Museum at Ananthapur. Archaeological survey of India (ASI) found remnants of vessels and other artifacts of pre-Buddhist era and has dated the remnants of vessels found in the caves to 4500 BC.
Little was known about Kurnool town before the 11th century. The earliest knowledge of this settlement dates from the 11th century. It has developed as transit place on the southern banks of the river Tungabhadra.
Ruled by the Cholas in 12th Century and later taken over by the Kakatiya dynasty in 13th century. Kurnool developed into a transit point on the southern banks of the Tungabhadra River. It eventually fell under the rule of a jaghirdar before becoming a part of the Vijayanagar dynasty. King Achyuta Raya constructed the Kurnool Fort during the 16th century.
*Harihara I (1336 – 1356 CE)
*Bukka Raya I /Bukka (1356-1377 CE)
*Harihara Raya II (1377-1404 CE)
*Virupaksha Raya (1404-1405CE)
*Bukka Raya II (1405-1406 CE)
*Deva Raya I (1406-1422 CE)
*Ramachandra Raya (1422 CE)
*Vira Vijaya Bukka Raya (1422-1424 CE)
*Deva Raya II (1424-1446 CE)
*Mallikarjuna Raya (1446-1465 CE)
*Virupaksha Raya II (1465-1485 CE)
*Praudha Raya (1485 CE)
*Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya (1485-1491 CE)
*Thimma Bhupala (1491CE)
*Narasimha Raya II (1491-1505 CE)
*Viranarasimha Raya (1503-1509 CE)
*Krishna Deva Raya (1509-1529 CE)
*Achyuta Raya (1529-1542 CE)
The Abyssinian, Abdul Wahab Khan, defeated King Gopal Raja of the Vijayanagar Kingdom in the 17th century and went on to rule the land for 16 years until his death.
In 1686, Kurnool fell under the influence of the Mughals who were ruled by Emperor Aurangzeb. Later on in Kurnool’s history, it was ruled by the Nawabs until the British Government took over in 1839. Kurnool was the capital of Andhra Pradesh between 1953 and 1956 until the modern day Telangana region was joined with the Andhra State to form Andhra Pradesh. Hyderabad was then made the state’s capital. After Andhra Pradesh once again became a separate state from Telangana, Kurnool remained a part of Andhra Pradesh.
Kurnool city served as the capital of Andhra State from 1953–1956, until in 1956, the Telangana region was merged with Andhra State to form Andhra Pradesh state, and its capital was shifted from Kurnool to Hyderabad as there were only camps like A-Camp,B-Camp,C-Camp etc., and due to lack of capital city infrastructure in kurnool for good governance and Hyderabad was already a well established capital with city infrastructure and well-governing facilities were there in Hyderabad as the city served as the capital city to the princely state of Asaf Jahis from 1763–1948 and as a capital city to the Hyderabad State from 1948–1956 .
Geography and climateEdit
Kurnool is located at  It has an average elevation of 273 metres (898 feet)..
Kurnool lies on the banks of the Tungabhadra River. The Hundri and Neeva rivers also flow through the city. The K.C.Canal (Kurnool–Cuddapah) was built by the Dutch for transportation, but later used for irrigation.
Landmarks in and around the city include Konda Reddy Fort Formerly called Kondareddy Burj is the Historical Monuement and Major Tourist Attraction of Kurnool located at the north east part of the city. Orvakal rock Garderns is the Sculpture Garden with Ancient cave lies on the South East of the city. Rollapadu Wildlife Sanctuary is a noted wildlife and bird sanctuary that lies in the vicinity of Kurnool, about 45 km away. It attracts lot of visitors from neighbouring states of Telangana, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. 
The climate is tropical with temperatures ranging from 26 °C (78.8 °F) to 46 °C (114.8 °F) in the summer and 12 °C (53.6 °F) to 31 °C (87.8 °F) in the winter. The average annual rainfall is about 705 millimetres (28 in).
|Climate data for Kurnool (1981–2010)|
|Record high °C (°F)||37.3
|Average high °C (°F)||31.7
|Average low °C (°F)||17.9
|Record low °C (°F)||8.3
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||4.0
|Average precipitation days||0.3||0.2||0.7||1.6||2.7||5.7||7.6||9.0||7.7||5.2||1.9||0.3||43.0|
|Source: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)|
As per final data of 2011 census, Kurnool urban agglomeration had a population of 484,327, making it the fifth largest city in the state of Andhra Pradesh.
The literacy rate of Kurnool was 77.37 per cent at the time of the 2011 census.
The city has some of the famous institutions for both engineering and medical degrees like Kurnool Medical College (KMC), Pulla Reddy Engineering College etc. KMC is considered one of the leading medical colleges in AP and India. The city is having a state famous institution - Silver Jubilee College, established by the Govt. of AP in the year 1972.
Kurnool is well connected by road with Hyderabad and Bengaluru. National Highway 44 (India) connects Kurnool to Hyderabad. The State Highway 51 connects to Srisailam, Vinukonda, Guntur, Vijayawada. National Highway 40 (India) (new numbering) runs from Kurnool to Chittoor are the major highways passing through the city. The city has a total road length of 519.22 km State owned bus transport system, APSRTC, operates buses from Kurnool bus station to other parts of the state.
The Ministry of Civil Aviation has proposed to develop Kurnool Airport, a greenfield airport near Orvakal, 25 km from Kurnool city. The airport opened on 8-jan-2019 Airport built on 1,110 acres of land at a cost of Rs. 234 crores and is projected to be commercial enclave by April 2019.
Kurnool is endowed with good mineral resources. The important minerals are Iron ore, dolomite, limestone, ochre, quartz and silica.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kurnool.|
- Kurnool travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Kurnool district Mandal Information