Indian Super League
The Indian Super League (ISL) is a professional football league in India which is the top level of the Indian football league system. The league is currently contested by ten teams and each season runs from October to March. Each team currently plays 18 matches during the league stage, with the top four qualifying for the playoffs. The season then culminates with the ISL Final to determine the champion. The league has been officially known as the Hero Indian Super League since its inception, due to a sponsorship agreement with Hero MotoCorp.
|Founded||21 October 2013|
|Number of teams||10|
|Level on pyramid||1|
|Domestic cup(s)||AIFF Super Cup|
|International cup(s)||AFC Champions League|
|Current champions||ATK (3rd title) |
|Current premiership||Goa (1st title) |
|Most appearances||Mandar Rao Dessai (96)|
|Top goalscorer||Coro (48)|
|TV partners||Star Sports (live matches)|
|2020–21 Indian Super League season|
The competition was founded on 21 October 2013 with the goal of growing the sport of football in India and increasing its exposure in the country. The league began in October 2014 with eight teams. During its first three seasons, the competition operated without official recognition from the Asian Football Confederation (AFC), the governing body for the sport in Asia. The competition was also structured along the same lines as the Indian Premier League, the country's premier Twenty20 cricket competition. Each season lasted just 3 months, from October to December, and matches were held daily. However, prior to the 2017–18 season, the league expanded to ten teams, expanded its schedule to six months, and earned recognition from the AFC.
Unlike other football leagues around the world, the Indian Super League does not use promotion and relegation, choosing to grow through expansion, similar to Major League Soccer in the United States. Indian Super League clubs are able to gain qualification into Asian continental competitions, such as the AFC Champions League and the AFC Cup.
Since the league's inaugural season, a total of three clubs have won the ISL Final and one club has won the ISL League Winners Shield, the trophy awarded to the top team at the end of the league stage. The current ISL champions are ATK. The club is also the league's most successful, having won the title three times. The current Winners Shield trophy holder is Goa, who have won it once since the trophy was unveiled during the 2019–20 season.
Football in India has existed in many forms since the game first arrived in the country during the 19th century with the first nationwide club competition, the Durand Cup, beginning in 1888. Despite India's early history in the game, the country's first nationwide football league did not begin until the semi-professional National Football League commenced in 1996. Prior to the creation of the National Football League, most clubs played in state leagues or select nationwide tournaments.
In 2006, the All India Football Federation, the governing body for the sport in India, reformatted the league as the I-League in an effort to professionalise the game. However, during the following seasons, the league suffered from a lack of popularity due to poor marketing.
In September 2005, the AIFF signed a 10-year television and media contract with Zee Sports. The deal would see Zee broadcast the National Football League, the I-League, and other tournaments organized by the AIFF and select India international matches. However, in October 2010, the deal between the AIFF and Zee Sports was terminated early after differences between both parties related to payment and how to grow the game in India.
The Indian Super League was officially launched on 21 October 2013 by IMG–Reliance, Star Sports, and the All India Football Federation. The competition was announced to take place from January 2014 to March 2014, but was postponed shortly thereafter to September 2014.
At first, it was announced that bidding for the eight Indian Super League teams would be complete before the end of 2013 and that there was already high interest from big corporations, Indian Premier League teams, Bollywood stars, and other consortiums. However, due to the rescheduling of the league, the bidding was moved to 3 March 2014. It was also revealed around this time that not only would bidders need to comply with a financial requirement but they would also need to promote 'grassroots' development plans for football within their area. Finally, in early April 2014, the winning bidders were announced. The selected cities/state were Bangalore, Delhi, Goa, Guwahati, Kochi, Kolkata, Mumbai, and Pune. Former India cricket player Sachin Tendulkar, along with PVP Ventures, won the bidding for the Kochi franchise. Another former Indian cricket player, Sourav Ganguly, along with a group of Indian businessmen and La Liga side Atlético Madrid, won the bid for the Kolkata franchise. Meanwhile, Bollywood stars John Abraham, Ranbir Kapoor, and Salman Khan won the bid for the Guwahati, Mumbai, and Pune franchises respectively. Bangalore and Delhi were won by companies while Goa was won by a partnership between Videocon, Dattaraj Salgaocar, and I-League side Dempo.
