The 2011 Census of India or the 15th Indian Census was conducted in two phases, house listing and population enumeration. The House listing phase began on 1 April 2010 and involved the collection of information about all buildings. Information for National Population Register (NPR) was also collected in the first phase, which will be used to issue a 12-digit unique identification number to all registered Indian residents by Unique Identification Authority of India. The second population enumeration phase was conducted between 9 and 28 February 2011. Census has been conducted in India since 1872 and 2011 marks the first time biometric information was collected. According to the provisional reports released on 31 March 2011, the Indian population increased to 1.21 billion with a decadal growth of 17.70%. Adult literacy rate increased to 74.04% with a decadal growth of 9.21%. The motto of the census was 'Our Census, Our future'.
|Total population||1,210,193,422 ( 17.70%)|
|Most populous ||Uttar Pradesh (199,812,341)|
|Least populous ||Sikkim (610,577)|
Spread across 29 states[a] and 7 union territories, the census covered 640 districts, 5,924 sub-districts, 7,935 towns and more than 600,000 villages. A total of 2.7 million officials visited households in 7,935 towns and 600,000 villages, classifying the population according to gender, religion, education and occupation. The cost of the exercise was approximately ₹2,200 crore (US$290 million) – this comes to less than $0.50 per person, well below the estimated world average of $4.60 per person. Conducted every 10 years, this census faced big challenges considering India's vast area and diversity of cultures and opposition from the manpower involved.
Information on castes was included in the census following demands from several ruling coalition leaders including Lalu Prasad Yadav, and Mulayam Singh Yadav supported by opposition parties Bharatiya Janata Party, Akali Dal, Shiv Sena and Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam. Information on caste was last collected during the British Raj in 1931. During the early census, people often exaggerated their caste status to garner social status and it is expected that people downgrade it now in the expectation of gaining government benefits. Earlier, There was speculation that there would be a caste-based census conducted in 2011, the first time for 80 years (last was in 1931), to find the exact population of the "Other Backward Classes" (OBCs) in India. This was later accepted and the Socio Economic and Caste Census 2011 was conducted whose first findings were revealed on 3 July 2015 by Union Finance Minister Arun Jaitley. Mandal Commission report of 1980 quoted OBC population at 52%, though National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) survey of 2006 quoted OBC population at 41%.
There is only one instance of a caste count in post-independence India. It was conducted in Kerala in 1968 by the Government of Kerala under E M S Namboodiripad to assess the social and economic backwardness of various lower castes. The census was termed Socio-Economic Survey of 1968 and the results were published in the Gazetteer of Kerala, 1971.
C. M. Chandramauli was the Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India for the 2011 Indian Census. Census data was collected in 16 languages and the training manual was prepared in 18 languages. In 2011, India and Bangladesh also conducted their first-ever joint census of areas along their border. The census was conducted in two phases. The first, the house-listing phase, began on 1 April 2010 and involved collection of data about all the buildings and census houses. Information for the National Population Register was also collected in the first phase. The second, the population enumeration phase, was conducted from 9 – 28 February 2011 all over the country. The eradication of epidemics, the availability of more effective medicines for the treatment of various types of diseases and the improvement in the standard of living were the main reasons for the high decadal growth of population in India.
The House-listing schedule contained 35 questions.
Census house number
Predominant material of floor, wall and roof of the census house
Ascertain use of actual house
Condition of the census house
Total number of persons in the household
Name of the head of the household
Sex of the head
Caste status (SC or ST or others)
|Ownership status of the house
Number of dwelling rooms
Number of married couple the household
Main source of drinking water
Availability of drinking water source
Main source of lighting
Latrine within the premises
Type of latrine facility
Waste water outlet connection
Bathing facility within the premises
|Availability of kitchen |
Fuel used for cooking
Availing Banking services.
|Name of the person
Relationship to head
Date of birth and age
Current marital status
Age at marriage
Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribe
|Other languages known
Status of attendance (Education)
Highest educational level attained
Working any time during last year
Category of economic activity
Occupation Nature of industry
Trade or service
Class of worker
Non economic activity
|Seeking or available for work |
Travel to place of work
Place of last residence
Reason for migration
Duration of stay in the place of migration
Children ever born
Number of children born alive during last one year
National Population RegisterEdit
The National Population Register household schedule contained 9 questions.
|Name of the person and resident status |
Name of the person as should appear in the population register
Relationship to head
Date of birth
Names of father, mother and spouse
Once the information was collected and digitised, fingerprints were taken and photos collected. Unique Identification Authority of India was to issue a 12-digit identification number to all individuals and the first ID have been issued in 2011.
