Srinagar (English: /ˈsrnəɡər/ (listen), Kashmiri pronunciation: [siriːnagar]) is the largest city and the summer capital of the Indian-administered union territory of Jammu and Kashmir in the disputed Kashmir region.[1] It lies in the Kashmir Valley on the banks of the Jhelum River, and Dal and Anchar lakes, between the Hari Parbat and Shankaracharya hills. The city is known for its natural environment, various gardens, waterfronts and houseboats. It is also known for traditional Kashmiri handicrafts like the Kashmir shawl (made of pashmina and cashmere wool), papier-mâché, wood carving, carpet weaving, and jewel making, as well as for dried fruits.[12][13] It is the 31st-most populous city in India, the northernmost city in India to have over one million people,[14] and the second-largest metropolitan area in the Himalayas (after Kathmandu, Nepal).

City administered by India.[1]
Srinagar pano.jpg
Red and Yellow Tulips.JPG
A view of Pari Mahal Jammu and Kashmir India.jpg
Hazratbal shrine.jpg
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From the top, clockwise:
Panorama of Srinagar City, Tulips at Indira Gandhi Memorial Tulip Garden, Hazratbal shrine, Houseboats on Dal lake, Pari Mahal and Shankaracharya Temple
Interactive map of Srinagar
Coordinates: 34°5′24″N 74°47′24″E / 34.09000°N 74.79000°E / 34.09000; 74.79000
Administering countryIndia
Region of administrationUnion Territory of Jammu and Kashmir
 • MayorJunaid Azim Mattu[2]
 • City administered by India.[1]294 km2 (114 sq mi)
 • Metro766 km2 (296 sq mi)
1,585 m (5,200 ft)
 • City administered by India.[1]1,180,570
 • Rank31st
 • Density4,000/km2 (10,000/sq mi)
 • Metro
 • Metro Rank
Demonym(s)Srinagari, Sirinagari, Sirinagaruk, Shaharuk, Srinagarite
 • OfficialKashmiri, Urdu, Hindi, Dogri, English
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Telephone code0194
Vehicle registrationJK 01
Sex ratio888 / 1000
Distance from Delhi876 kilometres (544 mi) NW
Distance from Mumbai2,275 kilometres (1,414 mi) NE (land)
Precipitation710 millimetres (28 in)
Avg. summer temperature23.3 °C (73.9 °F)
Avg. winter temperature3.2 °C (37.8 °F)

Founded in the 6th century during the rule of the Gonanda dynasty according to the Rajatarangini, the city took on the name of an earlier capital thought to have been founded by the Mauryas in its vicinity. The city remained the most important capital of the Kashmir Valley under the Hindu dynasties, and was a major centre of learning. During the 14th–16th centuries the city’s old town saw major expansions, particularly under the Shah Mir dynasty, whose kings used various parts of it as their capitals. It became the spiritual centre of Kashmir, and attracted several Sufi preachers. It also started to emerge as a hub of shawl weaving and other Kashmiri handicrafts. In the late 16th century the city became part of the Mughal Empire, many of whose emperors used it as their summer resort. Many Mughal gardens were built in the city and around Dal lake during this time, of which Shalimar and Nishat are the most well-known. After passing through the hands of the Afghan Durranis and the Sikhs in the late 18th and early 19th century, it eventually became the summer capital of the Dogra kingdom of Jammu and Kashmir in 1846. The city became a popular tourist destination among Europeans and Indian elites during this time, with several hotels and its iconic houseboats being built. In 1952, the city became the summer capital of Jammu and Kashmir, a region administered by India as a state. It was the flashpoint of violence during the 1990s and early 2000s insurgency in the territory. In 2019, it became the summer capital of a smaller region which is administered by India as a union territory, after the former region’s reorganisation.


