Bengali–Assamese languages

The Bengali–Assamese languages (also Gauda–Kamarupa languages) is a grouping of several languages. This group belongs to the Eastern zone of Indo-Aryan languages. The languages in this group as per Glottolog includes Assamese, Bengali, Bishnupriya, Chakma, Chittagonian, Hajong, Kharia Thar, Kurmukar, Lodhi (also categorised as a Munda language), Mal Paharia, Rajbangshi, Rohingya, Sylheti, Tangchangya and Surjapuri.

Bengali–Assamese
Gauda–Kamarupa
Geographic
distribution
Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Nepal
Linguistic classificationIndo-European
Early form
Glottologgaud1237  (Gauda–Kamrupa)
Bengali-Assamese subbranches.png
A map showing geographical distribution of the sub-branches of Bengali-Assamese languages according to the classification of Suniti Kumar Chatterji.[1]

LanguagesEdit

Language Native name Script Alphabet Number of speakers (in millions) Native region
Assamese অসমীয়া
Oxomiya
Bengali-Assamese script Assamese alphabet 15.3[2]   India (Assam)
Bengali বাংলা
Bangla
Bengali-Assamese script Bengali alphabet 261.8[3]   Bangladesh (national and official)
  India (West Bengal, Jharkhand, Tripura, parts of Assam, Andaman and Nicobar islands)
Bishnupriya Manipuri বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী
Bișnupriya Monipuri
Bengali-Assamese script Bengali alphabet[4]   India (Assam, Manipur and Tripura)
  Bangladesh (Sylhet Division)
Chakma 𑄌𑄋𑄴𑄟
চাকমা
Sangma
Bengali-Assamese script
Chakma script
Latin script[5]
0.32[6]   Bangladesh (Chittagong Division)
  India (Mizoram and Tripura)
  Myanmar (Rakhine State)
Chittagonian চাঁটগাঁইয়া
Čąŧgąiya
Bengali-Assamese script
Arabic script
Latin script[7]
Bengali alphabet 13[8]   Bangladesh (Chittagong Division)
  India (Tripura)   Myanmar (Rakhine State)
Hajong হাজং
Hazong
Bengali-Assamese script
Latin script
Assamese alphabet[9][10]
Bengali alphabet[11]
0.06[11]   India (Assam and Meghalaya)
  Bangladesh (Mymensingh Division)
Rangpuri/
Kamtapuri/
Rajbongshi
রংপুরী
কামতাপুরী
রাজবংশী
কোচ ৰাজবংশী
राजबंशी
Rongpuri
Kamatapuri
Rajbongši
Kʊch rajbongsi
Rajbanshi
Bengali-Assamese script, Devanagari[12] Bengali alphabet,[13]
Assamese alphabet[14]
10.8[13]   Bangladesh (Rangpur Division)
  India (West Bengal and Assam)
    Nepal (Province No. 1)
Rohingya رُاَࣺينڠَ
Ruáingga
Arabic script
Hanifi script
Latin script[15]
2.52[16]   Myanmar (Rakhine State)
  Bangladesh (Chittagong Division)
Surjapuri सुरजापुरी
সুরজাপুরী
Surjapuri
Devanagari
Bengali-Assamese script
Bengali alphabet 2.26[17]   India (Bihar, West Bengal)
Sylheti ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ
ছিলটি
Siloŧi
Bengali-Assamese script
Sylheti Nagari script
Bengali alphabet[18] 11.8[18]   Bangladesh (Sylhet Division)
  India (Assam, Meghalaya, North Tripura)
Tanchangya 𑄖𑄧𑄐𑄴𑄌𑄧𑄁𑄉𑄴𑄡
তঞ্চংগ্যা
Toncongya
Chakma script[19] 0.02[20]   Bangladesh (Chittagong Hill Tracts)

Language comparison chartEdit

* = borrowed terms (including tatsamas, ardhatatsamas and other borrowings)