Provisional data from the census was released on 31 March 2011 (and was updated on 20 May 2013). Transgender population was counted in population census in India for the first time in 2011. The overall sex ratio of the population is 940 females for every 1,000 males in 2011. The official count of the third gender in India is 490,000
|Density of population||per km2||382|
|Sex ratio||per 1000 males||940 females|
|Child sex ratio (0–6 age group)||per 1000 males||914 females|
The population of India as per 2011 census was 1,210,854,977. India added 181.5 million to its population since 2001, slightly lower than the population of Brazil. India, with 2.4% of the world's surface area, accounts for 17.5% of its population. Uttar Pradesh is the most populous state with roughly 200 million people. Over half the population resided in the six most populous states of Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. Of the 1.21 billion Indians, 833 million (68.84%) live in rural areas while 377 million stay in urban areas. 453.6 million people in India are migrants, which is 37.8% of total population.
India is home to many religions such as Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism, Sikhism and Jainism, while also being home to several indigenous faiths and tribal religions which have been practiced alongside major religions for centuries. According to the 2011 census, the total number of households in India is 248.8 million. Of which 202.4 million are Hindu, 31.2 million are Muslim, 6.3 million are Christian, 4.1 million are Sikh, and 1.9 million are Jain According to 2011 census, there are around 3.01 million places of worship in India.
Ever since its inception, the Census of India has been collecting and publishing information about the religious affiliations as expressed by the people of India. In fact, population census has the rare distinction of being the only instrument that collects this diverse and important characteristic of the Indian population.
Union Territory (UT)
|Capital||Type||Population||% of total
|19||Jammu and Kashmir||Jammu(winter)
|32||Andaman and Nicobar Islands||Port Blair||UT||380,581||0.03||202,871||177,710||876||86.63||244,411||135,533||8,249||46||6.7%|
|33||Dadra and Nagar Haveli||Silvassa||UT||343,709||0.03||193,760||149,949||774||76.24||183,024||159,829||491||698||55.5%|
|34||Daman and Diu||Daman||UT||243,247||0.02||150,301||92,946||618||87.10||60,331||182,580||112||2,169||53.5%|
The religious data on India Census 2011 was released by the Government of India on 25 August 2015. Hindus are 79.8% (966.3 million) while Sikhs are 20.8 million comprising 1.72% of the population, Muslims are 14.23% (172.2 million) in India. and Christians are 2.30% (28.7 million). According to the 2011 Census of India, there are 57,264 Parsis in India. For the first time, a "No religion" category was added in the 2011 census. 2.87 million were classified as people belonging to "No Religion" in India in the 2011 census 0.24% of India's population of 1.21 billion. Given below is the decade-by-decade religious composition of India until the 2011 census. There are six religions in India that have been awarded "National Minority" status – Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Jains, Buddhists and Parsis. Sunnis, Shias, Bohras, Agakhanis and Ahmadiyyas were identified as sects of Islam in India. As per 2011 census, six major faiths- Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains make up over 99.4% of India's 1.21 billion population, while "other religions, persuasions" (ORP) count is 8.2 million. Among the ORP faiths, six faiths- 4.957 million-strong Sarnaism, 1.026 million-strong Gond, 506,000-strong Sari, Donyi-Polo (302,000) in Arunachal Pradesh, Sanamahism (222,000) in Manipur, Khasi (138,000) in Meghalaya dominate. Maharashtra is having the highest number of atheists in the country with 9,652 such people, followed by Kerala.
- Population trends for major religious groups in India (1951–2011)
|Other religions / No religion||0.8%||0.8%||0.41%||0.42%||0.44%||0.8%||0.9%|
Hindi is the most widely spoken language in northern parts of India. The Indian census takes the widest possible definition of "Hindi" as a broad variety of "Hindi languages". According to 2011 Census, 57.1% of Indian population know Hindi, in which 43.63% of Indian people have declared Hindi as their native language or mother tongue. The language data was released on 26 June 2018. Bhili/Bhilodi was the most spoken unscheduled language with 10.4 million speakers, followed by Gondi with 2.9 million speakers. 96.71% of India's population speaks one of the 22 scheduled languages as their mother tongue in the 2011 census.
The 2011 census report on bilingualism and trilingualism, which provides data on the two languages in order of preference in which a person is proficient other than the mother tongue, was released in September 2018. The number of bilingual speakers in India is 314.9 million, which is 26% of the population in 2011. 7% of Indian population is trilingual. Hindi, Bengali speakers are India's least multilingual groups.
Numbers regarding languages spoken available in the 2011 Indian Census data may not reflect actual data in India due to how the data was collected, with participants being allowed to give any response they wished for what languages they spoke.
speakers as a percentage of total population
|Total speakers ||Total speakers as a percentage of total population|
Any one above age 7 who can read and write in any language with an ability to understand was considered a literate. In censuses before 1991, children below the age 5 were treated as illiterates. The literacy rate taking the entire population into account is termed as "crude literacy rate", and taking the population from age 7 and above into account is termed as "effective literacy rate". Effective literacy rate increased to a total of 74.04% with 82.14% of the males and 65.46% of the females being literate.
|S.No.||Census year||Total (%)||Male (%)||Female (%)|
- The table lists the "effective literacy rate" in India from 1901 to 2011.
