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Puadhi (Gurmukhi: ਪੁਆਧੀ; Devanagari: पुआधी; IAST: [puādhī], sometimes spelled as Poadhi, Powadhi, or Pwadhi) is a dialect of Punjabi primarily spoken in the Puadh region of northern India.[2] It is spoken between the Sutlej and Ghaggar river basins in the present day states of Punjab and Haryana, and the union territory of Chandigarh.

Puadhi
ਪੁਆਧੀ
Native toIndia
RegionPuadh of eastern Punjab
EthnicityPuadhi Punjabis
Gurmukhī
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottologpowa1244[1]

Puadh extends from Rupnagar near Satluj up to the Ghaggar river and its tributaries, Markanda and Som in the east, which lie in northern Haryana up to Kala Amb in Nahan district of Himachal Pradesh.

To the west it extends into the Puadh tract of Ludhiana where the westernmost spoken varieties of the Puadhi dielect form a continuum with Malwai.[3] Puadhi's western boundary also extends into Fatehgarh Sahib and Patiala districts and its influence is observed in the southwest in the adjacent areas of Kaithal and Kurukshetra districts up to northern areas of Jind distinct such as Ujhana and Dhamtan Sahib and its westernmost boundary extends into parts of Fatehabad district of Haryana.

The language is spoken over a large area in present Punjab as well as Haryana. Puadhi is also spoken in other areas: Kharar, Kurali, Rupnagar, Morinda, Chandigarh, Pail, Rajpura, Samrala in Punjab as well as Ambala, Naraingarh, Sadaura, Panchkula, Shahabad, Barara, Thana Chappar, Saraswati Nagar, Pehowa, North of Kaithal and Tohana etc. in Haryana.

GrammarEdit

  • Genitive postposition: The original Punjabi genitive case particles of ਕਾ kā, ਕੀ kī, ਕੇ ke and ਕੀਆਂ kiān are still found in Puadhi, as compared to most other dialects which use the historically recent ਦਾ dā, ਦੀ dī, ਦੇ de and ਦੀਆਂ diān. Puadhi shares this grammatical trait with neighbouring dialects of Bangru and Bagri. In Punjabi, this form of second case is also observed intermittently in villages that speak Malwai.
  • Ablative postposition: ਤੇ te is the Puadhi equivalent of Majhi ਤੋਂ ton, similarly ਗੇਲੇ gele is used instead of ਨਾਲੋਂ nalon.
  • Topic marker: In addition to ਤੇ te and ਤਾ ta, ਤੋ to and ਤੌ tō are also commonly used. The latter ਤੌ is pronounced as a diphthong when emphasized. All four nominative particles are the same in Puadhi as in Bangru, which spoken to its immediate south.

VocabularyEdit

The Puadhi dialect has many words that differ from other dialects of Punjabi.

 
The Puadhi language is spoken across the region shown in green.

ExamplesEdit

Puadhi Pronunciation in Puadhi Meaning Equivalent Majhi word
ਈਬ [īb] now ਹੁਣ
ਮ੍ਹਾਰਾ [mhārā] our / ours ਸਾਡਾ
ਥਾਰਾ [thārā] your / yours ਤੁਹਾਡਾ
ਯੋ [yo] this ਇਹ
ਨਿਊਂ [nyūn] such / like this ਯੋਂ
ਛੋਕਰਾ [chokrā] boy ਮੁੰਡਾ
ਗੈਲ [gail] with ਨਾਲ
ਹਮੇ / ਹਮ [hamē] / [ham] we ਅਸੀਂ
ਥਮੇ / ਥਮ [thamē] / [tham] you ਤੁਸੀਂ
ਗਾਰਤੀ [gārtī] quickly ਛੇਤੀ
ਲਾਗ [lāg] near ਨੇੜੇ
ਬੋਹਤਾ [bōhtā] much ਬੜਾ
ਪਾਲ਼ਾ [pāɭ̆ā] cold weather ਠੰਡ

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Powadhi". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Punjabi University, Patiala.
  3. ^ Punjab District Gazetteers: Patiala