English Assamese Bengali Chakma Chittagonian Dhakaiya Kutti Hajong Kamata Rohingya Sylheti
beautiful dhunia, xundor šundor* dol šundor* sundor cúndor*, hásin* šundor*
big daṅor/daṅar, bor boṛo, ḍagor, ḍaṅor ḍoõr boro boro, daṅar boro, ákbor*, kobira* boṛo
blood tez, rokto* rôkto*, khun*, lohu lo lou kun* lou, hún*, kún* lou, roxto*, kun*
bread ruti (flat), pau*ruti, luf*, bred* pão*ruṭi, ruṭi (flat) fó*ruti fiçá, luthi ruṭi (flat), luf*, bereḍ*
brother bhai (younger), kokai/kaka (elder), dada (elder)* bhai, dada, bhaiya* bái bhai bái bái, báiya*
cat mekuri, birali, biral biṛal, beṛal, billi, bilai, biṛali bilai bilai mekur, bilai
dark andhar, endhar ãdhar, andhar, ondhokar* ãdár añdár, miyonda andáir
daughter zi, mai, zhia meye, konna*, jhi zíi, maia fua maiya beti futúni, zíi zi, fuṛi
day din, rüz*, bela din, bêla, roz*, dibôš* din din, roz din din din, ruz*
dog kukur kukur, kutta kutta kutta kuñr kutta
door duar*, dorza*, dar dôrja*, duar, dôroja, dôrwaja duar* duar* duar* dorza*, doroza*, duar*
earth bhũi, p(r)ithiwi/p(r)ithibi*, dunia* duniya*, prithibi*, dhora*, jahan* dunia* duniya, zahan* duniyai* dunuai*, dunya*, zahan*
egg koni, dima ḍim, anḍa, boida* boda* boza*, ḍim anḍa ḍima andha, dhim ḍim, enḍa, boida*
elephant hati hati áti fil*, hati hati áñti, háñtih átti
eye soku, sokhu, noyon* chokh, chokkhu*, ãkhi, noyon* sóg suk souk, soku, noyon*
father deuta*, bap, büpai/bapa, baba*, aba/abba/abu/abbu* abba*, baba*, bap, abbu*, babaji baf, ba bap, abba, abbu abbá* abba*, baf, baba*, abbu*, bazi
fear bhoy, dor bhôy, ḍor ḍor ḍor ḍor ḍor
finger aṅuli aṅgul, onguli* oul angul ouñl aṅguil
fire zui, aguni*, ogni* agun*, ogni*, nar*, atosh* ain* ooin* aguin*, nar*, atosh*
fish mas machh mas mas mas mas mas
food khüabostu*, ahar*, khayddo*, khaüni, khana* khabar, khana*, khani*, khaddo*, ahar* hána hána, háñna xani*, xana*
god bhogowan*, issôr*, deu, khüda* khoda*, ishshôr*, uporwala*, bhogoban*, rôb* khúda* khúda*, uporwala*, rob* ila*, rob*, ixor* rob*, xuda*, bhogoban*
good bhal bhalo bala, gom bhala bhal gom bála
grass ghah, kher (hay) ghaš, khôṛ (hay) kher ghaṣ kérr ga, gaš
hand hat hat át hat hat árt át
hand fan bisoni hat-pakha, biuni, bijoni bisoin, bisein bisoin, faxa
head mur, matha, math matha, shir*, kolla* mata mata, sir* matá mata, xolla*
heart (emotion) hia, ontor*, koliza/koilza, hidoy* hridôy*, ôntor*, hiya, dil*, kolob* dil* dil* dil* dil*, ontor*, xolob*
heart (organ) dil, amothu hritpindo* dil* dil* dil*
horse ghüra ghoṛa gúṛa gúṛa gúñra, gúra guṛa
house ghor ghôr, baṛi, basha, khana gor gor gor, bari gór, bari, basha, khana
hunger bhük khudha*, khida, khide, bhuk bukh buk búk buk, feṭo(r) buk