- Prior to the creation of Telangana.
- "Decadal Growth :www.censusindia.gov.in" (PDF).
- "India's population at 5pm today – 127,42,39,769". The Times of India. Press Trust of India. 11 July 2015.
- C Chandramouli (23 August 2011). "Census of India 2011 – A Story of Innovations". Press Information Bureau, Government of India.
- "Do we really need the census?". The Economic Times. 26 August 2017.
- "Demand for caste census rocks Lok Sabha". The Times of India. 4 May 2010.
- Blakely, Rhys (10 May 2010). "India to conduct first record of nation's caste system since days of the Raj". The Times. Archived from the original on 28 May 2010.
- Jha, Suman K (18 December 2009). "OBC data not in 2011 Census, says Moily". The Indian Express. Retrieved 24 July 2016.
- "No data since 1931, will 2011 Census be all-caste inclusive?". The Times of India. TNN. 11 March 2010. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013.
- Sachar, Rajindar (28 May 2010). "Caste in Census 2011: Is it necessary?". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013.
- "OBCs form 41% of population: Survey". The Times of India. 1 September 2007. Archived from the original on 23 August 2013.
- "Govt releases socio-economic and caste census for better policy-making". Hindustan Times. Press Trust of India. 3 July 2015.
- "OBc count: 52 or 41%?". The Times of India. 1 November 2006. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013.
- G.O.K dew1971: Appendix XVIII
- Anbarasan, Ethirajan (14 July 2011). "Joint Bangladesh and India census". BBC News.
- Bose, Raktima (19 July 2011). "Census in Indian and Bangladesh enclaves ends". The Hindu.
- Kumar, Vinay (4 April 2010). "House listing operations for Census 2011 progressing well". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
- "Census of India 2011; Houselisting and Housing Census Schedule" (PDF). Government of India. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- "Census of India 2011; Household Schedule-Side A" (PDF). Government of India. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- "Census of India 201a1; Household Schedule-Side B" (PDF). Government of India. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- "National population register; Household Schedule" (PDF). Government of India. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- "Census operation in history kicks off". The Hindu. 1 April 2010. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- "India launches biometric census". BBC News. 1 April 2010. Archived from the original on 1 April 2010. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- "India's total population is now 121 crore". Mint. Press Trust of India. 30 April 2013.
- "It's official. We are the second most populous nation in the world at 1.2 billion". India Today. Press Trust of India. 30 April 2013.
- "India's total population is now 1.21 billion". The Economic Times. Press Trust of India. 30 April 2013. Archived from the original on 3 May 2013.
- "India's total population is 1.21 billion, final census reveals". NDTV. Press Trust of India. 30 April 2013.
- "Pakistan counts transgender people in national census for first time". The Times of India. Reuters. 9 January 2017. Archived from the original on 9 January 2017.
- "Over 70,000 transgenders in rural India, UP tops list: Census 2011". India Today. 4 July 2015.
- Varma, Subodh (15 February 2016). "Sex ratio worsens in small families, improves with 3 or more children". The Times of India.
- Nagarajan, Rema (30 May 2014). "First count of third gender in census: 4.9 lakh". The Times of India.
- Shaikh, Zeeshan (15 June 2015). "Why activists are upset with Census disability numbers". The Indian Express.
- "About 70 per cent Indians live in rural areas: Census report". The Hindu. Press Trust of India. 15 July 2011. Archived from the original on 5 December 2016.
- "Rural population (% of total population) | Data". data.worldbank.org.
- Shaikh, Zeeshan (5 December 2016). "Every 3rd Indian migrant, most headed south". The Indian Express.
- Raghavan, Pyaralal (5 December 2016). "Migration in India still largely remains a social rather than an economic phenomenon". The Times of India.
- Raghavan, Pyaralal (10 December 2016). "Migration in India is slowly becoming more urban and driven by economic factors". The Times of India.
- "248.8 Million Households Across India; 202 mn Hindus, 31 mn Muslims". News18 India. Press Trust of India. 20 May 2016.
- "Indian Muslim Family Size Shrinking Rapidly: Census Report". The Quint. 21 May 2016.
- Kishore, Roshan (5 July 2016). "India has more places of worship than schools or colleges". Mint.
- "Ranking of States and Union territories by population size: 1991 and 2001" (PDF). Government of India (2001). Census of India. pp. 5–6. Retrieved 12 December 2008.