The first team to be launched officially was the Kolkata franchise as Atlético de Kolkata on 7 May 2014. On 7 July 2014, the team announced the first head coach in league history, Antonio López Habas. The next day, Kolkata also announced the first official marquee signing in the Indian Super League, UEFA Champions League winner Luis García.
Eventually, all eight teams were revealed as Atlético de Kolkata, Bangalore Titans, Delhi Dynamos, Goa, Kerala Blasters, Mumbai City, NorthEast United and Pune City. However, on 21 August 2014, it was announced that due to Bangalore's owners dropping out, Chennai would be given a franchise instead. The team was eventually named Chennaiyin FC. At the same time, the original marquee players were Luis García, Elano, Alessandro Del Piero, Robert Pires, David James, Freddie Ljungberg, Joan Capdevila, and David Trezeguet.
The inaugural season began on 12 October 2014 at the Salt Lake Stadium when Atlético de Kolkata defeated Mumbai City, 3–0. The first goal was scored by Fikru Teferra. The first Indian to score in the league was Balwant Singh for Chennaiyin FC. The inaugural final was held on 20 December 2014 with Atlético de Kolkata becoming champions after defeating Kerala Blasters 1–0 at the DY Patil Stadium.
Recognition and expansion
For the first three seasons of the Indian Super League, the competition operated without official recognition from the governing body for football in Asia, the Asian Football Confederation (AFC), and FIFA, the world governing body. In October 2014, then FIFA General Secretary Jérôme Valcke stated that the world governing body only recognized the ISL as a tournament, not a league. The official league for football in India remained the I-League. With no recognition from the AFC, the competition also couldn't participate in Asian club competitions, the AFC Champions League or AFC Cup.
During the first three seasons of the Indian Super League, attendances across the competition had exceeded the expectations of pundits and of the domestic I-League mainly due to the timings at which the matches took place especially on working days and needs no mention sheer promotion.[failed verification] Television ratings were also strong for the competition, which is expected after better commentary, better telecasting, pre-match and post-match shows, as well as hourly reminders in various channels and social media interaction. However, despite the general success off the pitch, the competition drew criticism in other areas. Due to the need to accommodate the ISL into the Indian football calendar, the I-League season was shortened and went from having an October to May schedule to January to May schedule. Indian players would play for both an ISL team and an I-League club while the I-League continued to suffer from lack of visibility compared to the ISL. India head coach Stephen Constantine had called for both the ISL and I-League to either run together at the same time or merge.
On 18 May 2016, IMG–Reliance, along with the AIFF and I-League representatives met during a meeting in Mumbai. During the meeting it was proposed that, starting from the 2017–18 season, the Indian Super League become the top tier football league in India while the I-League be reformed as League One and be relegated to the second division. The competition would also expand by two teams and continue to operate without promotion and relegation, as stated earlier due to the 15 crore attraction of the FSDL each year, but run for 5–7 months instead of 2–3. The idea was not entertained by the I-League representatives.
In June 2017, IMG–Reliance, the AIFF, I-League representatives, and the AFC met in Kuala Lumpur in order to find a new way forward for Indian football. The AFC were against allowing the ISL as the main league in India while I-League clubs East Bengal and Mohun Bagan wanted a complete merger of the ISL and I-League. A couple weeks later, the AIFF proposed that both the Indian Super League and I-League run simultaneously on a short–term basis with the I-League winner qualifying for the AFC Champions League and the AFC Cup qualification spot going to the ISL champion. The proposal from the AIFF was officially approved by the AFC on 25 July 2017, with the ISL replacing the domestic cup competition, the Federation Cup which was a true knockout cup competition It was also stated that the competition would now run for five months starting with the 2017–18 season and the competition would expand to 10 teams.
A month before, on 11 May 2017, the ISL organizers started to accept bids for 2–3 new franchises for the 2017–18 season. The bids would be for ten cities, namely Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Cuttack, Durgapur, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur, Kolkata, Ranchi, Siliguri and Thiruvanathapuram. It was also clarified that if Kolkata were to win at least one bid that the new Kolkata side would have to play away from the city for only two seasons. A month later, on 12 June, it was announced that I-League side, Bengaluru, and Tata Steel (for Jamshedpur) had won the bidding for the new teams.
