Kalami (کالامي), also known as Gawri (ګاوری), Garwi, or Bashkarik, is a Dardic language spoken in Swat Kohistan (also called Kalam) region in the upper Swat District and in the upper Panjkora river valley of Upper Dir District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
According to its genealogical classification (Strand, 1973:302 and 2004), Kalami belongs to the Kohistani subgroup of the north-western zone of Indo-Aryan languages, along with several closely related languages in its geographical vicinity: Torwali (in Swat south of Kalam), Indus Kohistani, Bateri, Chilisso, and Gawro (the latter four east of Kalam in Indus Kohistan). Together with a range of other north-western Indo-Aryan mountain languages, these languages are sometimes collectively referred to as ‘Dardic’ languages.
Kalam Kohistani (also called Gawri) is one of about thirty languages that are spoken in the mountain areas of northern Pakistan. Kohistan is a Persian word that means ‘land of mountains’ and Kohistani can be translated as ‘mountain language’. As a matter of fact, there are several distinct languages in the area that are all popularly called Kohistani. The language under study in this paper is spoken in the upper parts of the valley of the Swat River, in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. The name of the principal village of this area is Kalam, and hence the area is known as Kalam Kohistan. In the older linguistic literature, the language of Kalam Kohistan is referred to as Bashkarik (Morgenstierne, 1940), or as Garwi or Gawri (Grierson, 1919; Barth & Morgenstierne, 1958). These names are hardly, if at all, known to the speakers of the language themselves, who normally just call their language Kohistani. However, very recently a number of intellectuals belonging to a local cultural society have started to call their language Gawri, a name that has old historical roots.
The same language is also spoken across the mountains to the West of Kalam Kohistan, in the upper reaches of the Panjkora river valley of Upper Dir District. When added together, the two Kalam-Kohistani-speaking communities comprised over 200,000 people.
/q f z x ɣ/ occur mainly in loanwords. /q f/ tend to be replaced by /x p/, respectively.
After the front vowels /i e a/, the velars /k ɡ ŋ/ are palatalized: [kʲ ɡʲ ŋʲ].
Kalami has 5 contrastive tones: high level, high falling, delayed high falling, low level, low rising.
The default sentence order is SOV, but this can be changed for emphasis.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2008)
Approximately 50% of Kalami words can not be broken down to smaller morphological forms. Of the other half, most words are made up of about two to three morphemes. This language implements many modifications to the stem as opposed to using distinct morpheme additions. For example, many plural words are formed by changing the stem of words as opposed to modifying with a plural morpheme.
|masc. sg.||yant||‘is coming’|
|masc. pl.||yänt||'are coming’|
|fem.||yent||‘is coming, are coming’|
Words can also be modified by suffixes and prefixes.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2016)
- Kalami at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Gawri". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Tone and song in Kalam Kohistani Archived 2007-03-05 at the Wayback Machine
- Baart, J. L. (1999). A sketch of Kalam Kohistani grammar. Studies in Languages of Northern Pakistan. Islamabad: National Institute of Pakistan Studies Quaid-i-Azam University.
- Baart, Joan L.G. (2004). "Constrastive tone in Kalam Kohistani". Linguistic Discovery. 2 (2). doi:10.1349/PS1.1537-0852.A.265.
- Zaman, S. M., & Baart, J. L. (2004). Gaawri zaban-o-adab (Inmal Haq Javed ed.). Islamabad: Department of Pakistani Languages, Allama Iqbal Open University.
- Stahl, J. L. (1988). Multilingualism in Kalam Kohistan.
- Rensch, C. R., Decker, S. J., & Hallberg, D. G. (1992). Patterns of languages use among the Kohistanis of the Swat Valley. Languages of Kohistan. Islamabad, Pakistan: National Institute of Pakistan Studies Quaid-i-Azam University.
- Lothers, M. D. (1996). Deixis in Kalam Kohistani narrative discourse.
- Barth, F., & Morgenstierne, G. (1954). Vocabularies and specimens of some S.E. Dardic dialects. Oslo: Universitets forleget
- Baart, J.L. (2006). Report on local names and uses of plants in Kalam Kohistan. FLI Language and Culture Series, Anthropology.
- Gawri Community Development Programme, contains various materials in and about the language
- The Gawri Language of Kalam and Dir Kohistan
- Tone and song in Kalam Kohistani
- A Sketch of Kalam Kohistani Grammar
- Names of Plants in Kalam Kohistani (Pakistan)
- The Gawri Language of Kalam and Dir Kohistani
- Kalam Kohistani Texts
- Tribes of the Hindoo Koosh
- LAPSyD Online page for Kalami
- SOCIOLINGUISTIC SURVEY OF NORTHERN PAKISTAN
- Endangered Languages Project