Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and society's effect on language. It differs from sociology of language, which focuses on the effect of language on society. Sociolinguistics overlaps considerably with pragmatics. It is historically closely related to linguistic anthropology, and the distinction between the two fields has been questioned.
It also studies how language varieties differ between groups separated by certain social variables (e.g., ethnicity, religion, status, gender, level of education, age, etc.) and how creation and adherence to these rules is used to categorize individuals in social or socioeconomic classes. As the usage of a language varies from place to place, language usage also varies among social classes, and it is these sociolects that sociolinguistics studies.
The social aspects of language were in the modern sense first studied by Indian and Japanese linguists in the 1930s, and also by Louis Gauchat in Switzerland in the early 1900s, but none received much attention in the West until much later. The study of the social motivation of language change, on the other hand, has its foundation in the wave model of the late 19th century. The first attested use of the term sociolinguistics was by Thomas Callan Hodson in the title of his 1939 article "Sociolinguistics in India" published in Man in India. Sociolinguistics in the West first appeared in the 1960s and was pioneered by linguists such as William Labov in the US and Basil Bernstein in the UK. In the 1960s, William Stewart and Heinz Kloss introduced the basic concepts for the sociolinguistic theory of pluricentric languages, which describes how standard language varieties differ between nations (e.g. American/British/Canadian/Australian English; Austrian/German/Swiss German; Bosnian/Croatian/Montenegrin/Serbian Serbo-Croatian).
- 1 Applications
- 2 Traditional sociolinguistic interview
- 3 Fundamental concepts
- 4 Differences according to class
- 5 Sociolinguistic variables
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
For example, a sociolinguist might determine through study of social attitudes that a particular vernacular would not be considered appropriate language use in a business or professional setting. Sociolinguists might also study the grammar, phonetics, vocabulary, and other aspects of this sociolect much as dialectologists would study the same for a regional dialect.
The study of language variation is concerned with social constraints determining language in its contextual environment. Code-switching is the term given to the use of different varieties of language in different social situations.
William Labov is often regarded as the founder of the study of sociolinguistics. He is especially noted for introducing the quantitative analysis of language variation and change, making the sociology of language into a scientific discipline.
Traditional sociolinguistic interviewEdit
The sociolinguistic interview is an integral part of collecting data for sociolinguistic studies. There is an interviewer, who is conducting the study, and a subject, or informant, who is the interviewee. In order to get a grasp on a specific linguistic form and how it is used in the dialect of the subject, a variety of methods are used to elicit certain registers of speech. There are five different styles, ranging from formal to casual. The most formal style would be elicited by having the subject read a list of minimal pairs (MP). Minimal pairs are pairs of words that differ in only one phoneme, such as cat and bat. Having the subject read a word list (WL) will elicit a formal register, but generally not as formal as MP. The reading passage (RP) style is next down on the formal register, and the interview style (IS) is when an interviewer can finally get into eliciting a more casual speech from the subject. During the IS the interviewer can converse with the subject and try to draw out of them an even more casual sort of speech by asking him to recall childhood memories or maybe a near death experience, in which case the subject will get deeply involved with the story since strong emotions are often attached to these memories. Of course, the most sought-after type of speech is the casual style (CS). This type of speech is difficult if not impossible to elicit because of the Observer's Paradox. The closest one might come to CS in an interview is when the subject is interrupted by a close friend or family member, or perhaps must answer the phone. CS is used in a completely unmonitored environment where the subject feels most comfortable and will use their natural vernacular without overtly thinking about it.
While the study of sociolinguistics is very broad, there are a few fundamental concepts on which many sociolinguistic inquiries depend.
Speech community is a concept in sociolinguistics that describes a distinct group of people who use language in a unique and mutually accepted way among themselves. This is sometimes referred to as a Sprechbund.
To be considered part of a speech community, one must have a communicative competence. That is, the speaker has the ability to use language in a way that is appropriate in the given situation. It is possible for a speaker to be communicatively competent in more than one language.
Speech communities can be members of a profession with a specialized jargon, distinct social groups like high school students or hip hop fans, or even tight-knit groups like families and friends. Members of speech communities will often develop slang or jargon to serve the group's special purposes and priorities.
Community of Practice allows for sociolinguistics to examine the relationship between socialization, competence, and identity. Since identity is a very complex structure, studying language socialization is a means to examine the micro-interactional level of practical activity (everyday activities). The learning of a language is greatly influenced by family but it is supported by the larger local surroundings, such as school, sports teams, or religion. Speech communities may exist within a larger community of practice.