On 22 September 2017, the competition announced officially that it would be expanding its season by two months, thus making the league last for five months instead of three. The competition would also go from having matches played daily to being played between Wednesday and Sunday.
The next year, prior to the 2018–19 season, it was reported that Reliance Industries had bought out IMG's shares in the league. IMG realising that the robust business model will soon be exposed, pulled out, thus giving Reliance Industries 65% ownership of the league while Star Sports retains 35%.
The Indian Super League season runs from October to March (since the 2017–18 season). The season consists of both the league stage, which lasts until late February or early March, and the playoffs, which take place in March. The league stage follows a double round-robin format, with each club playing the others twice, once at their home stadium and once at their opponents' stadium, for a total of 18 matches each. Teams receive three points for a win, one point for a draw, and no points for a loss. Teams are ranked by total points, with the highest-ranked club at the end of the league stage being awarded the ISL League Winners Shield and the top four ranked teams progressing to the playoffs.
The Indian Super League playoffs have remained unchanged since the league's inaugural season. They consist of just two rounds, starting with the semi-finals before concluding with the ISL Final. The semi-finals are played in a two-legged format, with both sides playing the other in their home venues. At the conclusion of both matches, the team leading on aggregate moves on to the final. If the scores are tied on aggregate, then the away goal rule would apply (introduced during the 2019–20 season). The final is a one-off match that is held at a neutral ground, with the winner bring crowned champions.
Indian Super League teams can qualify for the top Asian club competitions – the AFC Champions League and AFC Cup – through their performance in the league. Prior to the 2017–18 season, the league was not recognized officially by the Asian Football Confederation (AFC), the governing body for football in Asia, so for the first three seasons no ISL team was eligible to participate in Asian competition. However, in June 2017, it was announced that the AFC, along with FIFA, would recognize the Indian Super League and allow clubs to participate in the AFC Cup starting in 2019.
Bengaluru became the first Indian Super League club to play in Asian competition when they participated in the 2018 AFC Cup. The club qualified while still an I-League club and through winning the Federation Cup in 2017 but participated in the tournament as an ISL team after entering the league prior to the 2017–18 season. In March 2018, Chennaiyin became the first ISL side to qualify for the AFC Cup directly through the league. They qualified for the 2019 edition after winning the 2018 ISL final.
In October 2018, it was announced that the AFC had approved the proposed roadmap from the All India Football Federation, which includes allowing the Indian Super League champion to qualify for the AFC Champions League qualifiers. A couple months later, in December 2019, it was officially announced by the AFC that they would be expanding the Champions League group stage from 32 teams to 40 and that the Indian Super League league stage winners shall qualify directly for the group stage from the 2021 edition onwards. The winner of the Indian Super League Final will continue to qualify for the AFC Cup qualifiers. In February 2020, Goa became the first ISL club to qualify for the Champions League after they won the League Winners Shield as the top ranked side after the league stage. This also marked the first time an Indian club qualified for the AFC Champions League group stage since the tournament changed to its current format in 2002.
In February 2018 it was announced by the All India Football Federation that the Super Cup would be replacing the Federation Cup as Indian football's annual knockout football competition. Prior to the Super Cup, Indian Super League clubs did not play official matches outside of ISL (exception being Bengaluru in the 2018 AFC Cup) so the Super Cup was the first time clubs in the league played in an official cup tournament. The Super Cup is contested by all ten sides in the ISL and the top 10 sides from the I-League, the other top flight league in India. The top six teams from both leagues qualify automatically for the tournament proper while the bottom four participate in qualifiers.
Ten clubs compete in the Indian Super League, seven of whom have competed since the inaugural season. Only Bengaluru predate the ISL, having competed in the I-League prior to joining the league. A total of 12 clubs have competed at some stage in the league's short history. Unlike most football leagues from across the world, the ISL does not use promotion and relegation. Instead, the league uses expansion to bring in new clubs, similarly to Major League Soccer in the United States and the A-League in Australia.
