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The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages, are a major language family of the Indian subcontinent. They constitute a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages, itself a branch of the Indo-European language family. In the early 21st century, Indo-Aryan languages were spoken by more than 800 million people, primarily in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.[2] Moreover, there are large immigrant and/or expatriate Indo-Aryan speaking communities in Northwestern Europe, Western Asia, North America and Australia. There are about 219 known Indo-Aryan languages.[3]

Indo-Aryan
Indic
Geographic
distribution
Indian subcontinent
Linguistic classificationIndo-European
Proto-languageProto-Indo-Aryan
ISO 639-2 / 5inc
Linguasphere59= (phylozone)
Glottologindo1321[1]
Major Indo-Aryan languages.png
1978 map showing geographical distribution of the major Indo-Aryan languages. (Urdu is included under Hindi. Romani, Domari, and Lomavren are outside the scope of the map.) Dotted/striped areas indicate where multilingualism is common.
  Central
  Dardic
  Eastern
  Northwestern
  Southern
  Western

The largest in terms of speakers are Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu, about 329 million),[4] Bengali (242 million),[5] Punjabi (about 100 million)[6] and other languages, with a 2005 estimate placing the total number of native speakers at nearly 900 million.[7]

Contents

History

Proto-Indo-Aryan

Proto-Indo-Aryan, or sometimes Proto-Indic, is the reconstructed proto-language of the Indo-Aryan languages. It is intended to reconstruct the language of the pre-Vedic Indo-Aryans. Proto-Indo-Aryan is meant to be the predecessor of Old Indo-Aryan (1500–300 BCE) which is directly attested as Vedic and Mitanni-Aryan. Despite the great archaicity of Vedic, however, the other Indo-Aryan languages preserve a small number of archaic features lost in Vedic.

Indian subcontinent

Old Indo-Aryan

The earliest evidence of the group is from Mitanni Indo-Aryan.[8] The only evidence of it is a few proper names and specialized loanwords.[8]

Rigvedic Indo-Aryan has been used in the ancient preserved religious hymns of the Rigveda, the earliest Vedic literature.

From the Rigvedic language, "Sanskrit" (literally "put together", meaning perfected or elaborated) developed as the prestige language of culture, science and religion, as well as the court, theatre, etc. Sanskrit is, by convention, referred to by modern scholars as 'Classical Sanskrit' in contradistinction to the so-called 'Rigvedic Sanskrit', which is largely intelligible to Sanskrit speakers.[citation needed]

Middle Indo-Aryan (Prakrits)

Mitanni inscriptions show some middle Indo-Aryan characteristics along with Old Indic, for example sapta in old Indo-Aryan becomes satta ('pt' is transformed into middle indo aryan 'tt'). According to S.S. Misra this language can be similar to Buddhist hybrid sanskrit which might not be a mixed language but an early middle Indo-Aryan occurring much before prakrit.[n 1][n 2]

Outside the learned sphere of Sanskrit, vernacular dialects (Prakrits) continued to evolve. The oldest attested Prakrits are the Buddhist and Jain canonical languages Pali and Ardhamagadhi Prakrit, respectively. By medieval times, the Prakrits had diversified into various Middle Indo-Aryan languages. Apabhraṃśa is the conventional cover term for transitional dialects connecting late Middle Indo-Aryan with early Modern Indo-Aryan, spanning roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. Some of these dialects showed considerable literary production; the Śravakacāra of Devasena (dated to the 930s) is now considered to be the first Hindi book.

The next major milestone occurred with the Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent in the 13th–16th centuries. Under the flourishing Turco-Mongol Mughal Empire, Persian became very influential as the language of prestige of the Islamic courts due to adoptation of the foreign language by the Mughal emperors. However, Persian was soon displaced by Hindustani. This Indo-Aryan language is a combination with Persian, Arabic, and Turkic elements in its vocabulary, with the grammar of the local dialects.

The two largest languages that formed from Apabhraṃśa were Bengali and Hindustani; others include Assamese , Sindhi, Gujarati, Odia, Marathi, and Punjabi.

New Indo-Aryan

Dialect continuum

The Indo-Aryan languages of North India and Pakistan form a dialect continuum. What is called "Hindi" in India is frequently Standard Hindi, the Sanskritized version of the colloquial Hindustani spoken in the Delhi area since the Mughals. However, the term Hindi is also used for most of the central Indic dialects from Bihar to Rajasthan. The spoken New Indo-Aryan dialects from Assam in the east to the borders of Afghanistan in the west form a linguistic continuum across the plains of North India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.

Medieval Hindustani

In the Central Zone Hindi-speaking areas, for a long time the prestige dialect was Braj Bhasha, but this was replaced in the 19th century by the Khariboli-based Hindustani. Hindustani was strongly influenced by Sanskrit and Persian, with these influences leading to the emergence of Modern Standard Hindi and Modern Standard Urdu as registers of the Hindustani language.[9][10] This state of affairs continued until the division of the British Indian Empire in 1947, when Hindi became the official language in India and Urdu became official in Pakistan. Despite the different script the fundamental grammar remains identical, the difference is more sociolinguistic than purely linguistic.[11][12][13] Today it is widely understood/spoken as a second or third language throughout South Asia[14] and one of the most widely known languages in the world in terms of number of speakers.

Mitanni-Aryan

Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni exhibit an Indo-Aryan superstrate, suggest that a Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrians in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion. In a treaty between the Hittites and the Mitanni, the deities Mitra, Varuna, Indra, and the Ashvins (Nasatya) are invoked. Kikkuli's horse training text includes technical terms such as aika (eka, one), tera (tri, three), panza (pancha, five), satta (sapta, seven), na (nava, nine), vartana (vartana, turn, round in the horse race). The numeral aika "one" is of particular importance because it places the superstrate in the vicinity of Indo-Aryan proper as opposed to Indo-Iranian or early Iranian (which has "aiva") in general[15]

Another text has babru (babhru, brown), parita (palita, grey), and pinkara (pingala, red). Their chief festival was the celebration of the solstice (vishuva) which was common in most cultures in the ancient world. The Mitanni warriors were called marya, the term for warrior in Sanskrit as well; note mišta-nnu (= miẓḍha, ≈ Sanskrit mīḍha) "payment (for catching a fugitive)" (M. Mayrhofer, Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen, Heidelberg, 1986–2000; Vol. II:358).

Sanskritic interpretations of Mitanni royal names render Artashumara (artaššumara) as Ṛtasmara "who thinks of Ṛta" (Mayrhofer II 780), Biridashva (biridašṷa, biriiašṷa) as Prītāśva "Whose Horse is Dear" (Mayrhofer II 182), Priyamazda (priiamazda) as Priyamedha "whose wisdom is dear" (Mayrhofer II 189, II378), Citrarata as Citraratha "Whose Chariot is Shining" (Mayrhofer I 553), Indaruda/Endaruta as Indrota "helped by Indra" (Mayrhofer I 134), Shativaza (šattiṷaza) as Sātivāja "Winning the Race Price" (Mayrhofer II 540, 696), Šubandhu as Subandhu "Having Good Relatives" (a name in Palestine, Mayrhofer II 209, 735), Tushratta (tṷišeratta, tušratta, etc.) as *tṷaiašaratha, Vedic Tvastar "Whose Chariot is Vehement" (Mayrhofer, Etym. Wb., I 686, I 736).