The earliest records, such as Kalhana's Rajatarangini, mentions the Sanskrit name shri-nagara which have been interpreted distinctively by scholars in two ways: one being "The city of "Shri" (श्री), the Hindu goddess of wealth, meaning "City of Lakshmi"[15][16][17][18][19][20] and other being sūrya-nagar, meaning "City of the Surya" (trans) "City of Sun."[21][22][23][24] The name was used for an older capital in the vicinity of the present-day city, before being used for it.[25] Between the 14th and 19th centuries, and especially during Mughal rule, the city was also referred to simply as Kashmir or Shahr-i-Kashmir (lit.'City of Kashmir').[26]


An 8th century Hindu temple at Pandrethan, in the vicinity of present-day Srinagar

Early History

According to the Rajatarangini of Kalhana, a capital city by the name of Srinagari was built in the Kashmir valley by Ashoka.[a] Kalhana calls this capital puranadhisthana, Sanskrit for ‘old capital’, identified as present-day Pandrethan, 3.5 kilometres south-east of Srinagar.[27] A ‘new capital’ was built by king Pravarasena, called Parvarapura, in 6th century CE. Srinagari continued to be used as a name for this capital. This new capital was located at the base of the Hari Parbat hill on the right bank of the Jhelum, corresponding to the location of modern-day Srinagar.[29] Kalhana describes the capital having several markets, mansions, wooden houses, grand temples and canals, and also refers to the Dal lake and Jhelum river.[30] A long embankment was constructed on the Jhelum by Pravarasena to protect the city from floods, parts of which have survived to the present day.[31] The two capitals are also mentioned in the chronicle of Chinese traveller Huein Tsang who visited the city in 631 CE.[32][33] Although several other capitals of Kashmir were constructed by other rulers over the next few centuries, Pravarasena’s Srinagar survived as the capital.[b] The city was divided into several parts, each with its own guardian diety, which continue to be worshipped by Hindu Kashmiris.[35] The 8th century scholar Adi Shankara visited the city and founded the Shankaracharya Temple here, at the site of the earlier Jyeshteshwara Temple.[36] The city gradually extended to the left bank of the Jhelum river, and in the early 12th century the royal palace was shifted to this side.[37]

Sultanate period

The Jamia Masjid in Srinagar, built in the beginning of 15th century CE

Rinchana, a Buddhist convert to Islam who briefly ruled Kashmir in the early 14th century, built the first mosque in Kashmir on the site of a Buddhist temple in a colony of Srinagar built by him.[38] The Muslim rulers that came after him established their capitals in areas of present-day old city Srinagar.[39] During the rule of the Sultans, the city became synonymous with the Kashmir valley, and 'Srinagar' fell into disuse as a name for it.[c][37] During the rule of Qutbuddin, Islamic preacher Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani visited the valley and established his seat of preaching in Srinagar. Sultan Sikandar Shahmiri (1389–1413 CE) built the Khanqah-e-Moula at this location, and also built the Jamia Mosque at Nowhatta in 1402.[41] The oldest surviving example of forcible conversion of a Hindu place of worship into Muslim shrine in Kashmir also appears from Srinagar under Sikandar’s rule.[42] Sikandar’s successor Zain-ul-Abidin undertook several constructions in and around Srinagar. He built the Zainakadal bridge connecting the two halves of the city on either side of the Jhelum river, the Mar canal and two islands inside Dal lake called Sona Lank and Rupa Lank.[43] He also built a stone shrine for his Islamic teacher at Madin Sahib, and a brick mausoleum for his mother constructed using materials from a Hindu structure and showing Timurid influences,[44] where he was also buried after his death. He is also credited with establishing industries around the arts of shawl and carpet weaving, papier-maché, and wood carving in Srinagar.[45]

Mughal rule

Nishat Bagh, a Mughal Garden built during the reign of Shah Jahan on the northern bank of the Dal lake, in the vicinity of Srinagar