The Indian Super League expanded for the first time prior to the 2017–18 season, adding Bengaluru and Jamshedpur. ATK and Pune City are the only clubs to have formerly competed in the league. ATK's owner bought a majority stake in Mohun Bagan and merged to form ATK Mohun Bagan. Pune City were disbanded in 2018 and the club rights were transferred to new owners who founded Hyderabad prior to the 2019–20 season. Only one club has relocated away from where they were founded: Odisha were relocated to Bhubaneswar from the Indian capital Delhi prior to the 2019–20 season.
The following 10 clubs will compete in the Indian Super League during the 2020–21 season:
|ATK Mohun Bagan||Kolkata, West Bengal||Salt Lake Stadium||65,000||2020||Antonio López Habas|
|Bengaluru||Bangalore, Karnataka||Sree Kanteerava Stadium||25,810||2017||Carles Cuadrat|
|Chennaiyin||Chennai, Tamil Nadu||Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium (Chennai)||26,000||2014||Owen Coyle|
|Goa||Margao, Goa||Fatorda Stadium||19,000||2014||Juan Ferrando|
|Hyderabad||Hyderabad, Telangana||G.M.C Balayogi Athletic Stadium||30,000||2019||Albert Roca|
|Jamshedpur||Jamshedpur, Jharkhand||JRD Tata Sports Complex||23,887||2017||Vacant|
|Kerala Blasters||Kochi, Kerala||Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium (Kochi)||38,086||2014||Kibu Vicuña|
|Mumbai City||Mumbai, Maharashtra||Mumbai Football Arena||7,790||2014||Sergio Lobera|
|NorthEast United||Guwahati, Assam||Indira Gandhi Athletic Stadium||23,627||2014||Vacant|
|Odisha||Bhubaneswar, Odisha||Kalinga Stadium||15,000||2014||Stuart Baxter|
|ATK||Kolkata, West Bengal||Salt Lake Stadium||2014||2020|
|Pune City||Pune, Maharashtra||Balewadi Stadium||2014||2019|
Just like the Indian Premier League, the Indian Super League has a similar ownership model where the teams are owned by prominent businessmen, as well as celebrity owners from bollywood and cricket. The Indian Super League owners act as the competition's "League Partners". Now however they have literally taken over AIFF. British professional services group, Ernst & Young, were hired to draw up a criterion for the team bidding process and they were required to approve the potential owners. In April 2014 the owners were announced. Bollywood stars such as Ranbir Kapoor, John Abraham, and Salman Khan were bid winners, as well as cricket stars Sachin Tendulkar and Sourav Ganguly. Football clubs such as Atlético Madrid and Shillong Lajong were also bid winners.
Despite careful selection, the Indian Super League has had trouble in the past with team ownership. In August 2014, two months before the inaugural season, Sun Group, the owners of the Bangalore franchise, dropped out of the competition after the competition rejected their potential tie-up with then I-League club Bengaluru FC. Later that month, it was announced that another Bollywood star, Abhishek Bachchan, would take over the last franchise spot and move the team from Bangalore to Chennai.
The competition had its first ownership switch within a team on 1 June 2016 when the Kerala Blasters announced their new ownership structure. Along with Sachin Tendulkar, the team brought in businessman Nimmagadda Prasad and film stars Allu Aravind, Chiranjeevi, and Akkineni Nagarjuna after PVP Ventures withdrew their stake in the team.
Since the competition began in 2014, there have been a variety of stadiums used to host matches. Two stadiums, the DY Patil Stadium in Navi Mumbai and the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium in Kochi, are mainly used as cricket stadiums. Three other stadiums are athletic stadiums which are primarily used to host football matches in the I-League: the Fatorda Stadium in Goa, the Salt Lake Stadium in Kolkata, and the Balewadi Stadium in Pune. Three other venues were used which don't primarily host top-tier professional football: the Indira Gandhi Athletic Stadium in Assam, the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium in Chennai, and the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium in Delhi.
For the 2016 season, two new stadiums were used in the competition, the Mumbai Football Arena in Mumbai and the Rabindra Sarobar Stadium in Kolkata. The Mumbai Football Arena replaced the DY Patil Stadium for Mumbai City. ATK moved to the Rabindra Sarobar Stadium after the Salt Lake Stadium was being renovated for the 2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup.
