Chhattisgarhi language

Chhattisgarhi (छत्तीसगढ़ी / ଛତିଶଗଡ଼ି) is an Indo-Aryan language, spoken by approximately 16 million people from Chhattisgarh & other states.[2] It is mostly spoken in the Indian states of Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh & Maharashtra. It is closely related to (and counted by the Indian national census as a dialect of) Hindi.

Chhattisgarhi
छत्तीसगढ़ी, ଛତିଶଗଡ଼ି,
ଲରିଆ
Native toIndia
RegionChhattisgarh and minor Odisha, Maharashtra
Native speakers
18 million, partial count, including Surgujia (2011 census)[1]
(additional speakers counted under Hindi)
Dialects
Devanagari
Odia
Language codes
ISO 639-3Either:
hne – Chhattisgarhi
sgj – Surgujia
Glottologchha1249
Linguasphere59-AAF-ta

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Retroflex Post-alv./
Palatal
Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɳ ɲ ŋ
Stop/
Affricate
voiceless p t ʈ k
aspirated ʈʰ tʃʰ
voiced b d ɖ ɡ
breathy ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
Fricative s h
Trill/Tap voiced r ɽ
breathy ɽʱ
Lateral voiced l
breathy
Approximant ʋ j
  • /r/ can also be heard as a tap [ɾ].

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
High
ɪ ʊ
Mid ə
ɛ ɔ
Low
  • /ə/ can also be heard as back [ʌ], [ɐ].
  • Nasalization is also phonemically distinctive.

See alsoEdit

SourcesEdit

  • G. A. Zograph: Languages of South Asia, 1960 (translated by G.L. Campbell, 1982), Routledge, London.
  • H. L. Kavyopadhyaya, G. A. Grierson and L. P. Kavya-Vinod. 1921. A grammar of the Chhattisgarhi dialect of Eastern Hindi.
  • Masica, Colin P. 1993. The Indo-Aryan languages. (Cambridge Lamguage Surveys.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Boehm, Kelly Kilgo. 2022. A Preliminary Sociolinguistic Survey of the Chhattisgarhi-Speaking Peoples of India. SIL International.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 16.3 million for Chhattisgarhi and 1.74 million for Surgujia.
    Chhattisgarhi at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
    Surgujia at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
  2. ^ "Languages of Chhattisgarh". Chhattisgarh Tourism. Archived from the original on 2018-04-12. Retrieved 2021-10-14.

BibliographyEdit

  • C. K. Chandrakar, "Chhattisgarhi Shabadkosh"
  • C. K. Chandrakar, "Manak Chhattisgarhi Vyakaran"
  • C. K. Chandrakar, "Chhattisgarhi Muhawara Kosh"
  • Chhattisgarh Rajbhasha Aayog, "Prashashnik Shabdkosh Vol. I & II"

External linksEdit