The Mughals annexed Kashmir in 1586 after a period of internal instability in the valley, and added it to their Kabul province. Mughal emperor Akbar visited the valley three times. During his second visit in 1592, an elaborate Diwali celebration was held in Srinagar.[46] On the final such visit, he was accompanied by the first recorded European visitors to the area.[d] Akbar built fortifications around the Hari Parbat hill, and established a township called Nagar Nagar there.[47] He also built a shrine for Hamza Makhdoom, a Sufi mystic of Kashmir's Rishi order, on the southern slope of Hari Parbat which was later expanded several times.[48] His successor Jahangir was particularly fond of the Kashmir valley and frequently visited it.[49] His rule brought prosperity to Srinagar, and several Mughal gardens were built in the city and around the Dal lake during his and his successor Shah Jahan's reign, including the Shalimar and Nishat Bagh. Empress Nur Jahan built the Pathar Mosque on the left bank of Jhelum river opposite the Khānqāh-e-Moula in 1623, the mosque was however deemed unfit for worship soon after its construction and used instead for non-religious purposes.[50] Shah Jahan made Kashmir into a separate Subah (province) with its administrative seat at Srinagar in 1638. The Aali Masjid was built during the reign of Aurangzeb (1658–1707), as was the Safa kadal bridge over the Jhelum. The moi muqaddas, a relic believed to be the hair strand of prohphet Muhammad’s beard, also arrived in Kashmir during this time, and was housed in a Mughal palace at Hazratbal, which became the Hazratbal Dargah. A number of Europeans visited the city during the later Mughal period.[e]

Afghan and Sikh rule

In 1753, Kashmir passed into the hands of the Afghan Durrani Empire. The Afghans undertook reconstructions and built the palace at Shergarhi at the site of a pre-existing ancient palace, as well as the fort atop Hari Parbat.[52] However, contemporary accounts describe the city as filthy and deteriorating. In 1819, the Sikh Empire assumed control of Kashmir. Under them, Srinagar, the old name of the city, was restored. The situation in the city did not improve much under Sikh rule, and the city remained in a state of decay.[53] By the early nineteenth century, Srinagar had also become the foremost centre of shawl trade.[54]

Dogra rule

With the establishment of Dogra rule following the 1846 Treaty of Amritsar, Srinagar became the capital of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. The Dogras found Srinagar deteriorating, filthy and overcrowded.[55] The city used to see several breakouts of cholera, as well as earthquakes, floods, fires and famines. The famine of 1877–79 is said to have halved the city’s population.[56]

Early 20th century painting of Sher Garhi Palace, the offcial residence of the Dogra rulers in Srinagar
1911 map of Srinagar and its surroundings

The Darbar Move was introduced in 1872 by Ranbir Singh, whereby the capital moved to Jammu for six months during the winter.[57] The Raghunath Temple was also completed during his rule.[58] With a global decline in shawl trade during late 19th century, the shawl weaving class of the city was upended. Several changes were ushered in during the reign of Pratap Singh (1885–1925). A British Residency was established in Srinagar and direct British influence on the administration of the state grew. During this time, Srinagar, and in turn the Kashmir Valley, was connected to the rest of India via roads, which saw increased trade with Punjab. In 1886, a municipality was established for the city of Srinagar.[59] Works for sanitation and urban development undertaken by the municipality were often met with stiff opposition by the residents, who were averse to changes.[60] In the late 19th and early 20th century, modern tourism began to take hold in the city, especially on and around the Dal lake, with houseboats being built to accommodate British officers and their families who came in the summers seeking respite from the heat of the plains of northern India.[61] The Shergarhi Palace was greatly modified by the Dogras, who used it as their official residence in the city. Pratap Singh and his successor Hari Singh also laid out several parks in the city. The city expanded rapidly between 1891 and 1941, partly due to increased migration from the countryside as a result of famines and due to improvements in sanitation and urban development as well as economic expansion, in particular the growth of the textile and tourism industries in the city.[62] Many Punjabis also settled in Srinagar during this time for trade, commerce and administration.[63][64]

Srinagar emerged as the hub of political activity within the Kashmir valley during later Dogra rule. Many Muslim leaders competed for influence and control over Muslim shrines in the city through which they sought to become representatives of Kashmiri Muslims.[65] Sheikh Abdullah, and his National Conference (NC), eventually succeeded in doing so.

Partition and Independence

In 1947, after the princely state’s accession to India following an invasion of the state by Pakistani irregulars in the aftermath the partition of India, Indian forces were airlifted to Srinagar on 27 October to defend the city and the larger Kashmir valley.[66] The National Conference also established a popular people’s militia in the city to aide the army in their defence of the territory.[67] Srinagar became the summer capital of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir when it was established in 1952.