For the 2017–18 season, ATK returned to the Salt Lake Stadium while the addition of Bengaluru and Jamshedpur added two new stadiums to the competition. Bengaluru would host matches at the Sree Kanteerava Stadium while Jamshedpur would play at the JRD Tata Sports Complex.
Sponsorship and revenues
In 2014, Hero MotoCorp became the first title sponsor of the Indian Super League in a deal that would last through 2016. On 30 September 2014, a week before the first season, it was announced that Puma SE would be the official ball supplier of the Indian Super League. Nivia became the official match ball sponsor for the session 2018–19 and supplied FIFA pro certified Nivia Ashtang to be played through ten clubs.
The competition relies heavily on a central sponsorship pool. League stakeholders, Star Sports and IMG–Reliance, manage the central sponsorship pool and market the competition to potential investors and sponsors. Twenty percent of the money gained in the central sponsorship pool goes towards organizing the competition while the rest is divided among the teams. Despite successfully gaining a lot of money through central sponsorship in 2014, 100% of the revenues were used by the competition to improve infrastructure and facilities, which meant that the teams lost money during the first season. The next season saw a change, however, with the central sponsorship pool doubling to around 100 crore due to new competition–wide sponsorships with corporates such as Flipkart and DHL Express. Teams were also able to increase their intake in sponsorship in 2015 with shirt sponsorship deals worth double from the previous season and around nine advertisements allowed on team kits. Teams in the league had also signed shirt manufacturing sponsorship deals with companies such as Adidas and Puma.
For the 2016 season, it was projected that the competition would gain more sponsors compared to the previous season, especially since the competition would occur during the Indian festive periods. For kit sponsorships, each team is allowed to have six sponsorships on the kit, with teams like ATK regularly filling those spots.
On 23 July 2017 it was announced that Hero MotoCorp would extend their deal as the title sponsors of the Indian Super League for another three-years. The company would spend $25 million on the competition during those three years according to Nita Ambani, the league's chairperson.
The Indian Super League trophy was unveiled on 5 October 2014, by Nita Ambani, the founder and chairperson of Football Sports Development. At the trophy unveiling occasion, Mrs. Ambani said, "It's a momentous day for all of us today as I stand along with the world's footballing legends to unveil the pride of Indian Super League. As these role models have inspired hundreds of thousands of players worldwide, I am sure the ISL trophy will also stand as a symbol of aspiration for many youngsters in an emergent India".
Designed by Frazer and Haws, the trophy stands 26 inches tall. The logo on the top band has the ISL colours assigned to it and the handles are ornately carved and embellished with 24 carats gold gilt to imbue a sense of pride, when held up.
Star Sports, one of the organizers of the Indian Super League, also serves as the official broadcasters of the league in India. In September 2014, it was announced that Star Sports would broadcast the ISL through eight channels in five different languages in an attempt to reach 85% of the Indian television audience.
The first match of the Indian Super League, between Atlético de Kolkata and Mumbai City on 12 October 2014, reportedly drew a television audience of 75 million people. The first week reportedly drew 170 million people in total. These numbers were 12 times more than what India drew for the 2014 FIFA World Cup and around 20–30 times more than what the I-League, India's other top-tier football league, drew on TEN Action and even the Premier League. Overall, at the end of the first season, it was reported that the ISL drew a total of 429 million viewers across India, just a bit lower than the Pro Kabaddi League, and two and a half times more than the FIFA World Cup. It was also reported that 57% of the viewers were women and children and that the Star Sports website gained 32 million visits during the tournament.
The league experienced a sharp growth in ratings after the 2016 season with over 216 million viewers on television throughout. The 2016 final between ATK and the Kerala Blasters reportedly drew 41 million viewers which was a 41% increase on the number of viewers who saw the 2015 final between Chennaiyin and Goa. Ratings in rural India meanwhile drew 101 million viewers.
For the 2017–18 season, Star Sports broadcast the league on Star Sports 2 and Star Sports 2HD in English. The broadcasters also televised the matches in Hindi and Tamil and through various regional channels in different languages. The league was also streamed online via Hotstar, Star Sports' online streaming service.
