Panaji or Panjim (Konkani: Ponnjé, Portuguese: Pangim)[3] is the capital of the Indian state of Goa and the headquarters of North Goa district. It lies on the banks of the Mandovi River estuary in the Ilhas de Goa sub-district (taluka). With a population of 114,759 in the metropolitan area, Panjim is Goa's largest urban agglomeration, ahead of Margão and Vasco da Gama.


Ponnjé / Pangim / पणजी
Anticlockwise from the Top: Igreja de Nossa Senhora da Imaculada Conceição Typical Portuguese influenced architecture Statue of Hindu-Christian Unity Entrance to the Goa Police HQ
Anticlockwise from the Top:
  1. Igreja de Nossa Senhora da Imaculada Conceição
  2. Typical Portuguese influenced architecture
  3. Statue of Hindu-Christian Unity
  4. Entrance to the Goa Police HQ
Panaji is located in Goa
Location of Panjim in Goa
Panaji is located in India
Panaji (India)
Coordinates: 15°29′56″N 73°49′40″E / 15.49889°N 73.82778°E / 15.49889; 73.82778Coordinates: 15°29′56″N 73°49′40″E / 15.49889°N 73.82778°E / 15.49889; 73.82778
Country India
DistrictNorth Goa
Sub-districtIllhas de Goa
Elevated to Capital1843
 • MayorUday Madkaikar
 • Deputy MayorAsmita Kerkar
 • Member of the Legislative Assembly of GoaAtanasio Monserrate (BJP)
 • City8.27 km2 (3.19 sq mi)
 • Metro
76.3 km2 (29.5 sq mi)
7 m (23 ft)
 • City40,017
 • Rank3rd in Goa
 • Density4,800/km2 (13,000/sq mi)
 • Metro
Demonym(s)Ponnjekar, Panjimite
 • OfficialKonkani, English
 • Additional/CulturalRomi Konkani[1], Portuguese[2]
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
403 00x
Telephone code0832
Vehicle registrationGA-01, GA-07

Panjim has terraced hills, concrete buildings with balconies and red-tiled roofs, churches, and a riverside promenade. There are avenues lined with gulmohar, acacia and other trees. The baroque Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception Church is located overlooking the main square known as Praça da Igreja. Panjim has been selected as one of hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under the Smart Cities Mission.

Panjim was built with stepped streets and a seven kilometre long promenade on a planned grid system after the Portuguese relocated the capital from Velha Goa in the 17th century.[4] It was elevated from a town to a city on 22 March 1843 making it the oldest civic institution in Asia (175 years).[5]


The city was renamed from Panjim in English to Panaji, its present official name in the 1980s. The Portuguese name was Pangim. The city is sometimes written as Ponnjé in Romi Konkani. The city had been renamed Nova Goa (Portuguese for "New Goa") when it officially replaced the city of Goa (now Old Goa) as the capital of Portuguese India, though the Viceroy had already moved there in 1759.

The justification of the modern word Panaji is derived from the words panjani and khali, which mean a boat and a small creek respectively, in Sanskrit. Thus the modern word Panjim is believed to be a corruption of the old word Panjanakhani as inscribed on the discovered Panjim copper-plates dated 1059 CE, belonging to the rule of Kadamba king Jayakesi I.[6][7] According to legend, this northern capital city was mentioned in a stone inscription of Kadamba king Jayakesi I dated 1054 CE as 'Panjanakhani', giving him the epithet of Padavalendra which is Kannada for lord of the western ocean.[8]

Some historians state that it was named after a Shia Muslim shrine also called a "Panja" on one of the coastal hill tops.[9]


Panjim was made the capital of Portuguese India, after a devastating epidemics decimated the population of the City of Goa in the mid 18th Century.[10]

Panjim was annexed by India with the rest of Goa and the former Portuguese territories after the Indian invasion of Portuguese India in 1961. It became a state-capital on Goa's elevation to statehood in 1987. Between 1961 and 1987, it was the capital of the Union Territory of Goa, Daman and Diu. A new Legislative Assembly complex was inaugurated in March 2000, across the Mandovi River, in Alto Porvorim. Panjim is also the administrative headquarters of North Goa district.


Panjim is located at 15°29′56″N 73°49′40″E / 15.49889°N 73.82778°E / 15.49889; 73.82778.[11] It has an average elevation of 7 metres (23 feet).


Panjim has various vāde or sub-divisions, including:

Some areas outlying it are:

Besides lying on the banks of the Mandovi River, Panjim is bounded by two creeks, locally called pői in the singular, namely Ourém creek and Santa Inêz creek.


During the 2011 census of India,[12] Panjim had a population of 114,405. Males constituted 52% of the population and females 48%. It had an average literacy rate of 90.9%; male literacy was 94.6% and female literacy 86.9%. In Panjim, 9.6% of the population was under 7 years of age.