High prestige and low prestige varietiesEdit
Crucial to sociolinguistic analysis is the concept of prestige; certain speech habits are assigned a positive or a negative value, which is then applied to the speaker. This can operate on many levels. It can be realised on the level of the individual sound/phoneme, as Labov discovered in investigating pronunciation of the post-vocalic /r/ in the North-Eastern USA, or on the macro scale of language choice, as realised in the various diglossia that exist throughout the world, where Swiss-German/High German is perhaps most well known. An important implication of the sociolinguistic theory is that speakers 'choose' a variety when making a speech act, whether consciously or subconsciously.
The terms acrolectal (high) and basilectal (low) are also used to distinguish between a more standard dialect and a dialect of less prestige.
Understanding language in society means that one also has to understand the social networks in which language is embedded. A social network is another way of describing a particular speech community in terms of relations between individual members in a community. A network could be loose or tight depending on how members interact with each other. For instance, an office or factory may be considered a tight community because all members interact with each other. A large course with 100+ students would be a looser community because students may only interact with the instructor and maybe 1–2 other students. A multiplex community is one in which members have multiple relationships with each other. For instance, in some neighborhoods, members may live on the same street, work for the same employer and even intermarry.
The looseness or tightness of a social network may affect speech patterns adopted by a speaker. For instance, Sylvie Dubois and Barbara Horvath found that speakers in one Cajun Louisiana community were more likely to pronounce English "th" [θ] as [t] (or [ð] as [d]) if they participated in a relatively dense social network (i.e. had strong local ties and interacted with many other speakers in the community), and less likely if their networks were looser (i.e. fewer local ties).
A social network may apply to the macro level of a country or a city, but also to the interpersonal level of neighborhoods or a single family. Recently, social networks have been formed by the Internet, through chat rooms, Facebook groups, organizations, and online dating services.
Differences according to classEdit
Sociolinguistics as a field distinct from dialectology was pioneered through the study of language variation in urban areas. Whereas dialectology studies the geographic distribution of language variation, sociolinguistics focuses on other sources of variation, among them class. Class and occupation are among the most important linguistic markers found in society. One of the fundamental findings of sociolinguistics, which has been hard to disprove, is that class and language variety are related. Members of the working class tend to speak less standard language, while the lower, middle, and upper middle class will, in turn, speak closer to the standard. However, the upper class, even members of the upper middle class, may often speak 'less' standard than the middle class. This is because not only class but class aspirations, are important.
Studies, such as those by William Labov in the 1960s, have shown that social aspirations influence speech patterns. This is also true of class aspirations. In the process of wishing to be associated with a certain class (usually the upper class and upper middle class) people who are moving in that direction socio-economically will adjust their speech patterns to sound like them. However, not being native upper-class speakers, they often hypercorrect, which involves overcorrecting their speech to the point of introducing new errors. The same is true for individuals moving down in socio-economic status.
In any contact situation, there is a power dynamic, be it a teacher-student or employee-customer situation, this power dynamic results in a hierarchical differentiation between languages.
Social language codesEdit
Basil Bernstein, a well-known British socio-linguist, devised in his book, 'Elaborated and restricted codes: their social origins and some consequences,' a method for categorizing language codes according to variable emphases on verbal and extraverbal communication. He claimed that factors like family orientation, social control, verbal feedback, and possibly social class contributed to the development of the two codes: elaborated and restricted.
According to Basil Bernstein, the restricted code exemplified the predominance of extraverbal communication, with an emphasis on interpersonal connection over individual expression. His theory places this code within environments that operate according to established social structures that predetermine the roles of their members, in which the commonality of interests and intents due to a shared local identity creates a predictability of discrete intent and therefore a simplification of verbal utterances. Such environments may include military, religious, and legal atmospheres, criminal and prison subcultures, long-term married relationships and friendships between children. Due to the strong bonds between speakers, explicit verbal communication is often rendered unnecessary and individual expression irrelevant. However, simplification is not a sign of a lack of intelligence or complexity within the code; rather, communication is performed more through extraverbal means (facial expression, touch, etc.) in order to affirm the speakers' bond. Bernstein notes the example of a young man asking a stranger to dance: there is an established manner of asking, and yet communication is performed through physical graces and the exchange of glances. As such, implied meaning plays a greater role in this code than in the elaborated code. Restricted code also operates to unify speakers and foster solidarity.
Basil Bernstein defined 'elaborated code' according to its emphasis on verbal communication over extraverbal. This code is typical in environments where a variety of social roles are available to the individual, to be chosen based upon disposition and temperament. Most of the time, speakers of elaborated code utilize a broader lexicon and demonstrate less syntactic predictability than speakers of restricted code. The lack of predetermined structure and solidarity requires explicit verbal communication of discrete intent by the individual in order to achieve educational and career success. Bernstein notes, with caution, the association of this code with upper classes (while restricted code is associated with lower classes), where the abundance of available resources allows persons to choose their social roles, warning, however, that studies associating the codes with separate social classes used small samples and were subject to significant variation. He also asserts that elaborated code originates due to differences in social context rather than intellectual advantages; as such, elaborated code differs from restricted code according to the context-based emphasis on individual advancement over assertion of communal bonds.
