Kurnool is the headquarters of Kurnool district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The city is often referred as The Gateway of Rayalaseema. It was the capital of Andhra State from 1 October 1953 to 31 October 1956. As of 2011[update] census, it is the fifth most populous city in the state with a population of 430,214.
The Gateway of Rayalaseema
|• Type||Municipal corporation|
|• City Corporation||69.51 km2 (26.84 sq mi)|
|Elevation||274 m (899 ft)|
|• City Corporation||430,214|
|• Rank||106th (India)|
5th (Andhra Pradesh)
|• Density||6,200/km2 (16,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
518001, 518002, 518003, 518004, 518005, 518006, 518007
|Vehicle registration||AP-21 & AP-39|
|Website||Kurnool Municipal Corporation|
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Politics
- 6 Education
- 7 Transport
- 8 Economy
- 9 Notable people
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
The original name of Kurnool is found in historical records as Kandanavōlu or Kandanōlu. It used to be a crossing on the Tungabhadra River, where the bullock cart caravans are believed to have greased their wheels ("kandana" being a reference to grease).
The Ketavaram rock paintings from the Paleolithic era and are (18 kilometres from Kurnool). Also the Jurreru Valley, Katavani Kunta and Yaganti in Kurnool District have some important rock art and paintings in the vicinity, may be dated from 35,000 to 40,000 years ago.
Belum Caves are geologically and historically important caves in the district. There are indications that Jain and Buddhist monks were occupying these caves centuries ago. Many Buddhists relics were found inside the caves. These relics are now housed in Museum at Ananthapur. Archaeological survey of India (ASI) found remnants of vessels and other artifacts of pre-Buddhist era and has dated the remnants of vessels found in the caves to 4500 BC.
Little was known about Kurnool town before the 11th century. The earliest knowledge of this settlement dates from the 11th century. It has developed as transit place on the southern banks of the river Tungabhadra.
Ruled by the Cholas in 12th Century and later taken over by the Kakatiya dynasty in 13th century. Kurnool developed into a transit point on the southern banks of the Tungabhadra River. It eventually fell under the rule of a jaghirdar before becoming a part of the Vijayanagar dynasty. King Achyuta Raya, successor of Sri Krishnadeva Raya constructed the Kurnool Fort during the 16th century.
The Abyssinian, Abdul Wahab Khan, defeated King Gopal Raja of the Vijayanagar Kingdom in the 17th century and went on to rule the land for 16 years until his death.
In 1686, Kurnool fell under the influence of the Mughals who were ruled by Emperor Aurangzeb. Later on in Kurnool’s history, it was ruled by the Nawabs until the British Government took over in 1839.
Kurnool is located at  It has an average elevation of 273 metres (898 feet). Kurnool lies on the banks of the Tungabhadra River. The Hundri and Neeva rivers also flow through the city. The K.C.Canal (Kurnool–Cuddapah) was built by the Dutch for transportation, but later used for irrigation..
Landmarks in and around the city include Konda Reddy Fort Formerly called Kondareddy Burj is the Historical Monuement and Major Tourist Attraction of Kurnool located at the north east part of the city. Orvakal rock Garderns is the Sculpture Garden with Ancient cave lies on the South East of the city. Rollapadu Wildlife Sanctuary is a noted wildlife and bird sanctuary that lies in the vicinity of Kurnool, about 45 km away. It attracts lot of visitors from neighbouring states of Telangana, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Gumbad is one the oldest historical monuments located on the banks of Hundri River.
The climate is tropical with temperatures ranging from 26 °C (78.8 °F) to 46 °C (114.8 °F) in the summer and 12 °C (53.6 °F) to 31 °C (87.8 °F) in the winter. The average annual rainfall is about 705 millimetres (28 in).
|Climate data for Kurnool (1981–2010)|
|Record high °C (°F)||37.3
|Average high °C (°F)||31.7
|Average low °C (°F)||17.9
|Record low °C (°F)||8.3
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||4.0
|Average precipitation days||0.3||0.2||0.7||1.6||2.7||5.7||7.6||9.0||7.7||5.2||1.9||0.3||43.0|
|Source: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)|
As per final data of 2011 census, Kurnool urban agglomeration had a population of 484,327, making it the fifth largest city in the state of Andhra Pradesh. The literacy rate of Kurnool was 77.37 per cent at the time of the 2011 census.
Abdul Hafeez Khan currently holds the MLA position for Kurnool Assembly, where as Dr Sanjeev Kumar holds the MP position and represents Kurnool constituency at the Lok Sabha both are from YSRCP
Rayalaseema University & Dr. Abdul Haq Urdu University are the two university's run by state government.Indian Institute of Information Technology Design and Manufacturing, Kurnool is an autonomous institution run by MHRD govt of India
The city has some of the famous institutions for both engineering and medical degrees like Kurnool Medical College (KMC), Pulla Reddy Engineering College, [[ ,Dr Abdul Haq Unani Medical College Kurnool.etc. The city is having a state famous institution - Silver Jubilee College, established by the Govt. of AP in the year 1972.
Kurnool is well connected by road with Hyderabad and Bengaluru. National Highway 44 (India) connects Kurnool to Hyderabad. The State Highway 51 connects to Srisailam, Vinukonda, Guntur, Vijayawada. National Highway 40 (India) (new numbering) runs from Kurnool to Chittoor are the major highways passing through the city. The city has a total road length of 519.22 km State owned bus transport system, APSRTC, operates buses from Kurnool bus station to other parts of the state.
Kurnool railway station lies on the Hyderabad – Bengaluru railway line. It is classified as an A–category station in the Hyderabad railway division of South Central Railway zone. Another railway station name Kotla lies in the middle of the city.
The Ministry of Civil Aviation & Andhra Pradesh airport Development Corporation Limited has developed Green Field Kurnool Airport, near Orvakal, 25 km from Kurnool city. The airport opened on 8-jan-2019 Airport built on 1,110 acres of land at a cost of Rs. 234 crores and is projected to be commercial enclave by May 2019.
Kurnool is endowed with good mineral resources. The important minerals are Iron ore, dolomite, limestone, ochre, quartz and silica.
- Damodaram Sanjivayya,former Chief Minister, United Andhra Pradesh
- Kotla Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy, former Chief Minister, United Andhra Pradesh
- T. G. Venkatesh, Indian businessman and politician
- Byreddy Rajasekhar Reddy, Indian politician
- K.E. Krishna Murthy, former Deputy Chief Minister, Andhra Pradesh
- Kotla Jayasurya Prakasha Reddy, former member of parliament and Union minister, Railways
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- "Rollapadu Wildlife Sanctuary", Wikipedia, 3 March 2019, retrieved 7 March 2019
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