Indian Prime Miniter Jawaharlal Nehru interacts with the women's wing of NC's Kashmiri militia in Srinagar in 1948[68]
A 1959 map of Srinagar city and its vicinity

In 1963–1964, the relic at the Hazratbal Shrine in Srinagar briefly disappeared, causing political turmoil.[69] Following this, the shrine was reconstructed between 1968 and 1979 in a Mughal-inspired style.[70] In 1989, Srinagar became the focus of the insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir. The city saw increased violence against the minority Hindus—particularly the Kashmiri Pandits—during the insurgency which resulted in their ultimate exodus.[71][72] Kashmiri Hindus constituted 21.9% of Srinagar's population as per 1891 census and 2.75% as per 2011 census.[73] The Gawakadal massacre took place in the city in January 1990, resulting in 50–100 deaths.[74] As a result, bunkers and checkpoints are found throughout the city, although their numbers have come down in the past few years as militancy has declined. However, protests still occur against Indian rule, with large demonstrations happening in 2008, 2010, 2013, and 2016.[75][76] After revocation of the special status of Jammu and Kashmir and the subsequent devolution of the state into a union territory in August 2019, a lockdown was imposed in Kashmir, including in Srinagar.[77]


The city is located on both the sides of the Jhelum River, called Vyath in Kashmir. The river passes through the city and meanders through the valley, moving onward and deepening in the Wular Lake. The city is known for its nine old bridges, connecting the two parts of the city.

There are a number of lakes and swamps in and around the city. These include the Dal, the Nigeen, the Anchar, Khushal Sar, Gil Sar and Hokersar.

Hokersar is a wetland situated near Srinagar. Thousands of migratory birds come to Hokersar from Siberia and other regions in the winter season. Migratory birds from Siberia and Central Asia use wetlands in Kashmir as their transitory camps between September and October and again around spring. These wetlands play a vital role in sustaining a large population of wintering, staging and breeding birds.

Hokersar is 14 km (8.7 mi) north of Srinagar, and is a world class wetland spread over 13.75 km2 (5.31 sq mi) including lake and marshy area. It is the most accessible and well-known of Kashmir's wetlands which include Hygam, Shalibug and Mirgund. A record number of migratory birds have visited Hokersar in recent years.[78]

Birds found in Hokersar are migratory ducks and geese which include brahminy duck, tufted duck, gadwall, garganey, greylag goose, mallard, common merganser, northern pintail, common pochard, ferruginous pochard, red-crested pochard, ruddy shelduck, northern shoveller, common teal, and Eurasian wigeon.[79][80]


Under the Köppen climate classification, Srinagar has a temperate humid subtropical climate (Cfa) with hot summers and mild winters, and slight continental influences due to its elevation. The valley is surrounded by the Himalayas on all sides. Winters are cool, with daytime temperature averaging to 2.5 °C (36.5 °F), and dropping below freezing point at night. Moderate to heavy snowfall occurs in winter and the highway connecting Srinagar with the rest of India faces frequent blockades due to icy roads, landslides and avalanches. Summers are warm to hot with a July daytime average of 24.1 °C (75.4 °F). The average annual rainfall is around 720 millimetres (28 in). Spring is the wettest season while autumn is the driest. The highest temperature reliably recorded is 39.5 °C (103.1 °F) and the lowest is −20.0 °C (−4.0 °F).[81]

Climate data for Srinagar (1981–2010 normals, extremes 1901–2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.2
Mean maximum °C (°F) 11.6
Average high °C (°F) 6.7
Daily mean °C (°F) 3.0
Average low °C (°F) −1.9
Mean minimum °C (°F) −5.7
Record low °C (°F) −14.4
Average rainfall mm (inches) 53.9
Average rainy days 4.9 5.9 7.9 6.9 6.2 3.9 5.2 5.5 2.6 2.0 2.0 3.2 56.3
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 69 62 54 49 50 46 54 56 51 54 61 70 56
Average dew point °C (°F) −2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 74.4 101.7 136.4 189.0 238.7 246.0 241.8 226.3 228.0 226.3 186.0 108.5 2,203.1
Mean daily sunshine hours 2.4 3.6 4.4 6.3 7.7 8.2 7.8 7.3 7.6 7.3 6.2 3.5 6.0
Average ultraviolet index 2 2 3 4 5 5 5 5 4 3 2 2 4
Source 1: India Meteorological Department[82][81] Time and Date (dewpoints, 2005-2015)[83]
Source 2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (sun 1945–1988),[84] Tokyo Climate Center (mean temperatures 1981–2010)[85] Weather Atlas,[86]