The codes and child developmentEdit
Bernstein explains language development according to the two codes in light of their fundamentally different values. For instance, a child exposed solely to restricted code learns extraverbal communication over verbal, and therefore may have a less extensive vocabulary than a child raised with exposure to both codes. While there is no inherent lack of value to restricted code, a child without exposure to elaborated code may encounter difficulties upon entering formal education, in which standard, clear verbal communication and comprehension is necessary for learning and effective interaction both with instructors and other students from differing backgrounds. As such, it may be beneficial for children who have been exposed solely to restricted code to enter pre-school training in elaborated code in order to acquire a manner of speaking that is considered appropriate and widely comprehensible within the education environment.
Additionally, Bernstein notes several studies in language development according to social class. In 1963, the Committee for Higher Education conducted a study on verbal IQ that showed a deterioration in individuals from lower working classes ages 8–11 and 11-15 years in comparison to those from middle classes (having been exposed to both restricted and elaborated codes). Additionally, studies by Bernstein, Venables, and Ravenette, as well as a 1958 Education Council report, show a relative lack of success on verbal tasks in comparison to extraverbal in children from lower working classes (having been exposed solely to restricted code).
The following table illustrates differences in language associated with social position:
(associated with lower classes)
(associated with higher classes)
|It looks like it ain't gonna rain today.||It looks as if it isn't going to rain today.|
|You give it to me yesterday.||You gave it to me yesterday.|
|Y'gotta do it the right way.||You have to do it the right way.|
It is generally assumed that non-standard language is low-prestige language. However, in certain groups, such as traditional working-class neighborhoods, standard language may be considered undesirable in many contexts. This is because the working class dialect is generally considered a powerful in-group marker, and especially for non-mobile individuals, the use of non-standard varieties (even exaggeratedly so) expresses neighborhood pride and group and class solidarity. There will thus be a considerable difference in use of non-standard varieties when going to the pub or having a neighborhood barbecue (lower), and going to the bank (higher) for the same individual.[clarification needed]
Studies in the field of sociolinguistics typically take a sample population and interview them, assessing the realisation of certain sociolinguistic variables.
A commonly studied source of variation is regional dialects. Dialectology studies variations in language based primarily on geographic distribution and their associated features. Sociolinguists concerned with grammatical and phonological features that correspond to regional areas are often called dialectologists.
There are several different types of age-based variation one may see within a population. They are vernacular of a subgroup with membership typically characterized by a specific age range, age-graded variation, and indications of linguistic change in progress.
Variation may also be associated with gender. Men and women, on average, tend to use slightly different language styles. These differences tend to be quantitative rather than qualitative. That is, to say that women use a particular speaking style more than men do is akin to saying that men are taller than women (i.e., men are on average taller than women, but some women are taller than some men).
Another Method is the Matched-guise test. This technique has the listener listen to a pair of words and evaluate them based on personality and dialect. As some groups have shared views on language attitude.
- Anthropological linguistics
- Audience design
- Axiom of categoricity
- Folk linguistics
- Interactional sociolinguistics
- Language ideology
- Language planning
- Language policy
- Language secessionism
- Linguistic landscape
- Linguistic marketplace
- Mutual intelligibility
- Real-time sociolinguistics
- Sociocultural linguistics
- Sociohistorical linguistics
- Sociolinguistics of sign languages
- T–V distinction
- Gumperz, John J.; Cook-Gumperz, Jenny (2008). "Studying language, culture, and society: Sociolinguistics or linguistic anthropology?". Journal of Sociolinguistics. 12 (4): 532–545. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9841.2008.00378.x.
- Paulston, Christine Bratt and G. Richard Tucker, eds. Sociolinguistics: The Essential Readings. Malden, Ma.: Wiley-Blackwell, 2003.
- T. C. Hodson and the Origins of British Socio-linguistics by John E. Joseph Archived 2009-02-10 at the Wayback Machine Sociolinguistics Symposium 15, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, April 2004
- Stewart, William A (1968). "A Sociolinguistic Typology for Describing National Multilingualism". In Fishman, Joshua A (ed.). Readings in the Sociology of Language. The Hague, Paris: Mouton. p. 534. doi:10.1515/9783110805376.531. ISBN 978-3-11-080537-6. OCLC 306499.
- Kloss, Heinz (1976). "Abstandsprachen und Ausbausprachen" [Abstand-languages and Ausbau-languages]. In Göschel, Joachim; Nail, Norbert; van der Elst, Gaston (eds.). Zur Theorie des Dialekts: Aufsätze aus 100 Jahren Forschung. Zeitschrift für Dialektologie and Linguistik, Beihefte, n.F., Heft 16. Wiesbaden: F. Steiner. p. 310. OCLC 2598722.