Romani, Lomavren, and Domari languages

Domari

Domari is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by older Dom people scattered across the MENA. The language is reported to be spoken as far north as Azerbaijan and as far south as central Sudan, in Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Iraq, Palestine, Israel, Jordan, Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Syria and Lebanon.[16] Based on the systematicity of sound changes, we know with a fair degree of certainty that the names Domari and Romani derive from the Indo-Aryan word ḍom.[17]

Lomavren

Lomavren is a nearly extinct mixed language, spoken by the Lom people, that arose from language contact between a language related to Romani and Domari[18] and the Armenian language.

Romani

The Romani language is usually included in the Western Indo-Aryan languages.[19] Romani—spoken mainly in various parts of Europe—is conservative in maintaining almost intact the Middle Indo-Aryan present-tense person concord markers, and in maintaining consonantal endings for nominal case—both features that have been eroded in most other modern languages of Central India. It shares an innovative pattern of past-tense person concord with the languages of the Northwest, such as Kashmiri and Shina. This is believed to be further proof that Romani originated in the Central region, then migrated to the Northwest.

There are no known historical documents about the early phases of the Romani language.

Linguistic evaluation carried out in the nineteenth century by Pott (1845) and Miklosich (1882–1888) showed that the Romani language is to be classed as a New Indo-Aryan language (NIA), not Middle Indo-Aryan (MIA), establishing that the ancestors of the Romani could not have left India significantly earlier than AD 1000.

The principal argument favouring a migration during or after the transition period to NIA is the loss of the old system of nominal case, and its reduction to just a two-way case system, nominative vs. oblique. A secondary argument concerns the system of gender differentiation. Romani has only two genders (masculine and feminine). Middle Indo-Aryan languages (named MIA) generally had three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter), and some modern Indo-Aryan languages retain this old system even today.

It is argued that loss of the neuter gender did not occur until the transition to NIA. Most of the neuter nouns became masculine while a few feminine, like the neuter अग्नि (agni) in the Prakrit became the feminine आग (āg) in Hindi and jag in Romani. The parallels in grammatical gender evolution between Romani and other NIA languages have been cited as evidence that the forerunner of Romani remained on the Indian subcontinent until a later period, perhaps even as late as the tenth century.

Classification

There can be no definitive enumeration of Indic languages because their dialects merge into one another. The major ones are illustrated here; for the details, see the dedicated articles.

The classification follows Masica (1991) and Kausen (2006).

Percentage of Indo-Aryan speakers by native language:

  Hindustani (including Hindi and Urdu) (25.4%)
  Bengali (20.7%)
  Punjabi (9.4%)
  Marathi (5.6%)
  Gujarati (3.8%)
  Bhojpuri (3.1%)
  Maithili (2.6%)
  Odia (2.5%)
  Sindhi (1.9%)
  Others (25%)

Dardic

Kashmiri - 5.6 million speakers
Shina
Pashayi - 400,000 speakers
Kunar
Chitral
Kohistani

Northern Zone

Central Pahari
Eastern Pahari

Northwestern Zone

Dogri - 4 million speakers
Himachali
Punjabi
Sindhi

Western Zone

Ethnologue lists the following languages under the Western Zone that are not already covered in other subgroups:[20]

Rajasthani
  • Rajasthani proper - 25.8 million speakers
  • Bagri - 2.1 million speakers
Marwari - 22 million speakers
Malvi - 5.6 million speakers
Gujarati
Bhil
Khandeshi - 1.9 million speakers
Domari - 4 million speakers
Romani - 1.5 million speakers

Central Zone (Madhya or Hindi)

 
Indic, Central Zone

Parya - 4,000 speakers

Western Hindi
Eastern Hindi

Parya historically belonged to the Central Zone but lost intelligibility with other languages of the group due to geographic distance and numerous grammatical and lexical innovations.

Eastern Zone

These languages derive from Magadhan Apabhraṃśa Prakrit.

Bihari
Tharu - 1.9 million speakers
Odia (ଓଡ଼ିଆ) - 33 million speakers
Halbic
Bengali–Assamese (বাংলা-অসমীয়া)

Southern Zone languages

This group of languages developed from Maharashtri Prakrit. It is not clear if Dakhini (Deccani, Southern Urdu) is part of Hindustani along with Standard Urdu, or a separate Persian-influenced development from Marathi.

Marathi-Konkani

Insular Indic

  • Mahl - 10,000 speakers

The Insular Indic languages share several characteristics that set them apart significantly from the continental languages.

Unclassified

The following languages are related to each other, but otherwise unclassified within Indo-Aryan:

Kuswaric[21]

Chinali–Lahul Lohar[22]

The following other poorly attested languages are listed as unclassified within the Indo-Aryan family by Ethnologue 17:

Also Degaru, Mina, Bhalay and Gowlan are all names for the Gowli caste, rather than a language.

Kholosi

The Kholosi language is a more recently discovered Indo-Aryan language spoken in two villages in southern Iran and remains currently unclassified.

Phonology

Consonants

Stop positions

The normative system of New Indo-Aryan stops consists of five points of articulation: labial, dental, "retroflex", palatal, and velar, which is the same as that of Sanskrit. The "retroflex" position may involve retroflexion, or curling the tongue to make the contact with the underside of the tip, or merely retraction. The point of contact may be alveolar or postalveolar, and the distinctive quality may arise more from the shaping than from the position of the tongue. Palatals stops have affricated release and are traditionally included as involving a distinctive tongue position (blade in contact with hard palate). Widely transcribed as [tʃ], Masica (1991:94) claims [cʃ] to be a more accurate rendering.

Moving away from the normative system, some languages and dialects have alveolar affricates [ts] instead of palatal, though some among them retain [tʃ] in certain positions: before front vowels (esp. /i/), before /j/, or when geminated. Alveolar as an additional point of articulation occurs in Marathi and Konkani where dialect mixture and others factors upset the aforementioned complementation to produce minimal environments, in some West Pahari dialects through internal developments (*t̪ɾ, > /tʃ/), and in Kashmiri. The addition of a retroflex affricate to this in some Dardic languages maxes out the number of stop positions at seven (barring borrowed /q/), while a reduction to the inventory involves *ts > /s/, which has happened in Assamese, Chittagonian, Sinhala (though there have been other sources of a secondary /ts/), and Southern Mewari.