At of the end of the 2019–20 season, 11 different clubs have competed in the league, with three having won the Indian Super League final, and one winning the League Winners Shield.
|Year||League Champions||Final Score||Runners-up||League Premiers
|2014||Atlético de Kolkata||1–0||Kerala Blasters||Did not exist||Elano (Chennaiyin)||8|
|2015||Chennaiyin||3–2||Goa||Stiven Mendoza (Chennaiyin)||13|
|2016||Atlético de Kolkata||1–1 (4–3)||Kerala Blasters||Marcelinho (Delhi Dynamos)||10|
|2019–20||ATK||3–1||Chennaiyin||Goa (39)||ATK (34)|| Roy Krishna (ATK)
Nerijus Valskis (Chennaiyin)
Bartholomew Ogbeche (Kerala Blasters)
League championships by team
(League Winners Shield) [a]
|ATK||3||2014, 2016, 2020||0||—|
Statistics below are for all-time leaders. Bold denotes players still playing in the Indian Super League.
- As of 14 March 2020
At the conclusion of each season, the league presents the following awards:
- Sarkar, Monica (6 May 2013). "While Indian football sleeps, its young hopefuls dream of playing abroad". CNN. Archived from the original on 5 August 2017. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
- Mergulhao, Marcus (29 October 2014). "Asia's Oldest Football Event Gets New Home". Times of India. Archived from the original on 12 October 2017. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
- Milles, James; Dimeo, Paul (2001). Soccer in South Asia: Empire, Nation, Diaspora.
- "AIFF's I-League to have 10 teams". Rediff. 21 November 2007. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
- Dhar, Pulasta (6 January 2016). "The fall of the I-league". Livemint. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
- "Zee Sports in football deal". DNA India. 26 September 2005. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
- Bali, Rahul (10 October 2010). "Three Member Committee To Negotiate With Zee To End The Contract". Goal.com. Archived from the original on 30 August 2017. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
- "AIFF signs 700-crore deal with IMG-RIL". Times of India. Archived from the original on 30 May 2014. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
- "Reliance, Star India, IMG Set to Launch ISL". Indian Super League. 21 October 2013. Archived from the original on 13 March 2016. Retrieved 12 August 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- "Indian Super League postponed". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 30 August 2014. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
- Rao, K Shriniwas. "Indian Super League postponed by six months". Times of India. Archived from the original on 15 May 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
- "Bidding process for Indian Super League opens on March 3". NDTV Sports. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
- "Football league bids kick off with a roar". Business-Standard. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
- "Sachin Tendulkar, Sourav Ganguly foray into football, win ISL bids". Times of India. Archived from the original on 2 November 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
- Loiwal, Manogya. "Kolkata franchise of Indian Super League launched, christened Atletico de Kolkata". India Today. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
- Mallick, Jayanta. "Antonio Lopez Habas declared as franchise-based football team coach". The Hindu Businessline. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
- "Atletico De Kolkata signs Luis Garcia for Indian Super League". Economic Times. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
- Crocker, Sam (7 October 2014). "Indian Super League: club-by-club guide to the inaugural season". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 24 June 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
- Jitendran, Nikhil (8 August 2014). "Bengaluru ISL franchise Christened as 'Bangalore Titans' – report". Goal.com. Archived from the original on 16 February 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
- Marar, Nandakumar (21 August 2014). "ISL: Chennai replaces Bangalore, Kerala Blasters pick Michael Chopra". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
- "City ISL Team Christened Chennaiyin FC". New Indian Express. 18 September 2014. Archived from the original on 23 January 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
- Bera, Kaustav (12 October 2014). "Atletico de Kolkata 3–0 Mumbai City FC: Garcia stars for Ganguly's side". Goal.com. Archived from the original on 30 December 2014. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
- "ISL: Atletico de Kolkata beat Kerala Blasters 1–0 to win title". Times of India. 20 December 2014. Archived from the original on 26 December 2014. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
- "ISL gets official recognition as top division league".