Market boats on Mar Canal in Srinagar

In November 2011, the City Mayors Foundation – an advocacy think tank – announced that Srinagar was the 92nd fastest growing urban areas in the world in terms of economic growth, based on actual data from 2006 onwards and projections to 2020.[87]


Srinagar is one of several places that have been called the "Venice of the East".[88][89][90] Lakes around the city include Dal Lake – noted for its houseboats – and Nigeen Lake. Apart from Dal Lake and Nigeen Lake, Wular Lake and Manasbal Lake both lie to the north of Srinagar. Wular Lake is one of the largest fresh water lakes in Asia.

Srinagar has some Mughal gardens, forming a part of those laid by the Mughal emperors across the Indian subcontinent. Those of Srinagar and its close vicinity include Chashma Shahi (the royal fountains); Pari Mahal (the palace of the fairies); Nishat Bagh (the garden of spring); Shalimar Bagh; the Naseem Bagh. Jawaharlal Nehru Memorial Botanical Garden is a botanical garden in the city, set up in 1969.[91] The Indian government has included these gardens under "Mughal Gardens of Jammu and Kashmir" in the tentative list for sites to be included in world Heritage sites.

The Sher Garhi Palace houses administrative buildings from the state government.[92] Another palace of the Maharajas, the Gulab Bhavan, has now become the Lalit Grand Palace hotel.[93]

The Shankaracharya Temple lies on a hill top in the middle of the city.[94]

Government and politics

The city is run by the Srinagar Municipal Corporation (SMC) under the leadership of a Mayor. The Srinagar district along with the adjoining Budgam and Ganderbal districts forms the Srinagar Parliamentary seat.

Stray dog controversy

Srinagar's city government attracted brief international attention in March 2008 when it announced a mass poisoning program aimed at eliminating the city's population of stray dogs.[95] Officials estimate that 100,000 stray dogs roam the streets of the city, which has a human population of just under 900,000. In a survey conducted by an NGO, it was found that some residents welcomed this program, saying the city was overrun by dogs, while critics contended that more humane methods should be used to deal with the animals.

The situation has become alarming with local news reports coming up at frequent intervals highlighting people, especially children being mauled by street dogs.[96]


Religion in Srinagar City (2011)[97]

  Islam (96%)
  Hinduism (2.75%)
  Sikhism (0.92%)
  Jainism (0.01%)
  Christianity (0.21%)
  Buddhism (0.02%)
  Other or Not stated (0.13%)

As of 2011 census Srinagar urban agglomeration had 1,273,312 population.[14] Both the city and the urban agglomeration has average literacy rate of approximately 70%.[14][98] The child population of both the city and the urban agglomeration is approximately 12% of the total population.[14] Males constituted 53.0% and females 47% of the population. The sex ratio in the city area is 888 females per 1000 males, whereas in the urban agglomeration it is 880 per 1,000.[14][99] The predominant religion of Srinagar is Islam with 96% of the population being Muslim. Hindus constitute the second largest religious group representing 2.75% of the population. The remaining population constitutes Sikhs, Buddhist and Jains.[100][101] Kashmiri Hindus constituted 21.9% of Srinagar's population as per 1891 census and 2.75% as per 2011 census.[102]


Srinagar International Airport
A passenger train at Srinagar Railway Station


The city is served by many highways, including National Highway 1A and National Highway 1D.[103]


Sheikh ul-Alam International Airport has regular domestic flights to Leh, Jammu, Chandigarh, Delhi and Mumbai and occasional international flights. An expanded terminal capable of handling both domestic and international flights was inaugurated on 14 February 2009 with Air India Express flights to Dubai. Hajj flights also operate from this airport to Saudi Arabia.[104]


Srinagar is a station on the 119 km (74 mi) long Banihal-Baramulla line that started in October 2009 and connects Baramulla to Srinagar, Anantnag and Qazigund. The railway track also connects to Banihal across the Pir Panjal mountains through a newly constructed 11 km long Banihal tunnel, and subsequently to the Indian railway network after a few years. It takes approximately 9 minutes and 30 seconds for a train to cross the tunnel. It is the longest rail tunnel in India. This railway system, proposed in 2001, is not expected to connect the Indian railway network until 2017 at the earliest, with a cost overrun of 55 billion INR.[105] The train also runs during heavy snow.