Further reductions in the number of stop articulations are in Assamese and Romany, which have lost the characteristic dental/retroflex contrast, and in Chittagonian, which may lose its labial and velar articulations through spirantization in many positions (> [f, x]). [23]

Stop series Language(s)
/p/, //, /ʈ/, //, /k/ Hindi, Punjabi, Dogri, Sindhi, Gujarati, Bihari, Maithili, Sinhala, Odia, Standard Bengali, dialects of Rajasthani (except Lamani, NW. Marwari, S. Mewari)
/p/, //, /ʈ/, /ts/, /k/ Nepali, dialects of Rajasthani (Lamani and NW. Marwari), Northern Lahnda's Kagani, Kumauni, many West Pahari dialects (not Chamba Mandeali, Jaunsari, or Sirmauri)
/p/, //, /ʈ/, /ts/, //, /k/ Marathi, Konkani, certain W. Pahari dialects (Bhadrawahi, Bhalesi, Padari, Simla, Satlej, maybe Kulu), Kashmiri
/p/, //, /ʈ/, /ts/, //, //, /k/ Shina, Bashkarik, Gawarbati, Phalura, Kalasha, Khowar, Shumashti, Kanyawali, Pashai
/p/, //, /ʈ/, /k/ Rajasthani's S. Mewari
/p/, //, /t/, /ts/, //, /k/ E. and N. dialects of Bengali (Dhaka, Mymensing, Rajshahi)
/p/, /t/, /k/ Assamese
/p/, /t/, //, /k/ Romani
//, /ʈ/, /k/ (with /i/ and /u/) Sylheti
//, /t/ Chittagonian

Nasals

Sanskrit was noted as having five nasal-stop articulations corresponding to its oral stops, and among modern languages and dialects Dogri, Kacchi, Kalasha, Rudhari, Shina, Saurasthtri, and Sindhi have been analyzed as having this full complement of phonemic nasals /m/ /n/ /ɳ/ /ɲ/ /ŋ/, with the last two generally as the result of the loss of the stop from a homorganic nasal + stop cluster ([ɲj] > [ɲ] and [ŋɡ] > [ŋ]), though there are other sources as well.[24]

Charts

The following are consonant systems of major and representative New Indo-Aryan languages, as presented in Masica (1991:106–107), though here they are in IPA. Parentheses indicate those consonants found only in loanwords: square brackets indicate those with "very low functional load". The arrangement is roughly geographical.

Romani
p t (ts) k
b d (dz) ɡ ɡʲ
tʃʰ
m n
(f) s ʃ x (fʲ)
v (z) ʒ ɦ
ɾ l
j
Shina
p ʈ ts k
b ɖ ɖʐ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tsʰ tʃʰ tʂʰ
m n ɳ ɲ ŋ
(f) s ʂ ɕ
z ʐ ʑ ɦ
ɾ l ɽ
w j
Kashmiri
p ʈ ts k t̪ʲ ʈʲ tsʲ
b ɖ ɡ d̪ʲ ɖʲ ɡʲ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tsʰ tʃʰ pʲʰ t̪ʲʰ ʈʲʰ tsʲʰ kʲʰ
m n ɲ
s ʃ
z ɦ ɦʲ
ɾ l ɾʲ lʲ
w j
Saraiki
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ
m n ɳ ɲ ŋ
ɳʱ
s (ʃ) (x)
(z) (ɣ) ɦ
ɾ l ɽ
ɾʱ lʱ ɽʱ
w j
Punjabi
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
m n ɳ ŋ
(f) s ʃ
(z) ɦ
ɾ l ɽ ɭ
[w] [j]
Nepali
p ʈ ts k
b ɖ dz ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tsʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dzʱ ɡʱ
m n ŋ
s ʃ ɦ
ɾ l
ɾʱ lʱ
[w] [j]
Assamese
p t k
b d ɡ
ɡʱ
m n ŋ
s x
z ɦ
ɹ l
[w]
Sylheti
ʈ (tʃ) k
b ɖ (dʒ) ɡ
m n ŋ
f s (ʃ) x
z ɦ
ɾ l ɽ
[w]
Sindhi
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ
m n ɳ ɲ ŋ
ɳʱ
s (ʃ) (x)
(z) (ɣ) ɦ
ɾ l ɽ
ɾʱ lʱ ɽʱ
w j
Marwari
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
ɓ ɗ̪ ɗ ɠ
m n ɳ
s ɦ
ɾ l ɽ ɭ
w j
Hindustani
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
m n
(f) s (ʃ)
(z) ɦ
ɾ l ɽ
ɽʱ
([w]) ([j])
Assamese
p t k
b d g
ɡʱ
m n ŋ
s x
z ɦ
ɹ l
[w]
Bengali
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
m n
ʃ ɦ
ɾ l ɽ
[w] [j]
Gujarati
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
m n ɳ
ɳʱ
s ʃ ɦ
ɾ l ɭ
ɾʱ lʱ
w j
Marathi
p ʈ ts k
b ɖ dz ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dzʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
m n ɳ
s ʃ ɦ
ɾ l ɭ
ɾʱ lʱ
w j
Odia
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
m n ɳ
s ɦ
ɾ l [ɽ] ɭ
[ɽʱ]
[w] [j]
Sinhala
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
ᵐb ⁿ̪d̪ ᶯɖ ᵑɡ
m n ɲ ŋ
s ɦ
ɾ l
w j

Language and dialect

In the context of South Asia, the choice between the appellations "language" and "dialect" is a difficult one, and any distinction made using these terms is obscured by their ambiguity. In one general colloquial sense, a language is a "developed" dialect: one that is standardised, has a written tradition and enjoys social prestige. As there are degrees of development, the boundary between a language and a dialect thus defined is not clear-cut, and there is a large middle ground where assignment is contestable. There is a second meaning of these terms, in which the distinction is drawn on the basis of linguistic similarity. Though seemingly a "proper" linguistics sense of the terms, it is still problematic: methods that have been proposed for quantifying difference (for example, based on mutual intelligibility) have not been seriously applied in practice; and any relationship established in this framework is relative.[25]

Language comparison chart

(Note: Hindi and Urdu is in the same column as well as Chittagonian and Rohingya)