Panjim compromises of three major religions, with Hinduism being the majority with 64.08% followers, Christianity with 26.51% followers, and the smallest being Islam with only 8.84% followers. 0.4% of the population count as other which include Buddhist, Jain, and Sikh followers.


Panjim features a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen climate classification Am). The climate in Panjim is hot in summer and equable in winter. During summers (from March to May) the temperature reaches up to 32 °C (90 °F) and in winters (from December to February) it is usually between 31 °C (88 °F) and 23 °C (73 °F).

The monsoon period is from June to September with heavy rainfall and gusty winds. The annual average rainfall is 2,932 mm (115.43 in).

Climate data for Panaji (1981–2010, extremes 1901–2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 36.7
Average high °C (°F) 32.4
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.3
Average low °C (°F) 20.2
Record low °C (°F) 14.4
Average rainfall mm (inches) 1.0
Average rainy days 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.3 3.8 21.2 25.6 23.1 12.8 6.5 2.0 0.2 95.7
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 57 59 65 67 69 83 87 86 82 76 65 58 71
Mean monthly sunshine hours 303.8 291.0 288.3 279.0 285.2 132.0 96.1 120.9 180.0 232.5 270.0 294.5 2,773.3
Mean daily sunshine hours 9.8 10.3 9.3 9.3 9.2 4.4 3.1 3.9 6.0 7.5 9.0 9.5 7.6
Source 1: India Meteorological Department (sun, 1971–2000)[13][14][15]
Source 2: Tokyo Climate Center (mean temperatures 1981–2010)[16]


Panjim People's Art Gallery & Café

The heart of the city is the Praça da Igreja (Church Square) where the Jardim Garcia de Orta (municipal garden) with the Portuguese Baroque Igreja de Nossa Senhora da Imaculada Conceição, originally built in 1541. Other tourist attractions include the old and rebuilt Adilshahi Palace (or Idalção Palace), dating from the sixteenth century, the Institute Menezes Braganza, the Chapel of St. Sebastian and the Fontainhas area—which is considered to be the old Latin Quarter—as well as the nearby beach of Miramar. Panjim hosted the relics of Saint John Bosco (also known as Don Bosco) till 21 August 2011 at the Don Bosco Oratory.

The carnival celebrations in February include a colourful parade on the streets. This is followed by the Shigmo / Xigmo, or Holi. The Narkāsūr parade on the night before Diwali in the city is very colourful.

Well-known places in Panjim are the 18th June Road (a busy thoroughfare in the heart of the town and a shopping area for tourists and locals), Mala area, Miramar beach and the Kala Academy (a cultural centre known for its structure built by architect Charles Correa). Kala Academy is a place where Goa showcases its art and culture.

Palace of Adil Shah (Secretariat Building)Edit

Situated on the banks of Mandovi River in the heart of Panjim is ‘Old Secretariat’ building popularly known as ‘Adil Shah’s Palace’.[17] It was built by Yusuf Adil Shah of the Bijapur Sultanate in around 1500, as a summer residence and fortress. The building was armed with 55 cannons and surrounded by a moat. The Palace was besieged by Portuguese admiral Afonso de Albuquerque in 1510[18] and in the mid-1500s the Portuguese conquerors renamed it as ‘Idalcao’s Palace’ [19] and was the temporary residence of the first ‘Viceroy of Goa’. In 1963 this ancient structure was renovated by Goa government to house Goa Legislative Assembly. This structure today is 'The Goa State Museum'.

Other attractionsEdit

Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary is a bird sanctuary named after the ornithologist Dr. Salim Ali. The sanctuary, located in the village of Chorão, near Panjim, plays host to rare and endangered bird species—both migratory and resident.

Goa is famous for its beaches, and Miramar, Bambolim, and Dona Paula are three popular beaches located near Panjim.

Dona Paula is the meeting point for two of Goa's famous rivers, Zuari and Mandovi. These two rivers meet at the Arabian Sea. The official residence of the governor of Goa, known as Cabo Raj Bhavan, is situated on the westernmost tip of Dona Paula.

Miramar Beach is one of the more crowded beaches in Goa, which remains full with local and international tourists throughout the year.

Also located near Panjim, is the Goa Science Centre which was opened to the public in December 2001. The Caculo Mall is also located in St. Inez near Panjim. Also Madhuban Complex, at St.inez is very popular among Panjimites.

Goa is known for its casinos as well.


The renovated building of Goa Medical College (established in 1842 as Escola Médico-Cirúrgica de [Nova] Goa) in Campal. The institution has since been relocated and this building now serves as the headquarters of the Entertainment Society of Goa.