There are proposals to develop a metro system in the city.[106] The feasibility report for the Srinagar Metro is planned to be carried out by Delhi Metro Rail Corporation.[107]

Cable car

In December 2013, the 594m cable car allowing people to travel to the shrine of the Sufi saint Hamza Makhdoom on Hari Parbat was unveiled. The project is run by the Jammu and Kashmir Cable Car Corporation (JKCCC), and has been envisioned for 25 years. An investment of 300 million INR was made, and it is the second cable car in Kashmir after the Gulmarg Gondola.[108]


Whilst popular since the 7th century, water transport is now mainly confined to Dal Lake, where shikaras (wooden boats) are used for local transport and tourism. There are efforts to revive transportation on the River Jhelum.[109]


Like the territory of Jammu and Kashmir, Srinagar too has a distinctive blend of cultural heritage. Holy places in and around the city depict the historical cultural and religious diversity of the city as well as the Kashmir valley.

Places of worship

There are many religious holy places in Srinagar. They include:

Additional structures include the Dastgeer Sahib shrine, Mazar-e-Shuhada, Roza Bal shrine, Khanqah of Shah Hamadan, Pathar Masjid ("The Stone Mosque"), Hamza Makhdoom shrine, tomb of the mother of Zain-ul-abidin, tomb of Pir Haji Muhammad, Akhun Mulla Shah Mosque, cemetery of Baha-ud-din Sahib, tomb and Madin Sahib Mosque at Zadibal.[111] Apart from these, dozens of smaller mosques are located all over the city. Several temples and temple ghats are located on the banks of river Jhelum in Srinagar, including Shurayar temple, Gadhadhar temple, Pratapishwar temple, Ganpatyar Ganesh temple, Purshyar temple, Sheshyar temple, Raghunath Mandir, Durga Patshala and Dhar temple.[112] Gurdwaras are located in Rainawari, Amira Kadal, Jawahar Nagar, Mehjoor Nagar, Shaheed Gunj, Maharajpur and Indra Nagar areas of the city. There are three Christian churches in Srinagar.

The Sheikh Bagh Cemetery is a Christian cemetery located in Srinagar that dates from the British colonial era. The oldest grave in the cemetery is that of a British colonel from the 9th Lancers of 1850 and the cemetery is valued for the variety of persons buried there which provides an insight into the perils faced by British colonisers in India.[113] It was damaged by floods in 2014.[114] It contains a number of war graves.[115] The notable interments here are Robert Thorpe[116] and Jim Borst.

Performing arts


Srinagar is home to various premiere Higher Education Institutes including the University of Kashmir, the Cluster University of Srinagar, Central University of Kashmir besides the National Institute of Technology Srinagar formerly known as Regional Engineering College (REC Srinagar). Most of these are among the oldest and earliest Institutions of the country including the University of Kashmir dating back to 1948 while the National Institute of Technology Srinagar was established during the second Five year plan. The educational institutions in the City include:


Medical colleges


General degree colleges


Srinagar is broadcasting hub for radio channels in UT which are Radio Mirchi 98.3FM,[117] Red FM 93.5[118] and AIR Srinagar. State television channel DD Kashir is also broadcast.[119]


The city is home to the Sher-i-Kashmir Stadium, where international cricket matches have been played.[120] The first international match was played in 1983 in which West Indies defeated India and the last international match was played in 1986 in which Australia defeated India by six wickets. Since then no international matches have been played in the stadium due to the security situation (although the situation has now improved quite considerably).[citation needed] Srinagar has an outdoor stadium namely Bakshi Stadium for hosting football matches.[121] It is named after Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad. The city has a golf course named Royal Springs Golf Course, Srinagar located on the banks of Dal lake, which is considered one of the best golf courses of India.[122] Football is followed by the youth of Srinagar and the TRC Turf Ground is redeveloped for the particular sport in 2015. Srinagar is the home of professional football club Real Kashmir FC, which competes in I-League. There are certain other sports being played but those are away from the main city like in Pahalgam (Water rafting) and Gulmarg (skiing).