English Sanskrit Gujarati Rajasthani Marathi Hindustani Punjabi Sindhi Bengali Dhivehi Sylheti Chittagonian,
Rohingya
Kashmiri Konkani Bhojpuri Odia Sambalpuri Odia Assamese Maithili Sinhala Nepali Pali Romani Saraiki Garhwali Pahari
beautiful sundara sundar futaro sundara sundar sohnā suhɳā šundor,sudarshon reethi shundor cúndor, hásin sondar chand, sundar suhnar, sundar, khapsoorat sundara sundar dhuniya, xundôr sundar sonduru, sundara, lassana sundar sundaro shukar sohnra bigrelu sohna
blood rakta, loha, lohita, shoNita lohi, khoon, rakt ragat rakta khūn, rakta, lahū lahū, ratt ratu rokto, lohit, lohu ley roxto, lou lou, hún, kún ratth rakt, ragat khūn, lahū rakta, lahu, rudhira Rakat, Ruder tez shonit le, rudiraya, ruhiru ragat ratta rat laho, rat loee hoon
bread rotika, polika paũ, roṭlā falko poḷi, bhākarī chapātī, roṭī parautha, roṭi pʰulko, maanī (pau-)ro̊ŧi roshi ruti, luf fiçá, luthi tçhot rot, poḷo, poḷi, chapati, pav roṭī pauruṭi, ruti Ruti, Paanruti pauruti, ruti roṭi, sohāri paan, roti roṭī, paũroṭi, manřo roti, ma(n)ri, dhodha Palakā ruti
bring anayati lā-v lajyo ān- lā- lyā ɖe an- geney an- ainn- ann haad lāv- Aanantu, Aana, Aane Aanan, Aana, Aan an- ān ghenna lyaunu an- ghin aa, Lai aa l'hāṇu an-
brother bhrātṛ, bandhu, sahodara bhāi beero, bhayo, veer bhāu, bandhu bhāī prā, pāh bʱau bhai, bhaiya beybe bai, baiya bái boéy bhav, bhau bhāī, bhaīyā bhai, bhaina Bhe, Dada bhai (bhaiti, bhayek), dada, kaka/kokai bhé, bhaīyā sahodarayā, bæyā bhāi (younger)
dāi, dāju, dādā, dājai (elder
phral bhrā, vīr, lala bhullā (younger)
bhaaji , dada (elder)
praa (brother), paapa (elder)
come āgachchhati āv- av- ā- ā, āo, ājā ach aš- aadhey a- ai-, laa- vall yo, ye āv- āsantu, ās-, ā- āsun, Aa ah- abhin,āu enna, ena āunu āgachcha āv- āo āunu , aenu aa, ach
cry roditi, rauti, krandati raḍ- rodno, roosno raḍ- rō- rō- rōaɳ kãd, kand-, rodan kor-, kann ruin xand-, xañ- hañd- wódun rad- ro- kanda, Krandana kaandna kand- kan- aňdanawa, haňdanawa runu rodanam rov- rovanra Tyon̄cyānu ro-
dark andhaḥkāra andhārũ gairo andhāra, kāḷokha andhera hanerā ôndʱah ondhokar, ãdhar andhiri andair añdár, miyonda anyí-got andhakar, andhar, kalok anhār, anhera andhāra, Andhakara andhār andhar, ôndhôkar anhār aňduru, andhakara, kaluwara andhyaro, andhakāra andhakaaro kalo andhara cukāpaṭṭa nehra
daughter duhitṛ, putrī chhokḍi sagi, sago, chori lek, mulagī, poragī beṭi dʱī dʱī meye, beṭi manje furi, zi maia, zíi, futúni koor dhuv dhiyā, beṭi, chhori, bitiya jhiya jhi, Tukil ziyôri, zi (ziyek) dhiā duva, dū, diyaniya chhori nauni chhai Dhee nauni
day divasa, dina divas dina, din divas, din din din, dihara ɖīhn din, diboš, diwoš dhuvas din din dóh dis, din, divas din dina, Dibasa Din din din dinaya, dawasa din dives denh, jehara dus
do kṛ-, karoti kar- kar- kar- kar- kar- kar- kor- kurun xor- hor- kar kor kar- kara- kar- kôr- kôr karanna garnu ker- karo karnu- , kornu- , kernu- kar-
door dvāra, kapāṭa darvāzo, kerel kivand dār, darvāzā darvāzā, kavad būha, dar, darvāza darvāzo dorja, duar dhoru dorza, doroza Duar, doroza darwaaz, dār, daer ("window") daar, kavad, bagilu darvājā, kevadi daraja, Dwara, kabata Kapat, Dwar duwar, dôrza kebār dora, dwāraya dhoka (v)udar buha, dar dār, darvāzā darvāzā
die mṛ-, glah- mar- mar- mar- mar-, mar jā- mar-, mar ja- mar- mor-, more ja- maru mor-, mori za- fóut marun mar mu, mar ja mar- mar- môr-, môri za- môr maranaya, märena marnu mer- marna gudaknu mar-, fohth
egg aṇḍa, ḍimba iṇḍũ ando aṇḍa anḍā aṇḍe aṇɖo, bedo đim bis dim, enda, boida andha, dhim thool ande, motto anḍā anḍā, ḍimba anḍā, ḍim, Gaar kôni anḍā bittharaya, biju aṇḍā (y)anřo, (v)anřo anda, aana andar anda
salt kṣāra, sala, lavaṇa mithu loon mīṭh, lavaṇa, loṇ namak lūn/nūn namak lūn lobon, nun lonu lobon, nun, nimox nun noon mith, loni noon/namak labana, Luna Noon nimôkh, nun, lôbôn nūn lunu nun khar/lavan lon loon/noon loonn loon
earth pṛthvi, mahi, bhuvana, dharitrī pruthvi dharti, basudhara pruthvi, dharaṇi prithvī, dhartī, zamīn dhartī dhartī prithibi, duniya, dhora dhuniye, bin dunwai, dunya, zomin duniyai daertī (voiced-aspirated /dh/ > /d/) dhartari, zamin, bhui, pruthvi jamīn, pirthvi pruthibi, Dhara, Dhartiri, Dharani Pruthi, Dharni prithiwi pruthuvi, polova, bhoomi, bima prithivi phuv zameen, dharti pirathi
eye netra, lochna, akshi, chakshu āñkh aankharli ḍoḷā, netra āñkh akh akh chokh, āñkhi, noyon loa souk suk aéchh dolo āñkh ākhi, netra, nayana ayenk sôku ainkh äsa, akshi, neth, nuwan ānkhā yakh akh āñkh akhi
father pitṛ, janaka, tāta bāp baap, kaako pitā, vaḍil, bāba bāp piyō, pite, pita, abba piu, baba baba, abba, bap bappa abba, abbu, baba, baf abbá mol, bab bapuy, anna, aan bāp, bābuji, pitāji bāpa, bābā bāpā, Bua dêuta, bap (bapek) bābū piyā, thātthā buwā, bāu, pitā dad, babo abbā, piyoo Bubā abba, abbu
fear bhaya, bhīti, traasa bik, ḍar bhau bhītī, bhaya, dhāsti, ghabarāṭ ḍar, ghabrāhat ḍar, bhau ɖapu bhoy, đor biru dor dor dar bhay ḍar ḍara, Bhaya ḍar, Bhee bhoy bhay baya, biya, bhīthiya dar dar, trash darr tatalāṭa , dor , der dar
finger añguli, añguliyaka āñgḷi aangli bōṭ anguli, ungli ungal, ungli āngur angul, onguli ingili angul ouñl ungij bot, aangal anguri ānguthi āngthi aŋuli āngur äňgili aunlā angusht ungil angulee angli
fire agni, bhujyu agni, jvaḷa baste āag, agni, jāḷa, vistava āg agg bāh agoon alifaan agun ooin agénn, nār ujo (from Sanskrit udyota), aag, agni āgh agni, nia Joye, nia zui āig agni, gini, gindara āgo manta yag bhaa dipakāru , dimakāru agh
fish matsya māchhli maachhali māsā, māsaḷi machhlī machhī machhī māch mas mās mas gāda nuste, masoli, jalkay machhri māchha māch mass māch masun, mathsya, mālu māchā machho machhey māchu , maachhee machee
