Sikkimese language

The Sikkimese language, also called Sikkimese Tibetan, Bhutia, or Drenjongké (Tibetan: འབྲས་ལྗོངས་སྐད་, Wylie: 'bras ljongs skad, "Rice Valley language"),[2] Dranjoke, Denjongka, Denzongpeke and Denzongke, belongs to the Southern Tibetic languages. It is spoken by the Bhutia in Sikkim, India and in parts of Province No. 1, Nepal. The Sikkimese people refer to their own language as Drendzongké and their homeland as Drendzong (Tibetan: འབྲས་ལྗོངས་, Wylie: 'bras-ljongs, "Rice Valley").[3]

Sikkimese
Drenjongke
འབྲས་ལྗོངས་སྐད་
bras ljongs skad
Sikkimese.png
RegionSikkim, Nepal (Province No. 1), Bhutan
EthnicitySikkimese
Native speakers
70,000 (2001)[1]
Sino-Tibetan
Tibetan script
Official status
Official language in
 India
Language codes
ISO 639-3sip
Glottologsikk1242
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ScriptEdit

Sikkimese is written using Tibetan script, which it inherited from Classical Tibetan. Sikkimese phonology and lexicon differ markedly from Classical Tibetan, however. SIL International thus describes the Sikkimese writing system as "Bodhi style". According to SIL, 68% of Sikkimese Bhutia were literate in the Tibetan script in 2001.[3][4][5]

Sikkim and its neighboursEdit

Speakers of Sikkimese can understand some Dzongkha, with a lexical similarity of 65% between the two languages. By comparison, Standard Tibetan, however, is only 42% lexically similar. Sikkimese has also been influenced to some degree by the neighbouring Yolmowa and Tamang languages.[3][4]

Due to more than a century of close contact with speakers of Nepali and Tibetan proper, many Sikkimese speakers also use these languages in daily life.[3]

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Below is a chart of Sikkimese consonants, largely following Yliniemi (2005) and van Driem (1992).[5]

Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Retroflex (Alveolo-)
Palatal
Velar Glottal
Nasal voiceless n⟩ ŋ̥ ng⟩
voiced m m⟩ n n⟩ n~ɲ ny⟩ ŋ ng⟩
Plosive voiceless
unaspirated
p p⟩ t t⟩ ʈཏྲ tr⟩ k k⟩ ʔ ʔ⟩
voiceless
aspirated
ph⟩ th⟩ ʈʰཐྲ thr⟩ kh⟩
voiced b b⟩ d d⟩ ɖདྲ dr⟩ ɡ g⟩
devoiced p̀ʱ~b̀ɦ p'⟩ t̀ʱ~d̀ɦ t'⟩ ʈ̀ʱ~ɖ̀ɦདྲ tr'⟩ k̀ʱ~g̀ɦ k'⟩
Affricate voiceless
unaspirated
ts ts⟩ c⟩
voiceless
aspirated
tsʰ tsh⟩ tɕʰ ch⟩
voiced dz dz⟩ j⟩
devoiced tɕ̀ʱ~dʑ̀ɦ c'⟩
Fricative voiceless s s⟩ ɕ sh⟩ h h⟩
voiced z z⟩ ʑ zh⟩
Liquid voiceless l⟩ r⟩
voiced l l⟩ r~ɹ~ɾ r⟩
Approximant w w⟩ j y⟩ w w⟩

Devoiced consonants are pronounced with a slight breathy voice, aspiration, and low pitch. They are remnants of voiced consonants in Classical Tibetan that became devoiced. Likewise, the historical Tibetan phoneme /ny/ is realised as an allophone of /n/ and /ng/, which themselves have mostly lost contrast among speakers.[5]

VowelsEdit

Below is a chart of Sikkimese vowels, also largely following Yliniemi (2005).[5]

Front Middle Back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
Close /i/ i⟩ /y/ u⟩ /u/ u⟩
Mid /e/ e⟩ /ø/ o⟩ /o/ o⟩
Open [ɛ] e⟩ /ɐ/a⟩
  • [ɛ] is an allophone of [e], confined to appearing after [] /j/ in closed syllables

In the Tibetan script, an abugida, the inherent vowel /a/ is unmarked.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Sikkimese at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ "Lost Syllables and Tone Contour in Dzongkha (Bhutan)" in David Bradley, Eguénie J.A. Henderson and Martine Mazaudon, eds, Prosodic analysis and Asian linguistics: to honour R. K. Sprigg, 115-136; Pacific Linguistics, C-104, 1988
  3. ^ a b c d Lewis, M. Paul, ed. (2009). "Sikkimese". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (16 ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
  4. ^ a b Norboo, S. (1995). "The Sikkimese Bhutia" (PDF). Bulletin of Tibetology. Gangtok: Namgyal Institute of Tibetology. pp. 114–115.
  5. ^ a b c d Yliniemi, Juha (2005). Preliminary Phonological Analysis of Denjongka of Sikkim (PDF) (Masters, General Linguistics thesis). University of Helsinki. Retrieved 17 April 2011.

Further readingEdit