Chhattisgarhi language

Chhattisgarhi (Devanagari: छत्तीसगढ़ी) or as (Laria/Loriya in Odia: ଲରିଆ;ଛତିଶଗଡ଼ି ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by 18 million people in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh. It is closely related to Awadhi, Bagheli and Odia.

Chhattisgarhi
छत्तीसगढ़ी, छत्तिसगढ़ी , ଛତିଶଗଡ଼ି
Native toIndia
RegionChhattisgarh and minor areas in Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Odisha, Maharashtra
Native speakers
18 million, partial count, including Surgujia (2011 census)[1]
(additional speakers counted under Hindi)
Devanagari
Odia
Official status
Official language in
 India
Language codes
ISO 639-3Either:
hne – Chhattisgarhi
sgj – Surgujia
Glottologchha1249[2]
Linguasphere59-AAF-ta

Chhattisgarhi has been known by the name Khaltahi to surrounding hill-people and by the name Loriya to speakers in neighboring regions of Odisha to Chhattisgarh.[citation needed] The speakers are concentrated in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh and in adjacent areas of Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, and Jharkhand. Chhattisgarhi cultural and political movements, with origins from the 1920s, affirmed Chhattisgarhi linguistic and cultural identity and sought greater autonomy within India. It was finally given statehood on 1st November 2000.

ClassificationEdit

Chhattisgarhi is most closely related to other Eastern Hindi languages such as Bagheli and Awadhi, forming part of the East-central zone of the Indo-Aryan languages.

Some linguists also treat Chhattisgarhi and Sadri as dialects of Odia.[3]

Its precise relationship to Hindi is complex, and as with other members of the Hindustani dialect continuum, its status as a dialect or separate language is to some degree a judgment call. According to the Indian Government, Chhattisgarhi is an eastern dialect of Hindi[citation needed], but it is classified as a separate language in Ethnologue.

VocabularyEdit

Eastern Hindi dialects consist of Chhattisgarhi, Awadhi, and Bagheli. All three dialects are closely related to each other. Chhattisgarhi, due to its heavy indigenous vocabulary and grammar, has always been treated as a distinct language. Awadhi and Bagheli are very closely associated with each other. Bagheli has been treated as separate from Awadhi due to its regional association with Baghelkhand; otherwise, it is considered a southern form of Awadhi.

Comparison of word list
English Chhattisgarhi Awadhi Bagheli
and अउ (au) अउर (aur) अउर (aur)
father ददा (dada) बाप (bapa) बाबू (dadu)
right जेवनी (jevani) दाहिना (dahina) दाए (dae)
tree रुख (rukh) पेड़ (ped) पेड़ (ped)
you तें,तेहा (tum, teha) तें (tu) तय (tayu)
come आवव (aavav) आओ (aao) आ (aa)
good बने (bane) बढ़िया (badiya) बढ़िया (badiya)
name नाव (naav) नाम (naam) नाम (naam)
pond तरिया (tariya) तालाब (talaba) तलाउ (talaua)

DialectsEdit

Chhattisgarhi has five different main dialect clusters on the basis of geographical division:

  1. Kedri (Central) Chhattisgarhi
    This is purest form Chhattisgarhi, which is spoken in most of the Mahanadi Basin. Kedri Chhattisgarhi is uninfluenced by any other languages except Hindi. It is mostly spoken in the Bilaspur, Durg, Bemetara, Raipur, Rajnandgaon, Dhamtari, and Kanker Districts of Chhattisgarh.
  2. Utti (Eastern) Chhattisgarhi
    Utti Chhattisgarhi, also known as Laria, is mostly spoken in the Raigarh, Mahasamund, Gariaband, and Raipur Districts of Chhattisgarh.
  3. Budati / Khaltahi (Western) Chhattisgarhi
    Marathi-language influence can be seen in Khaltahi Chhattisgarhi. It is mostly spoken in the Balaghat District of Madhya Pradesh and in the Kabirdham and Bemetara Districts of Chhattisgarh.
  4. Bhandar (Northern) Chhattisgarhi
    Also known as Sargujia Chhattisgarhi, it is mostly spoken in the Koria, Surajpur, Sarguja, Jashpur, and Balrampur Districts of Chhattisgarh.
  5. Rakshahun (Southern) Chhattisgarhi
    Mostly spoken in Dandkaranya region (Bastar) of Chhattisgarh. Godi and Halbi are other dialects which are widely spoken here.

In addition to Chhattisgarhi Proper, other dialects of Chhattisgarhi are Baighani, Bhulia, Binjhwari, Kalanga, Kavardi, Khairagarhi, Sadri Korwa, and Surgujia. Surgujia is considered by some to be a distinct language.[4]

WritingEdit

Chhattisgarhi, like Hindi, is written using the Devanagari script, although it used to be written using the Odia script.

Chhattisgarhi Language DayEdit

Chhattisgarhi Language Day (Chhattisgarhi Diwas) is celebrated every year on November 28 across the Indian state of Chhattisgarh. This day is regulated by the state government.

Film industryEdit

After the formation of the new state, films in the Chhattisgarhi language attracted artists everywhere around India. Kahi Debe Sandesh (1965) directed and produced by Manu Nayak was the first Chhattisgarhi or Chollywood film. World-renowned vocalist Lata Mangeshkar, Mohammad Rafi and many others have sung songs in Chhattisgarhi. As the film industry is growing at a fast pace, Chhattisgarhi-language cinema it is now popularly known as Chhollywood. [5][6]

See alsoEdit

SourcesEdit

  • G. A. Zograph: Languages of South Asia, 1960 (translated by G.L. Campbell, 1982), Routledge, London.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 16.3 million for Chhattisgarhi and 1.74 million for Surgujia.
    Chhattisgarhi at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
    Surgujia at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Chhattisgarhi". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Nava Kishor Das (2012). Odisha. Seagull. p. 111. ISBN 978-81-7046-293-4. An Odia dialect.
  4. ^ Surgujia at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  5. ^ https://www.patrika.com/raipur-news/chhattisgarhi-comedy-shiv-kumar-deepak-5672179/
  6. ^ https://archive.org/details/JhamkatNadiyaBahiniLage

BibliographyEdit

  • C. K. Chandrakar, "Chhattisgarhi Shabadkosh"
  • C. K. Chandrakar, "Manak Chhattisgarhi Vyakaran"
  • C. K. Chandrakar, "Chhattisgarhi Muhawara Kosh"
  • Chhattisgarh Rajbhasha Aayog, "Prashashnik Shabdkosh Vol. I & II"

Web magazine in Chhattisgarhi language गुरतुर गोठ

External linksEdit