Notable people

See also


  1. ^ Despite several discrepancies, scholars identify this Ashoka of the Rajatarangini with the Mauryan emperor Ashoka.[27][28]
  2. ^ Historian Mohammad Ishaq Khan states that this is due Srinagar’s central location within the valley and the larger neighbourhood, and due to the presence of various water bodies around the city which provided protection.[34]
  3. ^ The name, however, did not become obsolete and finds mention in several contemporary sources.[40]
  4. ^ These were jesuit priests Jerome Xavier and Bento de Góis.[47]
  5. ^ These include physician Francois Bernier and priests Ippolito Desideri and Manoel Freyre.[51]
  1. ^ a b Akhtar, Rais; Kirk, William (22 March 2021), "Jammu and Kashmir", Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., retrieved 2 April 2022, The union territory is part of the larger region of Kashmir, which has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan, and China since the partition of the subcontinent in 1947. ... The territory that India administered on its side of the line, which contained both Jammu (the seat of the Dogra dynasty) and the Vale of Kashmir, took on the name Jammu and Kashmir. However, both India and Pakistan have continued to claim the entire Kashmir region
  2. ^ PTI (25 November 2020). "Junaid Azim Mattu Returns As Srinagar Mayor, 6 Months After He Was Removed". Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  3. ^ "Srinagar City". Retrieved 27 February 2021.
  4. ^ "Srinagar Updates". Tribune. 27 July 2017. Retrieved 27 February 2021.
  5. ^ "Srinagar Metropolitan Region" (PDF). Retrieved 27 February 2021.
  6. ^ "Srinagar Master Plan". 21 February 2019. Retrieved 27 February 2021.
  7. ^ "Srinagar Municipal Corporation Demographics 2011". 2011 Census of India. Government of India. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
  8. ^ "2011 census of India" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  9. ^ Pathak, Analiza (2 September 2020). "Hindi, Kashmiri and Dogri to be official languages of Jammu and Kashmir, Cabinet approves Bill". Retrieved 8 September 2020.
  10. ^ "The Jammu and Kashmir Official Languages Act, 2020" (PDF). The Gazette of India. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
  11. ^ "Parliament passes JK Official Languages Bill, 2020". Rising Kashmir. 23 September 2020. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
  12. ^ "Here's how beautiful Srinagar's Dal Lake looks this winter". India Today. 5 January 2018. Archived from the original on 30 January 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  13. ^ "District Srinagar :: Official Website". Archived from the original on 4 February 2006. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  14. ^ a b c d e "Jammu and Kashmir Population Census data 2011". 2011 census of India. Archived from the original on 18 December 2012. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
  15. ^ Sharma, Suresh K. (1996). Encyclopaedia of Kashmir. Anmol Publications Pvt Limited. p. 137. ISBN 978-81-7488-051-2. Shri Nagar or , as it is commonly called , Srinagar , is the chief town of the country . ' Shri ' means beauty or wealth of knowledge and ' nagar ' a city
  16. ^ Kashmir. 1953. p. 36. Shri ' is said to be another name for Laxmi , the Goddess of Wealth and Beauty and ' nagari ' means the city . Hence ' Shrinagar ' is the city of wealth and beauty .
  17. ^ Shafi, Aneesa (2002). Working Women in Kashmir: Problems and Prospects. APH Publishing. p. 189. ISBN 978-81-7648-350-6. The name Srinagar which means the city of Sri or Lakshmi appears to have been assigned to the capital to commemorate the Buddhist Monastery built by Ashoka between Pandrethan and the nearby steep hill side at a distance of 2 miles from ...
  18. ^ Khan 1978, p.2:"According to Kalhana, ancient Kashmir has had a number of capitals. The most important of these ancient cities was Srinagari, which was founded by Asoka in 250 B.C. 3 Srinagari, the city of Sri, an appellation of the goddess '. Lakshmi ...".
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