language bhaxa*, mat (call), kotha*, raw bhaša*, buli, zoban* hodá* baša* zoban* raw, bhaṣa* zoban*, hodá* basha*, zoban*, mat, buli
laughter hahi haši aši haši haṣi aši
life ziwon/zibon, ziu (soul), zindegi*, hayat* jibôn, zindegi*, hayat* zibon zindegi* zibon zibon, zindegi*, hayat*
moon zün, san(d), sond(r)o* chãd, chondro*, bodor*, helal* sãn san(d) san san san(d)
mother ma, ai, mai, ammi/amma* ma, amma*, ammu, mata*, ai ma ma, amma, ammu maö, ai ma, amma*, mai, ai, ammu*
mouth mukh* mukh* mukh* muk* muk* muk
name nam, naü nam nam nam nam nam
night rati, nixa*, ratri* rat, ratri*, shob* rait rait rati rait rait, raitri*, shob*, lailot
peace xanti*, xokah shanti*, aman*, salamôt* šanti* salamôt*, santi* ṣanti* shanti*, salamôt*
place thai, zega/zaga*, than jayga*, ṭhai, sthan*, jaga* ṭai, zaega* zaga* zega*, zaga*, sthan*
queen rani rani, shahbanu* rani rani rani rani rani, shahbanu*
rest zironi, aram* aram*, bisram*, jirano*, jiron* dom* aram* aram*
river noi, gaṅ, nodi* nôdi*, doriya*, ɡaṅg doijja* ɡaṅg, doriya*, nodi* hál ɡaṅg, nodi*, doria*
road bat, ali, rasta*, poth* rasta*, shoṛok, pôth* rasta*, ail, pot* rasta*, ail, fot*
salt nimokh*, lün, nun lôbôn*, nun, nimok* nun, lôbôn* lôbôn* lôbôn*, nun, nimox*
sister bhoni (younger), ba/bai (elder) apa, bon, didi, apu, api, didimoni, bubu, boin boin boin bóin, afa, afai, afu, api, didimoni
small xoru chhoṭo gura sudo huru, suṭo
son put, pü, putro/putto* chhele, putro*, put, poa (morod) fua pola, put beṭa fut fut, fua
soul ziu, atma* attã*, pran*, pôran, ruh* foran*, ru* ru(h) ru*, atta*, zaan*
sun beli, xuruz*, xuydzo* shurjo*, shuruj beil, šuroz* beil shuruz, shurzo*
ten doh, dos* dosh doš dos doṣ dosh
three tini tin tin tin tin tin
village gaü gram*, gã, gão gãu gau gau, geram*
waist kokal, kakal komor*, maja keĩl komor* keñil xomor*, xaxal
water pani pani, jôl fani pani pani pani, zol faní fani
when ketia, ketiyake kôkhon, kobe, kon shomoy, kon bêla hótte könbela kunbela, xobe, kunshomoe*
wind botah/batah, hawa* batash, hawa* ába*, bataš batas, hawa batash, hawa
wolf kukurnesia bagh, xial (jackal, fox) nekṛe-bagh, sheyal/shiyal (jackal, fox) neṛi kutta hial (jackal, fox)
woman maiki manuh, tiri*, tirüta, mohila* mohila*, nari*, beṭi manush mai fua maiya beṭi saöa beṭi, moíla*
year bosor, son* bochhor, shal*, borsho* bosor sal bosor bosor, shal*
yes hoy, o, ü̃, mm hễ, ji*, agge, hã ô, ôy ô, ôy ô, ôy óe, i, zi* óe
no nohoy, nai, ühü, na na, nai, nay, noy, nei, non nô, nôy na, nai nô, nôy na, nai, nay
yesterday kali, züa-kali (goto*-)kal(-ke), (gelo-)kal(-ke) goto* hail, goto* halia (gese-)xail(-ku), (goto*-)xail(-ku)
English Assamese Bengali Chakma Chittagonian Dhakaiya Kutti Hajong Kamata Rohingya Sylheti