- "For us there is one league and it is the I-League: FIFA". Rediff. 16 October 2014. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
- Countinho, Austin (30 October 2016). "ISL could create the next football revolution. But first, there's a lot of work to be done". FirstPost. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
- Judge, Shahid (9 June 2017). "Players push for simulataneous ISL, I-League". Indian Express. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
- Sen, Debayan (12 June 2017). "Monday night football: ISL 1, I-League 0". ESPN. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
- Bali, Rahul (10 June 2017). "STEPHEN CONSTANTINE: ISL, I-LEAGUE RUNNING PARALLELY IS BEST FOR INDIA". Goal.com. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
- Mergulhao, Marcus (18 May 2016). "I-League is dead, long live the ISL: AIFF". Times of India. Archived from the original on 12 October 2017. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
- "Still no consensus on ISL, I-League merger despite high-profile meet". Times of India. 7 June 2017. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
- "ISL gets official recognition from AFC, becomes second national football league". FirstPost. 28 June 2017. Archived from the original on 2 January 2018. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
- "AFC COMPETITIONS COMMITTEE'S DECISIONS PUBLISHED". The Asian Football Confederation. 25 July 2017. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
- "Indian Super League to invite bids for new teams". Times of India. 11 May 2017. Archived from the original on 5 August 2017. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
- "ISL expanded to 10 teams, Bengaluru FC one of them". Times of India. 12 June 2017. Archived from the original on 21 June 2017. Retrieved 13 June 2017.
- "Indian Super League 2017–18 full schedule: ATK vs Kerala Blasters in ISL opener". Hindustan Times. 22 September 2017. Archived from the original on 26 September 2017. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
- Laghate, Gaurav (29 September 2018). "IMG exits Indian Super League, Reliance Industries ups stake to 65%". Economic Times. Archived from the original on 29 September 2018. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
- "Indian Super League: Two-Time Champions Chennaiyin FC Announce Squad For 2019-20 Season". Outlook India. 3 October 2019. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
- "ISL 2019-20: Full schedule, fixtures, format, timing in IST, complete squad lists". The Statesman. 20 October 2019. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
- "Indian Football: ISL's table-toppers to be awarded League Winners Shield, cash prize of Rs 50 lakh". Scroll.in. 19 February 2020. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
- "ISL 2019-'20 playoffs: Here are the scenarios explained as top four race goes down to the wire". Scroll.in. 18 February 2020. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
- "ISL 2019-20: Schedule announced for semi-finals and final". The Bridge. 28 January 2019. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
- Bali, Rahul (9 June 2017). "Indian Football: ISL gets recognition from AFC and FIFA". Goal.com. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
- "ISL teams eligible for AFC Cup, I-League winners get Champions League play-off spot". Deccan Chronicle. 26 July 2017. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
- "AFC Cup Qualifier: Bengaluru FC to Meet Transport United FC". News 18. 29 November 2017. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
- "ISL champions Chennaiyin FC face Colombo FC in AFC Cup debut". India Today. 5 March 2019. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
- "AFC Executive Committee approves AIFF's roadmap for Indian football". The Hindu. 26 October 2019. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
- "Indian football: ISL league winner set to gain direct entry in AFC Champions League". Scroll.in. 18 December 2019. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
- "Who will win the remaining AFC Cup slots from ISL and I-League?". ESPN India. 28 February 2020. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
- "FC Goa becomes first Indian club to qualify for AFC Champions League". The Hindu. 19 February 2020. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
- Saharoy, Shilarze (12 March 2018). "Chennaiyin to face Aizawl in Super Cup on March 31". Times of India. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
- Sarmah, Bhargab (29 April 2018). "I-League & Indian Super League: India's dual league conundrum". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
- Parasar, Swapnaneel (3 March 2019). "Super Cup 2019: Qualifiers on March 15, final on April 13 in Bhubaneshwar". Goal.com. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
- "Extended league will help ISL connect with fans better: Nita Ambani". Times of India. 21 July 2017. Archived from the original on 25 July 2017. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- Mergulhao, Marcus (28 August 2019). "ISL club Pune City FC shuts shop; Hyderabad gets top-tier side". Times of India. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
- "ATK Mohun Bagan will not to do away with the iconic green and maroon jersey". Telegraph India. 9 July 2020. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
- "ISL franchise Delhi Dynamos confirms move to Odisha". Hindustan Times. 31 August 2019. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
- "Salt Lake Stadium set to be full house as Bangladesh take on India in Bengal". New Indian Express. 14 October 2019. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
- "Bengaluru FC – Venue". Indian Super League. Archived from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
- "Jawaharlal Nehru stadium - Chennai". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 December 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Kumar, Nidheesh (31 October 2019). "GMC Balayogi Stadium in good shape for new ISL season". Telangana Today. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
- "JRD Tata Sports Complex". Indian Super League. Archived from the original on 17 November 2017. Retrieved 30 November 2017.