food bhojana, khadati, anna, posha(Na), āhāra, etc. anna, khorāk, poshaṇ khaano, lyojibhaya jēvana, bhojan, anna, āhār khānā, bhojan khānā khādho, ann, māni khabar, khani kaana xani hána, háñna khyann jevan, anna, khana khana, bhojan khādya, bhojana, āhāra āhāra, Khed, Bhojan ahar, khaiddyô, khuwa bostu khenāi āhāra, kæma, bojun, bhojana khānā, anna, āhār xabe(n) roti-tukkur, khanra naaj , jimman , jafhat , khadbad khana
go gachchhati, yāti jā- jā- jā- jā- jā- vaɲ ja- dhey za- za- gatçh vach (from Vedic Ach) jāntu, Ja- jāun, Ja- zu-, za- jāhin yanna, yana janu, jā ja- vanj janu, jā ja-
god deva, īśvara, parmeśvara, devata, bhagavān, prabhu parmeshvar, dev, bhagvān isar, bavji, dai deva, parmeshwara, ishwara bhagvān, parmeshvar, ishvar, khudā pagvān, rab, ishwar, parmesar bhagvān, parmeshvar, ishvar, khudā, sāin, mālik bhogoban, ishhor, rob, khoda raskalaange bogowan, rob, xuda, ixor, ila, rob dai, divta, bagvān, parmeeshar dev, sarvesvar bhagvān, mālik, iswar, daiva, daiya bhagabāna, ṭhākura, diyan Maphru, bhagbān, Devta, dewôta, bhôgôwan bhagvān devi, dēvathāvā bhagawān, deutā, ishwor Del, Devel rab, mālik dyāpta , dyabta
good shobhna, uttama sārũ chokho chāngle, chhān, uttama achhā changa suʈʰo bhalo rangalhu bala bála rut (moral "good"), jān (physical "good") bare, chand, layak badhiya, changa, achha bhāla Bane, bhāl bhal neek, neeman hoňdhai, hoňda raamro, asal lachho, mishto changa khoob , bhalu , asad changa
grass tṛṇa, kusha ghāsthāro chaaro gavata, taṇ ghās ghāh ghãhu ghaš vina gash, gah kérr dramunn taṇ (from Prakrit tiṇa, Sanskrit tṛṇa) ghās ghāsa Jhaar, ghāns ghãh ghās, duib thana, thruna ghaas, dubo char ghā ghasyood ghaah
hand hasta hāth haat hāt hāth hath hatʰu haat aiyy aat árt atth haat hāth hāta hāt, Bahu hat hāth atha, hasthaya hāt vast hat hāth aath
head śira, mastaka, kapāla, mūrdhā māthũ sir, maatha ḍoke, munḍake, mātha, shīr, mastaka, tāḷke, sir, shīsh sir, sīs matʰo matha, shir boa matha matá kalla maate (from Prakrit matthao, Sanskrit Mastaka) sīr, šīs, kapār munḍa Mud mur, matha māth, mūri oluwa, sirasa, hisa tauko, seer shero, shoro ser Kapāḷa , mund sir
heart hrdaya hruday hivado, kaljo hrudaya, kāḷij dil, hriday, antar dil, riday dil dil, hridoy, ontor hiyy dil, ontor dil ryeda Hadde, Hardey (From Sanskrit Hrdaya), Hrdaya dil, hivara, jiyara hrudaya hurud hridoy, hiya hada, hardaya, hadawatha hridaya, mutu (y)ilo, (v)ilo Dil jikudu , dil , jitamo dil
horse ashva, ghotaka, hayi, turanga ghoḍũ ghodo ghoḍa ghoṛa koṛa ghoɽʱo ghoɍa as ghuɍa gúñra, gúra gur ghodo ghoṛa ghoda ghoda ghůra ghodā ashvaya, thuranga ghodā khoro, grast ghora guntt khora
house gṛha, alaya ghar ghar, taaparo ghar kār ghôr ɡʱar, jaɡʱah ghor ge' ghor gor ghar ghar ghar ghara, Gruha ghar ghôr ghôr, gedhara, gruha gruhaya, geya, gedara, niwasa ghar, griha kher ghar gher , ghor , koodi , kar
hunger bubuksha, kshudhā bhukh bhukh bhūk bhūkh pukh bhūkhayal bhukh, khida banduhai bhuk búk bo'tchh bhuk bhūkh bhoka bhok bhuk bhūkh kusagini, badagini bhok bokh bhuk bhūka , bhukkhi , bhūkhu pukh
language bhāshā, vāNī bhāshā boli, zaban bhāshā bhāshā, zabān, baat boli, zabān, pasha ɓoli, bhasha, zabān bhaša bas basha, zobān, maat báca booyl, zabān bhasha, bhas bhākhā, boli, jubaan bhāsā bhāsā bhaxa bhāshā bhashawa, basa bhāshā chhib boli, zaban bhasa bhaak zabaan
laugh (v.) hāsa, smera has- has- hās- hãs- hassa kʰillu haš, hãš hunun ash- áñc- assun has- has- hãs- hās- hãh- hôs hina, sinaha, sina hasnu (h)as- khill hasnu as-
life jivana, jani jivan, jindagi bhav jīvan, jīv jīvan, zindagī jindrī, jīvan, jind zindagī ɉibon, zindegi dhiriulhun zibon, zindegi zibon, zindigi zoo, zindagayn jivit, jivan jinigi jibana, prāna jiban ziwôn jiban jeevithe, jivana jeewan, jindagi jivipe(n), jivdipe(n), juvdipe(n), jivoto zindgey ji'ōna , jivan
moon chandramā, soma, māsa chandra, chāndo chaan, chando chandra chandramā, chandā, chānd chann, chānd chanɖ cãd, condro, chand handhu sand san, zun tçandram chandra, chandrim channa, channarma, mah chandra, Janha Jan, JanhaMamu zunbai, zun, sôndrô jonhi, chan chandra, saňdu, haňda chandramā, juun chhon, chhonut, masek chandr joon, jo
mother janani, mātṛ mā, bā mai, ma āi, māi mā, mata, mai, bebe māo, amma ma, amma, ammu mamma ma, amma, ammu amma maeyj amma, mai matāri, māi, amma mā, bou ai, ma mawa, amma, matha, mæni āmā, muwā, mumā, mātā dai amma, maa maa , bvai, jiya, maidi, maayadi, janadaaree amma, ammi
mouth ās, mukha moḍhũ, mukha moondo tonḍ, mukha, thobāḍ mūñh mūñh, mukh mūñh, vāt mukh anga muk cuuñçi, gal mūñh tond, mukh mūñh mukha, Paati Tund, Paati mukh mūh mukha, kata mukh, thutuno mui khabaad , khaab , gichcha , gichchi , gichchoo , thuntheer , thobadu mu
name nāma nām naam nāv nām nālo nam nan naam nam naav naav nā, nām nāma, nā nam nām nama, nāmaya nām nav, anav naun na
night raatri, rajani, nishā, naktam, etc. rāt, rātri, nishā raati, raat rātra rāt, rātri, nishā rāt rāt rat, ratri, nishi reygandu rait, ratri, shob rait, lailat raath raat, ratri rāt rāti, Ratri, Nishi Rayet rati rāit rāthriya, ræ raati, raat, raatri ŕat raat rāt , raat raat
open uttana, udhatita khullũ khulyuda ughaḍ, khol khulā khulla, khol khol khulā hulhuvaa kulā kúilla khol ughad, ukt-, udhaar khullā kholā kholā khula khujal harinna khulla putardo, phravdo khulla ughadnu, kholnu khulla
peace shānti shānti, shāntatā shaanti shānti shānti, aman shānti, aman, sakūn shānti, aman, sukoon šanti sul'ha shanti cánti aman, shaenti shanti, santatay sānti-sakoon, aman sānti sānti xanti shānti sāmaya, shāntiya shaanti lachhipe(n) aman, sakoon tapp , juppi , Nimāṇi