- Ammon, Ulrich (1995). Die deutsche Sprache in Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz: das Problem der nationalen Varietäten [German Language in Germany, Austria and Switzerland: The Problem of National Varieties] (in German). Berlin & New York: Walter de Gruyter. pp. 1–11. OCLC 33981055.
- Kordić, Snježana (2010). Jezik i nacionalizam [Language and Nationalism] (PDF). Rotulus Universitas (in Serbo-Croatian). Zagreb: Durieux. pp. 77–90. doi:10.2139/ssrn.3467646. ISBN 978-953-188-311-5. LCCN 2011520778. OCLC 729837512. OL 15270636W. . Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 June 2012. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
- Paolillo, John C. Analyzing Linguistic Variation: Statistical Models and Methods CSLI Press 2001, Tagliamonte, Sali Analysing Sociolinguistic Variation Cambridge, 2006
- Deckert, Sharon K. and Caroline H. Vikers. (2011). An Introduction to Sociolinguistics: Society and Identity. Page 59
- Colman, Andrew M. (2009-02-26). A Dictionary of Psychology. OUP Oxford. ISBN 9780191047688.
- Wardhaugh, Ronald (2006), An Introduction to Sociolinguistics, New York: Wiley-Blackwell
- Dubois, Sylvie and Horvath, Barbara. (1998). "Let's tink about dat: Interdental Fricatives in Cajun English." Language Variation and Change 10 (3), pp 245–61.
- Deckert, Sharon K. and Caroline H. Vikers. (2011). An Introduction to Sociolinguistics: Society and Identity. Page 44
- Bernstein, Basil B. (1967). Elaborated and restricted codes: their social origins and some consequences. Bobbs-Merrill. pp. 55–67.
- Committee on Higher Education (1963). Higher Education Appendix One. London: H.M.S.O. Cited in Bernstein 1967.
- Bernstein, Basil (1958). "Some sociological determinants of perception: An enquiry into sub-cultural differences". British Journal of Sociology. 9 (2): 159–174. doi:10.2307/587912. JSTOR 587912.
- Bernstein, Basil (1960). "Language and social class: A research note". British Journal of Sociology. 11 (3): 271–276. doi:10.2307/586750. JSTOR 586750.
- Venables, Ethel (1962). "The reserve of ability in part-time technical college courses". University Quarterly. 17: 60–75. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2273.1962.tb00980.x.
- Ravenette, T. (1963). Intelligence, personality and social class: an investigation into the patterns of intelligence and personality of working-class secondary school children (unpublished PhD thesis). University of London Library.
- Report of the Central Advisory Council for Education (1958). Fifteen to Eighteen. London: H.M.S.O. p. 376. Cited in Bernstein 1967.
- Gumperz, John (1964). "Linguistic and social interaction in two communities". American Anthropologist. 66 (6, part 2): 137–153. doi:10.1525/aa.1964.66.suppl_3.02a00100.
- Trudgill, Peter (1974). The Social Differentiation of English in Norwich. 13. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 56.
- Labov, William (1966). The Social Stratification of English in New York City. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 66.
- Starks, Donna; Paltridge, Brian (1996). "A note on using sociolingustic methods to study non-native attitudes towards English". World Englishes. 15 (2): 217–224. doi:10.1111/j.1467-971X.1996.tb00107.x.
- Chambers, J. K. (2009). Sociolinguistic Theory: Linguistic Variation and Its Social Significance. Malden: Wiley Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-5246-4.
- Darnell, Regna (1971). Linguistic Diversity in Canadian Society. Edmonton: Linguistic Research. OCLC 540626.
- Hernández-Campoy, Juan M. (2016). Sociolinguistic Styles. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-118-73764-4.
- Kadochnikov, Denis (2016). Languages, Regional Conflicts and Economic Development: Russia. In: Ginsburgh, V., Weber, S. (Eds.). The Palgrave Handbook of Economics and Language. London: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 538-580. ISBN 978-1-137-32505-1
- Labov, William (2010). Principles of Linguistic Change (3 volume set ed.). Malden: Wiley Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4443-2788-5.
- Lakoff, Robin Tolmach (2000). The Language War. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-92807-7.
- Meyerhoff, Miriam (2011). Introducing Sociolinguistics. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-135-28443-5.
- Milroy, Lesley; Gordon, Matthew (2008). Sociolinguistics: Method and Interpretation. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-75820-5.
- Paulston, Christina Bratt; Tucker, G. Richard (2010). The Early Days of Sociolinguistics: Memories and Reflections. Dallas: SIL International. ISBN 978-1-55671-253-1.
- Tagliamonte, Sali (2006). Analysing Sociolinguistic Variation. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-77818-3.
- Trudgill, Peter (2000). Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-192630-8.
- Watts, Richard J. (2003). Politeness. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-79406-0.