- "Population" (PDF). Government of India (2011). Census of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 January 2012.
- "Provisional Population Totals". Government of India (2011). Census of India. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- "Area ofIndia/state/district". Government of India (2001). Census of India. Retrieved 27 October 2008.
- Chowdhury, Sagnik; Ghosh, Abantika; Tewari, Ruhi (26 August 2015). "Census 2011: Hindus dip to below 80 per cent of population; Muslim share up, slows down". The Indian Express. Archived from the original on 26 August 2015.
- S, Rukmini; Singh, Vijaita (25 August 2015). "Muslim population growth slows". The Hindu.
- "India Census 2011". Censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
- "India's religions by numbers". The Hindu. 26 August 2015.
- "Muslim representation on decline". The Times of India. 31 August 2015. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
- "Muslim share of population up 0.8%, Hindus' down 0.7% between 2001 and 2011". The Times of India. 26 August 2015. Retrieved 24 July 2016.
- Bhasin, Ruhi; Johri, Ankita Dwivedi; Das, Preeti (24 October 2017). "Where we belong: The fight of Parsi women in interfaith marriages". The Indian Express.
- "Parsi population dips by 22 per cent between 2001–2011: study". The Hindu. Press Trust of India. 26 July 2016.
- Mehrotra, Palash Krishna (29 August 2015). "Why a Tinder date is better than 72 virgins in paradise". DailyO.
- Khan, Hamza (6 September 2015). "Against All Gods: Meet the league of atheists from rural Uttar Pradesh". The Indian Express.
- Daniyal, Shoaib (7 September 2015). "People without religion have risen in Census 2011, but atheists have nothing to cheer about". Scroll.in.
- B, Sivakumar (27 August 2015). "2.87 million Indians have no faith, census reveals for first time". The Times of India.
- "1.88 lakh people in Tamil Nadu state 'no religion' in 2011 census". DNA India. 27 August 2015.
- Kumar, Devendra (30 May 2014). "Muslim politics:At a crossroads". Mint. Retrieved 28 October 2014.
- Aariz Mohammed (1–15 May 2013). "Demographic Dividend and Indian Muslims – i". Milli Gazette. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- Aariz Mohammed (1–15 May 2013). "Demographic Dividend and Indian Muslims – i". Milli Gazette. Archived from the original on 12 August 2018. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- "National minority status for Jains". The Telegraph (India). Press Trust of India. 20 January 2014. Archived from the original on 24 January 2014.
- "Jains become sixth minority community". DNA India. 21 January 2014.
- Shaikh, Zeeshan (4 August 2016). "Ahmadiyyas find place as Islam sect in census". The Indian Express.
- "Protest against inclusion of Ahmediyyas in Muslim census". The Times of India. TNN. 11 January 2016.
- "Minority in a minority. The census acknowledges Ahmadis as Muslims. It is a recognition long overdue". Indian Express. 5 August 2016.
- Shaikh, Zeeshan (1 August 2016). "Fewer minor faiths in India now, finds Census; number of their adherents up". The Indian Express.
- Kanungo, Soumonty (10 August 2016). "God versus Atheism, Bengal vouches for believers". Mint.
- Sen, Sumant (4 June 2019). "Hindi the first choice of people in only 12 States". The Hindu.
- "Abstract speakers languages India 2011" (PDF).
- Kawoosa, Vijdan Mohammad (22 November 2018). "How languages intersect in India". Hindustan Times.
- Suresh, Haripriya (28 June 2018). "What India speaks: South Indian languages are growing, but not as fast as Hindi". The News Minute.
- Daniyal, Shoaib (4 July 2018). "Surging Hindi, shrinking South Indian languages: Nine charts that explain the 2011 language census". Scroll.in.
- Jain, Bharti (28 June 2018). "Hindi mother tongue of 44% in India, Bangla second most spoken". The Times of India.
- "C-17 Population by Bilingualism and Trilingualism".
- Thakur, Bhartesh Singh (2 October 2018). "After mother tongue, city more proficient in English". The Tribune (Chandigarh).
- "C-18 Population by Bilingualism, Trilingualism, Age and Sex" (PDF).
- B, Sivakumar (4 October 2018). "Hindi migrants speaking Marathi rise to 60 lakh". The Times of India.
- Nagarajan, Rema (7 November 2018). "52% of India's urban youth are now bilingual, 18% speak three languages". The Times of India.
- Nagarajan, Rema (14 November 2018). "Hindi, Bengali speakers India's least multilingual groups". The Times of India.
- "Census of India: Comparative speaker's strength of Scheduled Languages-1951, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001 and 2011" (PDF).
- "How many Indians can you talk to?". Hindustan Times.
- "Census Provional Population Totals". The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 14 February 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Census of India, 2011.|