- "Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, Kochi". ISL. Archived from the original on 16 November 2017. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
- "Mumbai Football Arena". Indian Super League. Archived from the original on 2 June 2017. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
- "Indira Gandhi Athletic Stadium". ISL. Archived from the original on 27 June 2017. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
- "Odisha FC – Venue". indiansuperleague.com. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
- Reevell, Patrick (27 November 2014). "With a New League, a Sport's Sleeping Giant Begins to Stir". New York Times. Archived from the original on 5 April 2015. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
- "Indian Super League Announces New Franchise Owners in Its Journey to Revolutionize Indian Football". IMG. 14 April 2014. Archived from the original on 14 May 2015. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
- Mergulhao, Marcus (13 August 2014). "Now, Sun Group opts out of Indian Super League". Times of India. Archived from the original on 17 August 2014. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
- "Abhishek Bachchan unveiled as ISL's Chennai franchise owner". Times of India. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
- Rajan, Adwaidh (2 June 2016). "Kerala Blasters' new owners try to strike a chord". New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 7 July 2016. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
- Gupta, Harsh (3 October 2014). "Home stadiums of the eight franchisees in the Indian Super League". SportsKeeda. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "ISL 2016: Mumbai City FC to shift base from DY Patil Stadium to Andheri Sports Complex". FirstPost. 26 August 2016. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- Noronha, Anselm (21 August 2016). "Atletico de Kolkata get a new home ground for ISL 2016". Goal.com. Archived from the original on 30 August 2017. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- "ISL 2017–18: When and where to watch, coverage on TV and live streaming". FirstPost. 17 November 2018. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
- "Hero named title sponsor of Indian Super League". Times of India. 18 July 2014. Archived from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Puma to provide ISL match balls". The Hindu. 30 September 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "fifa pro certified nivia Ashtang is the official football for hero Indian super league". Archived from the original on 12 September 2018. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
- Dhar, Pulasta (3 October 2015). "Central sponsorship doubles to Rs 100 cr as 2015 promises better football, bigger battles". FirstPost. Archived from the original on 3 September 2016. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
- Menon, Bendu (4 October 2016). "More brands back ISL in Season 3". The Hindu Businessline. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- "Indian Super League 2016 ropes in 10 sponsors; teams get deal renewals". Exchange4Media. 6 October 2016. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- Laghate, Gaurav (23 July 2017). "Hero MotoCorp renews ISL sponsorship deal for 3 years for $25 million". Economic Times India Times. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- "Hero Indian Super League trophy unveiled". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 24 August 2017. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
- "IMG Reliance invites bids for Indian Super League football teams". Indian Television. 3 March 2014. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Indian Super League to be broadcast across 8 television channels in 5 languages". SportsKeeda. 19 September 2014. Archived from the original on 2 May 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "During opening week 170 million Indian TV viewers tuned in to ISL". FirstPost. 24 October 2014. Archived from the original on 30 May 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- Teja Sharma, Ravi (31 December 2014). "Indian Super League viewership surpasses FIFA World Cup". Economic Times. Archived from the original on 21 February 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- Parasar, Swapnaneel (3 January 2017). "Almost One-sixth of India's population tuned in to watch the 2016 season". Goal.com. Archived from the original on 30 August 2017. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- "ISL 2017–18: When and where to watch, coverage on TV and live streaming". FirstPost. 17 November 2018. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
- "Indian Super League Top Goalscorers". worldfootball.net.
- "Indian Super League Appearance Leaders". worldfootball.net.
- "Player Stats". indiansuperleague.com.
- "Player Stats". indiansuperleague.com.
- "ISL 2020 final, ATK vs Chennaiyin, as it happened: Hernandez's brace helps ATK secure third title". Scroll.in. 14 March 2020. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Indian Super League.|