Goa's only university, the Goa University, is situated at Taleigão on the outskirts of Panjim. Some other educational institutes in Panjim are:

  • Goa Medical College, Bambolim
  • Goa College of Pharmacy
  • Goa Polytechnic Panjim
  • Goa College of Fine Arts
  • The Rosary High School, Miramar
  • Our lady of Rosary (Green Rosary), Dona Paula
  • Santa Cruz High School, Santa Cruz
  • Don Bosco High School
  • Goa Institute of Management
  • Dempo College of Commerce and Economics, Altinho
  • Dhempe College of Arts and Sciences, Miramar
  • Mary Immaculate Girls High School, São Tomé/Fontainhas
  • Peoples High School, Mala

Research centresEdit

The National Institute of Oceanography (CSIR-NIO) is situated at Dona Paula, on the outskirts of Panjim city. It specialises in marine science research.


The nearest airport is Dabolim Airport which is 30 kilometres (19 miles) away.[20]Transport is done mainly by buses.

Media and communicationsEdit

State-owned All India Radio has a local station in Panjim which transmits various programs of mass interest. The annual International Film Festival of India (IFFI), is held in Panjim.


The Goa government, as well as the Indian government, has its major offices in Goa.

The Goa Legislative Assembly is situated at Alto Porvorim, about 2 km (1.2 mi) from Panjim. The hillock called Altinho houses some major central government offices and the residences of prominent officials and politicians.


The current Chief Minister of Goa, Pramod Sawant, resides here. The Corporation of the City of Panaji (CCP) administers the city and its Mayor is Uday Madkaikar.[21] Asmita Kerkar is the Deputy Mayor.[22][23][24]

The Governor of Goa stays at the Cabo Raj Bhavan at Dona Paula, about 8 km (5 mi) from Panjim. The current Governor is Satya Pal Malik.


Two of Goa's premier clubs Dempo S.C. and Sporting Clube de Goa are based in Panaji and they both compete in India's top-tier league I-League. Clube Tennis de Gaspar Dias in Miramar was founded in the year 1926 and remains among the most sought after Tennis clubs in Goa. [25] The multipurpose Campal Indoor Complex is planned in Campal besides the existing football ground.[citation needed] The Don Bosco college football grounds on General Bernardo Guedes road has been long a long established sports field in the city. It also has a football club named FC Goa in Indian Super League.

International relationsEdit

Twin towns – Sister citiesEdit

Panjim is twinned with:

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "HC notice to govt on Romi script - The Times of India". 22 January 2013. Retrieved 12 August 2015.
  2. ^ Portuguese is culturally present as various creoles, and in places like churches.
  3. ^ Santos, Catarina Madeira (2001). Entre Velha Goa - a capital do estado da Índia e as reformulações da política ultramarina. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  4. ^ "Corporation of The City of Panaji: Official Site". Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  5. ^ "Panaji completes 174 years as state's capital city - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  6. ^ Title: Gazetteer of the Union Territory Goa, Daman and Diu: district gazetteer, Volume 1; Publisher: Gazetteer Dept., Govt. of the Union Territory of Goa, Daman and Diu, 1979 (Original from the University of Michigan, Digitised: 30 August 2008)
  8. ^ De Souza, Teotonio R. (1990). Goa Through the Ages: An economic history, Volume 2. Concept Publishing Company. p. 129. ISBN 9788170222590.
  9. ^ De Souza, Teotonio R. (1990). Goa Through the Ages: An economic history, Volume 2. Concept Publishing Company. p. 129. ISBN 9788170222590.
  10. ^ "Rise and fall of 'Old Goa'". 2016.
  11. ^ "Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Panaji". Retrieved 9 May 2012.
  12. ^ "Provisional Population Totals Paper 2, Volume 2 of 2011: Goa State Tables" (PDF). Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
  13. ^ "Station: Panjim Climatological Table 1981–2010" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981–2010. India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 585–586. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
  14. ^ "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M47. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
  15. ^ "Table 3 Monthly mean duration of Sun Shine (hours) at different locations in India" (PDF). Daily Normals of Global & Diffuse Radiation (1971–2000). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M-3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  16. ^ "Normals Data: Goa/Panjim - India Latitude: 15.48°N Longitude: 73.82°E Height: 58 (m)". Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on 1 March 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  17. ^ Sayed, Nida (2017). "Adil Shah palace crowded, 18th century artefacts left on road". The Times of India.
  18. ^ "Adil Shah's Palace". 2020.
  19. ^ "Old Secretariat". Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  20. ^ "Airports Authority of India". 21 September 2011. Archived from the original on 21 April 2012. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^
  25. ^ "Club Tennis de Gaspar Dias - GoGoaNow !". GoGoaNow !. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  26. ^ "Acordos de Geminação, de Cooperação e/ou Amizade da Cidade de Lisboa" [Lisbon – Twinning Agreements, Cooperation and Friendship]. Camara Municipal de Lisboa (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 31 October 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2013.

External linksEdit