place stapana, sthala, bhu, sthāna jagyā, sthaļ jageh sthān, sthaḷ, jāga sthān, jagah thāñ, asthān jaɠah, thāñ ɉaega, sthan, zomin than zega, zaga, zomin zaga jaay jaag, thal jagah jāgā jāgā thai tthām sthanaya, thäna thaaun, jagga, sthal than jaga thāṇ , jaga jaga
queen rāni, rājpatni rāṇi, madhurāṇi raani rāni, rājmātā rāni, malkā rāni, malka rāɳi rani ranin rani rani māhraeny (also used for "newly-wed bride") raani rāni, begam rāṇi rāṇi rani rāni räjina, dēvi, bisawa rāni rani, thagarni ranri, malka rāni , thakarvāṇi , thakaravāṇi
read pathati, vachana vānch- baanch- vāch- paṛh- paṛh- paɽʱ- poṛh- kiun for- for- parun vajji/vaach paṛh- paḍh- paḍdh- pôrh- pôdh kiyawanna padh- gin-, ginav- parhnra, parh padhnu , banchnu par-
rest vishrāma ārām aaraam vishrānti ārām arām ārām aram, bišrom araamu araam aram, ziro araam aaraam rām ārām, bisrām thāk, bisrām aram, zirôni arām vishrāma, viwēka ārām, bishrām achhipe(n) Araam dhāmaun , ḍhyēmaun raam
say vadati, braviti, brūté, bōl- bōl- bōl-, mhaṇ-, sāng- bōl, ākh, keh bôl-, keh chao bol-, koh- buney xo- hoó-, bul- bōl- mhan, sang, ulay bol-, kah- kũhantu, Kuha, Kah- Kahan, kaha, kah bāj pawasanna, kiyanna bhannu, bolnu phen-, vaǩer- bol, aakh bōlnu bol-
sister svasṛ, bhagini bêhn bain, bayee, beeri bhaginī, bahīṇ behn pēn bēɳ bon, apa, didi dhahtha boin, afa bóin, bubu, buu baeynn bhaini bahin, didi, didiya bhauṇi, bhagini bahen bhônti, bhôni bôhin sahodariya bahini, didi phen bheinr (younger sister) bhuli , bhulli
(elder sister) deedi
(elder sister) baaji, (sister) pēn
small alpa, laghu, kanishtha, kshudra nāhnũ nāhnũ lahān, laghu chhoṭā nikka, chhoṭā nanɖo cho̊ŧo kuda huru, suto, kuti cóñço lokutt, nyika, pyoonth Saan chhoṭ, nanhi choṭa, sana chot, alap, tike xôru, suti (for short) chhot chuti, podi, kudā saano, chhoto tikno, xurdo nikka, chauta chhvattu , ucchi nika
son sunu, putra chhokḍo choora, betoo mulgā, porgā bēṭā put, puttar puʈ chele, put, bēṭā kalo fua, fut, bēṭā fut nyechu, pothur put putt/chhora pua, putra Po, Pila put (putek) pūt puthra, puthā, puthu chhora, putra chhavo putr naunu jayede puthar
soul ātmā, atasa ātmā aatma ātmā ātmā, rūh ātmā, rūh ātmā, rūh ātmā, rūh furaana ruh, zaan ruú, zan āthmā atma, jeev rūh ātmā ātmā atma ātmā ātmā ātmā ji, di rooh ātmā
sun sūrya sūraj, sūrya suraj sūrya sūrya, sūraj sūraj siju šurɉo iru surzo, shurzo beil, cújjo siri surya sūraj sūrjya sūrjya beli beri, sūrj ira, hiru, sūrya sūrya, ghām kham sijh ghām
ten dasha das das dahā das das, daha ɖaha doš dhihayeh dosh doc duh dha das dasa das dôh dôs dahaya, dasa das desh dah d̪əs das
three trī, trayah, trīNi (neut. nom. pl.) traṇ tiin tīn tīn tin, traiy ʈeh tin thineh teen tin t're teen tīn tini tīn tini tīn thuna tin trin trai tīn tre
village grāma gāñḍu gaaon, dhaani gāv, khēda gāoñ pinḍ, gāñ ɠoʈʰ gram, gaon avah gau, geram fara, gang, gām ganv gāoñ-dehāt, jageer gān, grāma gān gaû gām gama, gramaya gaun gav dehat, jhoauk, vasti gauṁ , gawn
want ichhati, kankshati, amati, apekshati joi- chai- pāhijē, havē chāh- chāh- kʰap, chāh- cha- beynun sa-, lag- lag- yatshun, kan'tchun jaay- chāh- Chanunchi, Loduchi Chounchen bisar-, lag-, khuz- chāhi oone, awashyayi chāhanā, ichhya kam-, mang- chah chaandu , chainnun , chaindu , chaanu
water pāniya, jala pāṇi paani pāṇi pāni, jal pāni, jal pāṇi pani, ɉol fen fani faní poyn, zal (used for "urine" only) udak, uda, pani, jal pāni pāṇi, jala pāyeṇ pani pain jalaya, wathura, pän pāni, jal pani panri pāṇi pani
when kada, ched kyahre kadine kēvhā, kadhee kab kad, kadoñ kaɖahn kokhon, kobe kon iraku kumbala, xobe hoñótté karr kedna, kenna kab kebe Ketebele, kebe ketiya kakhan, kahiyé kawadhāda, kedinada kahile kana, kada, keda kadanr kabbi , kabaar kellai
wind pavana, vāyu, vātā havā, pavan havaa vāra havā, pavan havā, paun. vah havā bataš, haoa vai batash bathác, bouyar tshath, hava vaar hāvā pabana Dhuka, haba, paban bôtãh basāt hulan, sulan, pavana, nala hāwā, batās balval, barval hava, phook bathaun , paun va
wolf vrka, shvaka shiyāl bheriyo kōlha bhēṛhiyā pēṛhiyā ɡidʱar nekre, shiyal hiyalhu hiyal cíal vrukh kolo bhērhiyā gadhiyā Kulia xiyal siyār vurkaya bwānso ruv baghiyaar bheriya
woman nāri, vanitā, strī, mahilā, lalanā mahilā, nāri lugai, aurat bāi, mahilā, stree aurat, strī, mahilā, nāri naar, mutiyar māi mohila, nari, stri anhenaa beti, mohila maiñya zanaan baayal, stree mehraru, aurat, janaani stree, nāri Mayeji môhila, maiki manuh maugi, stri kānthāwa, gähäniya, sthriya, mahilāwa, lalanāwa, liya, laňda, vanīthāwa mahilaa, naari, stree juvli, řomni aurat, treimat, zaal, zanaani byaṭula , kajyāṇṇi janaani
year varsh, shārad varash saal, uun varsh sāl, baras, varsh sāl, varah sāl bocchor, shal, boshor, aharu bosor, sāl bosór váreeh varas sāl, baris, barikh barsa baras, Bachar bôsôr barakh varshaya, vasara barsha bersh saal mainn saal
yes / no hyah, kam / na, ma hā / nā hon/koni hōy, hō, hā / nāhi, nā hāñ / nā, nahīñ hāñ, āho / nā, nahīñ hā/ na hæ, ho, oi / na aan, labba, aadhe / noon, nooney ii, oe / na ói / na aa / ná, ma Vayi/naa hāñ / nā han /Na Hoye/nei hôy / nôhôy hô/nai ow / næ ho / hoina, la / nai va / na ha / na hō, hāan / nā aha/ na
yesterday hyah, gatadinam, gatakāle (gai-)kāl(-e) kaal kāl kal kal kalla (goto-)kal(-ke) iyye (goto-)khail, (goto-)khal, khal(-ke), khail(-ku) hail kāla, rāth kaal kālh (gata-)kāli gala kāli (zuwa-)kali kāilh īyē hijo ij, irati, erati kal n'yāra , byāḷi kal
English Sanskrit Gujarati Rajasthani Marathi Hindi-Urdu Punjabi Sindhi Bengali Dhivehi Sylheti Rohingya,
Chittagonian
Kashmiri Konkani Bhojpuri Odia Sambalpuri Odia Assamese Maithili Sinhala Nepali Pali Romani Saraiki (Southern Punjabi) Garhwali (Garhwali) Pahari(Pahari)

