Chhattisgarhi (Devanagari: छत्तीसगढ़ी) or Chhattisgarhi Hindi is a language spoken in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh, by 24 million people. It is an Eastern Hindi language with heavy vocabulary and linguistic features from Munda and Dravidian languages. Chhattisgarhi is also known as Dakshin Kosali and Dakshin Hindi as in ancient times Chhattisgarh was in the region Dakshina Kosala region of ancient India. Chhattisgarhi has been known by the name Khaltahi to surrounding hill-people and by the name Laria to speakers in neighboring regions of Odisha to Chhattisgarh. The speakers are concentrated in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh and in adjacent areas of Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, and Jharkhand. Chhattisgarhi cultural and political movements, with origins from the 1920s, affirmed Chhattisgarhi linguistic and cultural identity and sought greater autonomy within India. It was 1 November, 2000 when 16 districts in the state of Madhya Pradesh became the new state of Chhattisgarh.
|Region||Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Odisha, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh|
17 million (2011 census)|
|Devanagari and formerly Odia alphabet|
Chhattisgarhi is most closely related to other Kosali group of languages known as Bagheli and Awadhi (Avadhi), and these languages are classified in the East Central Zone of the Indo-Aryan languages or Kosali Language Group, the Indian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Its precise relationship to Hindi is complex and as with other members of the Hindustani dialect continuum, its status as a dialect or separate language is to some degree a judgment call. According to the Indian Government, Chhattisgarhi is an eastern dialect of Hindi, but it is classified as a separate language in Ethnologue.
Chhattisgarhi has five different main dialects on the basis of geographical division:
- Kedri (Central) Chhattisgarhi
- This is purest form Chhattisgarhi, which is spoken in most of the Mahanadi Basin. Kedri Chhattisgarhi is uninfluenced by any other languages except Hindi. Mostly spoken in Bilaspur, Durg, Bemetara, Raipur, Rajnandgaon, Dhamtari, Kanker district of Chhattisgarh.
- Utti (Eastern) Chhattisgarhi
- Utti Chhattisgarhi, also known as Laria, is mostly spoken in Raigarh, Mahasamund, Gariaband, Raipur district of Chhattisgarh.
- Budati / Khaltahi (Western) Chhattisgarhi
- Marathi-language influence can be seen in Khaltahi Chhattisgarhi. Mostly spoken in Balaghat (Madhya Pradesh) and Kabirdham, Bemetara district of Chhattisgarh.
- Bhandar (Northern) Chhattisgarhi
- Also known as Sargujia Chhattisgarhi, it is mostly spoken in Koria, Surajpur, Sarguja, Jashpur, Balrampur district of Chhattisgarh.
- Rakshahun (Southern) Chhattisgarhi
- Mostly spoken in Dandkaranya region (Bastar) of Chhattisgarh. Godi and Halbi are other dialects which are widely spoken.
Eastern Hindi dialects consist of Chhattisgarhi, Awadhi and Bagheli. All three dialects are closely related to each other. Chhattisgarhi, due to its heavy indigenous vocabulary and grammar, has always been treated as a distinct language. Awadhi and Bagheli are very closely associated with each other, Bagheli due to its regional association from Baghelkhand are considered as different dialects, otherwise it is considered a southern form of Awadhi.
In addition to Chhattisgarhi Proper, the dialects of Chhattisgarhi are Baighani, Bhulia, Binjhwari, Kalanga, Kavardi, Khairagarhi, Sadri Korwa, and Surgujia. Surgujia is considered by some to be a distinct language.
Chhattisgarhi Language DayEdit
Chhattisgarhi Language Day (Chhattisgarhi Diwas) is celebrated every year on November 28 across the Indian states of Chhattisgarh. This day is regulated by the State Government.
After the formation of the new state, films in Chhattisgarhi attracted artists everywhere around India. World-renowned vocalist Lata Mangeshkar and many others have sung songs in Chhattisgari. As the film industry is growing at a fast pace, it is now popularly known as Chhollywood.
- G. A. Zograph: Languages of South Asia, 1960 (translated by G.L. Campbell, 1982), Routledge, London.
- "Statement 1: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues - 2011". www.censusindia.gov.in. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2018-07-07.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Chhattisgarhi". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Chhattisgarhi at Ethnologue (16th ed., 2009)
- Pathak, Dewangan, Rijuka, Somesh. "Natural Language Chhattis garhi: A Literature Survey" (PDF). International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) – Volume 1 2 N umber 2 - Jun 2014. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
- Subodh Kapoor (2002). The Indian Encyclopaedia: La Behmen-Maheya. Cosmo Publications. pp. 4220–. ISBN 978-81-7755-271-3.
- Subodh Kapoor (2002). The Indian Encyclopaedia: India (Central Provinces)-Indology. Cosmo Publications. pp. 3432–. ISBN 978-81-7755-268-3.
- Surgujia at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- C. K. Chandrakar, "Chhattisgarhi Shabadkosh"
- C. K. Chandrakar, "Manak Chhattisgarhi Vyakaran"
- C. K. Chandrakar, "Chhattisgarhi Muhawara Kosh"
- Chhattisgarh Rajbhasha Aayog, "Prashashnik Shabdkosh Voll. I & II"
Web magazine of Chhattisgarhi language गुरतुर गोठ