Administrative divisions of India
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The administrative divisions of India are subnational administrative units of India; they compose a nested hierarchy of country subdivisions. Indian states and territories frequently use different local titles for the same level of subdivision (e.g., the Mandals of Andhra Pradesh correspond to Tehsils of Uttar Pradesh and other Hindi-speaking states and Talukas of Gujarat, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu).
The States have been grouped into six zones having an Advisory Council "to develop the habit of cooperative working" among these States. Zonal Councils were set up vide Part-III of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956. The North Eastern States' special problems are addressed by another statutory body - The North Eastern Council, created by the North Eastern Council Act, 1971. The present composition of each of these Zonal Councils is as under:
- Northern Zonal Council, comprising Chandigarh, Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, and Rajasthan;
- North-Eastern Zonal Council, comprising Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura; The State of Sikkim has also been included in the North Eastern Council vide North Eastern Council (Amendment) Act, 2002 notified on 23 December 2002.
- Central Zonal Council, comprising the States of Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh;
- Eastern Zonal Council, comprising Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, and West Bengal;
- Western Zonal Council, comprising Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, Goa, Gujarat, and Maharashtra;
- Southern Zonal Council, comprising Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep, Puducherry, Tamil Nadu, and Telangana. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep are not members of any of the Zonal Councils. However, they are presently special invitees to the Southern Zonal Council
States and union territoriesEdit
India is composed of 29 states and 7 union territories (including a national capital territory). The union territories are governed by administrators, appointed by the President of India. Two of the territories (Delhi and Puducherry) have been given partial statehood, with elected legislatures and executive councils of ministers, but limited powers.
- Union territories
|A||Andaman and Nicobar Islands||AN||Port Blair|
|B||Chandigarh||CH||Chandigarh (also the capital of Haryana and Punjab)|
|C||Dadra and Nagar Haveli||DN||Silvassa|
|D||Daman and Diu||DD||Daman|
|F||National Capital Territory of Delhi||DL||New Delhi|
Some states consist of regions, which have no official administrative governmental status. They are purely geographic regions; some correspond to historic countries, states or provinces. A region may comprise one or more divisions, averaging about three divisions per region. However, the boundaries of the regions and the boundaries of the divisions do not always coincide exactly. So far there has been no movement to give the regions official administrative status. If this was to be done, it would presumably require that the boundaries of the regions be slightly modified so that they correspond exactly with their constituent districts.
Some of the Indian states are subdivided into divisions, each comprising several districts:
States and territories (or divisions) are further subdivided into districts (zilla), of which there are 696 (as of 2016).
In some of the states of India, including Assam, Bihar, Sikkim, Manipur and West Bengal, as well as in the union territory of Lakshadweep, the administrative entities below the districts are named "Sub-Divisions" or Mahakumas.
|Union Territory||Sub-Division||Number of
Tehsils, talukas, mandals (sub-districts but can also refer to division), headed by a Tehsildar or Talukdar, comprise several villages or village clusters. The governmental bodies at the Tehsil level are called the panchayat samiti.
States use varying names for their sub-districts. Detailed information is as follows:
|Jammu and Kashmir||Tehsil||59|
|Union Territory||Sub–district||Number of
|Andaman and Nicobar Islands||Tehsil||7|
|Dadra and Nagar Haveli||Taluka||1|
|Daman and Diu||Taluka||2|
The block or Community development block or C.D.Block is often the next level of administrative division after the tehsil.
Villages are often the lowest level of subdivisions in India. The governmental bodies at the village level are called Gram Panchayat, of which there were an estimated 256,000 in 2002. Each Gram Panchayat covers a large village or a cluster of smaller villages with a combined population exceeding 500 Gram Sabha. Clusters of villages are also sometimes called Hobli or Patti.
Certain governmental functions and activities - including clean water availability, rural development, and education - are tracked at a sub-village level. These hamlets are termed "habitations". India is composed of 1,714,556 habitations  In some states, most villages have a single habitation; in others (notably Kerala and Tripura) there is a high ratio of habitations to villages.
A metro area usually comprises multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighbourhoods, townships, cities, exurbs, suburbs, counties, districts, states, and even nations like the eurodistricts. As social, economic and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions. Metropolitan areas include one or more urban areas, as well as satellite cities, towns and intervening rural areas that are socio-economically tied to the urban core, typically measured by commuting patterns The metropolitan cities of India are: Mumbai, New Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Pune, Hyderabad and Bengaluru.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 April 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-25.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 May 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-07.
- "Zonal Council |". mha.nic.in. Retrieved 2016-10-26.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 July 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-05. States and Union Territories of India - Source - Government of India Official Website
- "Vijayawada is Andhra Pradesh’s new capital".
- "Appointed Day for Telangana State".
- Assam has 155 circles but these circles falls multiple districts (specially, BTC districts and its neighboring districts). So it cannot be treated as sub-districts.
- "Statement showing the Nomenclature and Number of Sub-Districts in States/UTs". Office of The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India, New Delhi. 2010–2011. Retrieved 3 October 2011.
- "List of Mandals" (PDF). msmehyd.ap.nic.in. Andhra Pradesh State. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 September 2016. Retrieved 3 September 2016.
- Indian Department of Drinking Water Supply Archived 21 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- http://indiawater.gov.in/IMISWeb/DataEntry/HabitationDirectory/Reports/Rep_ViewStatewiseDirectory.aspx?Rep=YArchived 21 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- Indian Department of Education Archived 21 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.