Interrogative pronouns

English Maithili Odia Dhivehi Sanskrit Assamese Kamtapuri Bengali Gujarati Marathi Hindustani Punjabi Sindhi Sylheti Chittagonian,
Rohingya
Kashmiri Nepali Sinhala Romani Garhwali
who Ke kie kaaku kah,kā kün, kai kae ke koṇ, koṇa kōṇa kaun kaun, keṛa ker xe hon ko kavuda kon ku
what Ki, kathi kana, kitho keekey kim ki, kih ki ki śũ kāya kya ki čhā kita ki ke so ki
where Kata kouthi konthaaku kutra kót, keni kóṭe kothay, koi kya kuṭhe kahan kithe kithe xoi, xano hoçé kithé kaham koheda kaj kakh , kakham , kanee
when Kakhan, kahiyé kebe kon iraku Kada ketia, kahani kónbela, kónsomoe kokhon, kobe kyāre kadhī kab kadom kadenh kumbela, kunbala, xobe hoñótté kahile, kab kavada kana / keda kadee
why Kié keno ki , kana lagi , kitho lagi keevve Kimarthaŋ kio, kelei kene, ke keno sa mate kā, kaina kyun kiun chho xene, kitar lagi kiá kina æyi soske kiley
how Kena kemiti kihineh Katham kene, kene (-koi/ke, -kua), kidore keŋka, keŋkori kemon, kibhabe kai rite kasē kaise kive kena kila, xemne keén kasari sar kann , kanukvai , kanake
English Maithili Odia Dhivehi Sanskrit Assamese Kamtapuri Bengali Gujarati Marathi Hindustani Punjabi Sindhi Sylheti Chittagonian
and Rohingya
Kashmiri Nepali Sinhala Romani Garhwali

Personal pronouns

English Sanskrit Maithili Assamese Bengali Gujarati Marathi Hindustani Dhivehi Punjabi Sindhi Sylheti Chittagonian,
Rohingya
Kashmiri Konkani Kamtapuri Bhojpuri Odia Nepali Romani Garhwali
i ɔhɔŋ hɔm moi āmi huṁ, hu ,mein mein aharun maiṁ maa mui, ami ãi, mui aav mui haum mu͂ ma me
we vɔyɔŋ hɔm sɔbh āmi āmrā ame,apane āmhī hum aharumen asīṁ asā amra añára aami hamra, hami aame hāmī amen aami
you (inf) toi tui tu tu kaley, theena Tusīṁ tui tui tui tu taṁ tu tu
you (mid frm) tvɔŋ × tumi tumi tame tūmhī tum Tusīṁ tumi tuñí tui tume timī tumen tami
you (frm) Bhɔvan, Bhɔvɔti ahāñ apuni āpni āp, āpaṅ āp Tusīṁ tāhā afne oñne tumi tomra aapaNa tapāīṁ tumen thaanu , āp
you (inf, pl) × tõ sôbh tohõt tora tuae kaleymen, thimeehun Not used Not used tomra tuáñra Not used Not used tui
you (mid frm, pl) Yūvāŋ × tümalük tomra tamaru tumlog tumitain, tumra tumi tomra tumemaane timīharū tami
you (frm, pl) ahāñ sôbh apünalük apnara tameloko āplog afnain, afnara tumi tomrala aapaNamaane tapāīṁharū āpi , thaanui
he (mid frm) sɔh o xi śe, ō pelo who eyna o ho he, ogu ité to inae, unae se ū, unī, tinī (v)ov, (y)ov
she (mid frm) o tai śe, ō peli who eyna o huā tai, ogu ití ti inae, unae se ū, unī, tinī (v)oy, (y)oy
he (frm) o teü, tekhet tini, uni pelae ve tain, ein uite inae, unae se waha su
she (frm) o teü, tekhet tini, uni palie tain, ein inae, unae se wahāṁ
they (mid frm) te,tā o sɔbh xihõt tara pelaloko wohlog emeehun huā tara itará taani imra, umra semaane unīharū, tinīharū (v)on, (y)on, ol Taaun
they (frm) o sôbh teülük, tekhetxokol tahara pela lokoe ve tara iín imrala, umrala semaane wahāṁharū Taaun
English Sanskrit Maithili Assamese Bengali Gujarati Marathi Hindi Dhivehi Punjabi Sindhi Sylheti Chittagonian,
and Rohingya
Kashmiri Konkani Kamtapuri Bhojpuri Odia Nepali Romani Garhwali

Numerals

Numerals Sanskrit Maithili Marathi Assamese Bengali Gujarati Hindustani Nepali Punjabi[26] Khortha Sylheti Rohingya Romani
0 shunyɔ sunna Shunya xuinyɔ śunnɔ śūny, sifar śūnya sifar ṭeip śuinno sifír nula, khanchi
1 ek ek ek ek êk/æk ek ek ikk aiṛī ex ek (y)ek
2 dvi du dona dui dui do duī do jauṛī, dauṛī, daunā dui dui dui
3 tri teen teena tini tin tīn tīn tinn, tre taiṛī, ṭainā tin tin trin
4 chɔtur chāir chara sari chār cār cār cār, chā ɡhūran, cārā sair sair shtar
5 pɔnchɔn pāñch paacha pās pā̃ch pā̃c pā̃c punj cāyal, mācā fas fãs panj, panch
6 śɔś chhɔ Sahaa sɔe, sɔ chhɔy che cha che caimpā, jheik sóe shov
7 sɔptɔn sāt Saatha xat sāt sāt sāt satt ɡoiyain, jheɡ śat, hat há̃t efta
8 ɔśṭɔn āth Aatha āth āṭ āṭh āṭh aṭh bā̃ṛī, auṭhauī aṭ ãśṭo oxto
9 nɔvɔn Nawu nɔy nau nau nauṃ sutauil, naubhī noe no enya
10 dɔshɔn dɔs Dahaa dɔh, dɔs dɔsh das das dass sihaum doś doś desh
Numerals Sanskrit Maithili Marathi Assamese Bengali Gujarati Hindustani Nepali Punjabi Khortha Sylheti Rohingya Romani