* = borrowed terms (including tatsamas, ardhatatsamas and other borrowings)

VerbsEdit

English Assamese Sylheti Bengali Chakma Chittagonian Kamata Rohingya Hajong
ask xudh-, xudhpus kor- (investigate) zika-, ziga- jiggaśa kor-, puchh-, puch kor-, jiggesh kor-, jiga- pũsar ɡor-
bite kamur-, kamür mar- xamṛa-, xamor mar- kamoṛ mar-, kamṛa- hõr-
blow phu de-, phuk-, phu kor- fu de- phu de-
breathe uxah lo- dom lo- šãš ne-, šãš lo-, dôm ne-, dôm lo-
bring an- an- an- an-
can par- far- par-
catch dhor- dór- dhôr-
come ah- a- aś- a- a- ah-
count gon-, hisap kor-, gonti kor- gon-, hiśab xor- gon-, hišab kôr-
cry kand-, kan- xand- kãd- hãd-
cut kat- xaṭ- kaṭ-
do kor- xor- kôr- gor- ɡor-
die mor-, dhuka- mor- môr- mor-
dig khand- xor-, xus- khõṛ-, khõc-
drink kha-, pi kha-, pi- xa- kha-, pan kor-, pi-
eat kha- xa- kha- há-
fall por- foṛ- poṛ-
fear bhoy kha-, dora- ḍora- bhoy pa-, ḍora-
fight zũz-, maramari/moramori kor- mara-mari xor-, zogra xor- maramari kor-, jhogṛa kôr-
float üpoṅ-, bhah- bo- bhaš-
flow bo- bo- bo-
fly ur- uṛ- uṛ- ur- ur-
give de-, di- de-, di- de-
go za-, ɡo-/ge- za-, ɡo-, ɡe- ja-, ɡe- za-, zo- za-, zo-
happen ho- ó- ho- ó-
hear xun- hun- śun- un-
hit mar-, pit-, kila- mar-, kila- mar-, kila-
kill mar-, mari pela- mar-, mari fala- mar-, mere fel-, mariya fal-
know zan- zan- jan-
laugh hah- aś- haś- aś-
learn xik-, xikh- hik- śekh-, śikh- hik-
lie (in bed) baɡor-, kati ho-, bisonat/bisnat por- xait xor-
live thak-, zi(ai) thak-, tik-, basi thak- tax-, zinda ro-, basi tax- thak-, jibito thak-, jinda thak-, bece thak-, bãchiya thak- thah-
look sa- sa- dekh-, ca-, taka- sa-
open khul- kúl- khol-, khul- uid-, khúl-
play khel- xél- khel-
pull tan- ṭan- ṭan-
push thel- ṭel- ṭhel-
read porh/poh/por- foṛ- poṛ- foṛ-
run dour-, daur- douṛ- douṛa-, choṭ-, chuṭ- dũr-
say ko-, mat-, bul- xo-, mat- bol-, ko- ho- ho-
scratch ãsür- xawza- ãcoṛ de-, ãcṛa-, khamca-
see dekh- dex- dekh- sa-
sew xi-, sila-, bo- (weave) śila- śela-, śila
sing ɡa-, gan ga- gan ɡa- ɡa-, gan ga-
sit boh- bo- boś- bo-
sleep xu-, ɡhuma-, tüponi za/mar- hut-, ɡúma- ɡhuma-, śo-, śu- ɡhum za-
smell xuṅ- huṅ(ɡ)- śũk-, śõk- ũ-
spit thu pela-, pik-, pik pela- tu fal- thu phel-, thu phal-
split phal- bang- bhag kor-, bhang-
squeeze sep-, hẽs- sif- cap-, pesh-, cip-
stand thio ho-, thia- uba- dãṛa-, khaṛa- thio- tía-
stab khũs-, han-
suck suh-, sup-, xüh- chosh-, chush-
swell
swim xatũr- hatra- śatar kor-, shatra-
think bhab-, sinta kor-, sint- bab-, sinta xor- bhab-, cinta kôr-, mone kôr-
throw dolia- iṭa mar- chõṛ-, ḍhêla mar-, dol-, iṭa mar-
tie bandh- band- bãdh-
vomit bomi kor- bomi xor-
walk khüz karh-, bul- aṭ- hãṭ- ãd-
want lag-, bisar- laɡ-, sa- ca- sa-
wash dhu- dó- dho- dú-
wipe mos-, müs- fus-, mus- moch-, much-, poch-, puch-
English Assamese Sylheti Bengali Chakma Chittagonian Kamata Rohingya Hajong

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Suniti Kumar Chaterjee. The origin and development of Bengali language. p. 140.
  2. ^ "Assamese". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  3. ^ "Bengali". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  4. ^ Kim, Amy; Kim, Seung. Bishnupriya (Manipuri) speakers in Bangladesh: a sociolinguistic survey (PDF). SIL INTERNATIONAL. p. 11. Retrieved 4 October 2020.
  5. ^ "Chakma". Ethnologue. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  6. ^ "Chakma". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  7. ^ "Chittagonian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  8. ^ "Chittagonian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  9. ^ Hajong, Abonis; Philipps, D.; Philipps, V. (2008). Hajong – Ingreji Sobdojor Bôy: Hajong – English Phrasebook (PDF). SIL International. p. 1.
  10. ^ "Hajong".
  11. ^ a b "Hajong". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  12. ^ Minahan, James B. (30 August 2012). Ethnic Groups of South Asia and the Pacific: An Encyclopedia: An Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-660-7. Generally, the Rajbongshi language is known as Rangpuri in Bangladesh and Kamta or Rajbangshi in India. The language is usually written in Bengali script in Bangladesh, while the Kamtapura script is favored in India. In Nepal, the language is Devanagari script which is also sometimes used by the Indian Rajbongshis.
  13. ^ a b "Rangpuri". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  14. ^ "As a ritual of purgation they are discarding the Bengali /r/ with a dot and the same is replaced with the original /r/ with a diagonal slash, as used in Assamese script despite the fact that the Rajbanshis in Bengal have been conditioned to use the Bengali /r/ owing to the long processes of forceful imposition of Bengali language upon them." (Pradhani 2012:52)
  15. ^ "Rohingya". Ethnologue. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  16. ^ "Rohingya". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  17. ^ "Surjapuri". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  18. ^ a b "Sylheti". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  19. ^ "Chakma". Ethnologue. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  20. ^ "Tangchangya". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 March 2018.

BibliographyEdit