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The Indo-Aryan numerals are found in the treatise on horse training composed by Kikkulis of Mitanni (Section 6.9). They are aikawartanna ( Skt ekavartana) 'one turn of the course', terawartanna ( Skt tre-vartana) 'three turns of the course', sattawartanna ( Skt sapta-vartana) 'seven turns of the course', nawartana with haplology for nawawartana ( Skt nava-vartana) 'nine turns of the course'. The forms of numerals in these words are clearly Indo-Aryan. The form aika- is especially confirmatory. The form satta for Skt sapta- is a clearly Middle Indo-Aryan form. The following linguistic features reveal that the language belongs to an early Middle Indo-Aryan stage or to a transitional stage between Old Indo-Aryan and Middle Indo-Aryan. (i) Dissimilar plosives have been assimilated, for example, sapta satta. Gray quotes the MIA form for comparison, but he is silent about the fact that the borrowing in Anatolian is from MIA (1950: 309). (ii) Semi-vowels and liquids were not assimilated in conjuncts with plosives, semi-vowels or liquids as in 1st MIA, for example, vartana wartana, rathya aratiya-, virya Birya-, Vrdhamva Bardamva. (iii) Nasals were also not assimilated to plosives/nasals, unlike in 1st MIA and like in OIA. This characteristic places the language of these documents earlier than 1st MIA, for example, rukma urukmannu, rtanma artamna. (iv) Anaptyxis was quite frequent, for example, Indra Indara smara mumara. (v) v b initially, for example, virya birya, vrdhasva bardamva. (vi) r ar, for example, rta arta, vrdh bard-. Thus, a linguistic study of the borrowed Indo-Aryan forms in the Anatolian records shows that they are definitely Indo-Aryan and not Iranian nor Indo- Iranian. This also shows that this language belongs to a transitional stage between OIA and MIA. Further, this language is comparable to the language of the Indus seals as deciphered by S. R. Rao. This language is the base for Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit, which was wrongly named Hybrid because of a misconception that it was a mixed language. Thus, the language of Middle Indo-Aryan is much before the Afokan Prakrit. On the basis of the borrowed words in Anatolian records and the language of the Indus seals as deciphered by S. R. Rao the date of MIA may go beyond 2000 BC. The transitional stage between OIA and MIA might have started in 2500 BC. Bryant, Edwin (2001). THE INDO-ARYAN CONTROVERSY Evidence and inference in Indian history. 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. pp. 181–234. ISBN 978-0-203-64188-0.
  2. ^ There is good evidence that in the Old Indic or Indo-Aryan dialect to which the names belong, at the time of the documents, initial v, represented by b, was pronounced like v, while medial v kept its value of semivowel and was pronounced like w. For instance, Birasena(-Virasena), Birya (=Virya). Biryasura (=Viryasura)... 'It seems that in the language to which the names belong, just as in Middle Indic, the group pt had become tt, as in, for instance, Wasasatta(=Vasasapta), Sattawadza(=Saptavaja) and sausatti (=sausapti 'the son of susapti') Dumont, P.E. (October 1947). "Indo-Aryan Names from Mitanni, Nuzi, and Syrian Documents". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 67 (4): 251–253. doi:10.2307/596061. JSTOR 596061.

References

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Indo-Aryan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ "Overview of Indo-Aryan languages". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
  3. ^ "Indo-Aryan Branch - About World Languages". aboutworldlanguages.com.
  4. ^ Standard Hindi first language: 260.3 million (2001), as second language: 120 million (1999). Urdu L1: 68.9 million (2001-2014), L2: 94 million (1999): Ethnologue 19.
  5. ^ Bengali or Bangla-Bhasa, L1: 242.3 million (2011), L2: 19.2 million (2011), Ethnologue
  6. ^ "världens-100-största-språk-2010". Nationalencyclopedin. Govt. of Sweden publication. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
  7. ^ Edwin Francis Bryant; Laurie L. Patton (2005). The Indo-Aryan Controversy: Evidence and Inference in Indian History. Routledge. pp. 246–247. ISBN 978-0-7007-1463-6.
  8. ^ a b Parpola, Asko (2015). The Roots of Hinduism: The Early Aryans and The Indus Civilization. Oxford University Press.
  9. ^ Kulshreshtha, Manisha; Mathur, Ramkumar (24 March 2012). Dialect Accent Features for Establishing Speaker Identity: A Case Study. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-4614-1137-6.
  10. ^ Robert E. Nunley; Severin M. Roberts; George W. Wubrick; Daniel L. Roy (1999), The Cultural Landscape an Introduction to Human Geography, Prentice Hall, ISBN 978-0-13-080180-7, ... Hindustani is the basis for both languages ...
  11. ^ "Urdu and its Contribution to Secular Values". South Asian Voice. Archived from the original on 11 November 2007. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
  12. ^ "Hindi/Urdu Language Instruction". University of California, Davis. Archived from the original on 3 January 2015. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
  13. ^ "Ethnologue Report for Hindi". Ethnologue. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
  14. ^ Otto Zwartjes Portuguese Missionary Grammars in Asia, Africa and Brazil, 1550-1800 Publisher John Benjamins Publishing, 2011 ISBN 9027283257, 9789027283252
  15. ^ Paul Thieme, The 'Aryan' Gods of the Mitanni Treaties. JAOS 80, 1960, 301–17
  16. ^ Matras (2012)
  17. ^ "History of the Romani language".
  18. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2015.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Encyclopedia Iranica
  19. ^ "Romani (subgroup)". SIL International. n.d. Retrieved 15 September 2013.
  20. ^ "Indo-Aryan". Ethnologue.
  21. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kuswaric". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  22. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Chinali–Lahul Lohar". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  23. ^ Masica (1991:94–95)
  24. ^ Masica (1991:95–96)
  25. ^ Masica 1991, pp. 23–27.
  26. ^ "Numbers in Punjabi". www.omniglot.com. Retrieved 9 December 2018.

Further reading

  • John Beames, A comparative grammar of the modern Aryan languages of India: to wit, Hindi, Panjabi, Sindhi, Gujarati, Marathi, Oriya, and Bangali. Londinii: Trübner, 1872–1879. 3 vols.
  • Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh, eds. (2003), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-77294-5.
  • Madhav Deshpande (1979). Sociolinguistic attitudes in India: An historical reconstruction. Ann Arbor: Karoma Publishers. ISBN 0-89720-007-1, ISBN 0-89720-008-X (pbk).
  • Chakrabarti, Byomkes (1994). A comparative study of Santali and Bengali. Calcutta: K.P. Bagchi & Co. ISBN 81-7074-128-9
  • Erdosy, George. (1995). The Indo-Aryans of ancient South Asia: Language, material culture and ethnicity. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-014447-6.
  • Ernst Kausen, 2006. Die Klassifikation der indogermanischen Sprachen (Microsoft Word, 133 KB)
  • Kobayashi, Masato.; & George Cardona (2004). Historical phonology of old Indo-Aryan consonants. Tokyo: Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. ISBN 4-87297-894-3.
  • Masica, Colin (1991), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-29944-2.
  • Misra, Satya Swarup. (1980). Fresh light on Indo-European classification and chronology. Varanasi: Ashutosh Prakashan Sansthan.
  • Misra, Satya Swarup. (1991–1993). The Old-Indo-Aryan, a historical & comparative grammar (Vols. 1–2). Varanasi: Ashutosh Prakashan Sansthan.
  • Sen, Sukumar. (1995). Syntactic studies of Indo-Aryan languages. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Foreign Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.
  • Vacek, Jaroslav. (1976). The sibilants in Old Indo-Aryan: A contribution to the history of a linguistic area. Prague: Charles University.

External links