North 24 Parganas district

North 24 Parganas (abv. 24 PGS (N)) or sometimes North Twenty Four Parganas is a district in southern West Bengal, of eastern India. North 24 Parganas extends in the tropical zone from latitude 22° 11′ 6″ north to 23° 15′ 2″ north and from longitude 88º20' east to 89º5' east. It is bordered to Nadia by north, to Bangladesh (Khulna Division) by north and east, to South 24 Parganas and Kolkata by south and to Kolkata, Howrah and Hoogly by west. Barasat is the district headquarters of North 24 Parganas. North 24 Parganas is West Bengal's most populous district[2] and also (since 2014) the most populated district in the whole of India. It is the tenth-largest district in the State by area.

North 24 Parganas district
Mangal Pandey Park - Barrackpore - North 24 Parganas 2012-04-11 9508.JPG
Dakshineswar Temple1.jpg
Thakurnagar Matua Mahasangha and Thakur Bari Temple 13.jpg
Chandraketugarh Mound - Berachampa 2012-02-24 2525.JPG
Ruined Lal Masjid in Berachampa 24.jpg
BRkM-3.jpg
Clockwise from top-left: Mangal Pandey Park in Barrackpore Cantonment, Matua Mahasangha headquarters in Thakurnagar, Lal Masjid in Berachampa, Baranagar Ramakrishna Mission, Chandraketugarh, Dakshineswar Kali temple
Location in West Bengal
Location in West Bengal
North 24 Parganas district
Coordinates: 22°08′N 88°30′E / 22.13°N 88.50°E / 22.13; 88.50Coordinates: 22°08′N 88°30′E / 22.13°N 88.50°E / 22.13; 88.50
Country India
State West Bengal
DivisionPresidency
HeadquartersBarasat
Government
 • Lok Sabha constituenciesBangaon, Barrackpore, Dum Dum, Barasat, Basirhat
 • Vidhan Sabha constituenciesBagda, Bangaon Uttar, Bangaon Dakshin, Gaighata, Swarupnagar, Baduria, Habra, Ashoknagar, Amdanga, Bijpur, Naihati, Bhatpara, Jagatdal, Noapara, Barrackpore, Khardaha, Dum Dum Uttar, Panihati, Kamarhati, Baranagar, Dum Dum, Madhyamgram, Barasat, Bidhannagar, Rajarhat New Town, Rajarhat Gopalpur, Deganga, Haroa, Minakhan, Sandeshkhali, Basirhat Dakshin, Basirhat Uttar, Hingalganj
Area
 • Total4,094 km2 (1,581 sq mi)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total10,009,781
 • Density2,400/km2 (6,300/sq mi)
Demographics
 • Literacy84.95 percent[1]
 • Sex ratio949
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
Major highwaysNH 12, NH 112
Average annual precipitation1579 mm
Websitewww.north24parganas.gov.in

HistoryEdit

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
19011,016,001—    
19111,166,158+1.39%
19211,239,719+0.61%
19311,357,831+0.91%
19411,711,806+2.34%
19512,114,097+2.13%
19613,127,685+3.99%
19714,207,420+3.01%
19815,529,497+2.77%
19917,281,881+2.79%
20018,934,286+2.07%
201110,009,781+1.14%
source:[3]

Ancient historyEdit

 
The Baraha-mihir or Khana-mihir mound at Berachampa. It was first excavated in 1956–57 revealing a continuous sequence of cultural remains from 11th century BC pre-Mouryan period to 12th century AD Pala period.[4]

According to Ptolemy's Geography, written in the second century A.D., the ancient land of Gangaridi was stretched between the rivers Bhagirathi-Hoogly (lower Ganges) and Padma-Meghna. The modern-day 24 Parganas was the southern and the south-eastern territory of that legendary kingdom.

Archaeological excavation at Berachampa village in Deganga PS proves that though the area was not directly attached to the rule of the Guptas, yet it could not shun their cultural influence. Xuanzang (c. 629–685) visited 30 Buddhist Biharas and 100 Hindu Temples in India and some of these were in the Greater 24 Parganas region.

The district was not a part of Shashanka's unified Bengali empire known as Gauda, but it is assumed that the district which was the south-west frontier territory of ancient Bengal, was comprised in under the rule of Dharmapala (estimated c. 770–810). The Pala rule was not quite strong in this part, as no excavation uncovered any of Buddhist Pala antiquities but many Hindu Sena sculptures.

Middle AgesEdit

In the middle of the 16th century, Portuguese pirates began to invade and plunder many of the waterways and prosperous human settlements in the lower delta region. People left these places out of the fear of being murdered, raped, or captured to be sold as slaves. The Basirhat sub-division of North 24 Parganas suffered most from these torments.

Shrihari (Shridhar), a Kayastha, was an influential officer in the service of Daud Khan Karrani. On the fall of Daud he fled away with the government treasure in his custody. He then set up a kingdom for himself in the marshy land to the extreme south of Khulna district (1574) and assumed the title of Maharaja. Pratapaditya succeeded to the kingship in 1574. The baharistan and the travel diary of Abdul Latif and the contemporary European writers, all testify to the personal ability of Pratapaditya, his political pre-eminence, material resources. His territories covered the greater part of what is now included in the greater Jessore, Khulna and Barisal districts. He established his capital at Dhumghat, a strategic position at the confluence of the Jamuna and Ichhamati before it was shifted to Ishwaripur.

Maharaja Pratapaditya, soon became one of the 12 feudal lords of Bengal who not only declared their sovereignty from the Mughal Empire in the ruling of Jessore, Khulna, Barisal and Greater 24 Parganas, but also fought and resisted the Portuguese in the early years of the 17th century. When he was finally defeated by the Mughals. Pratapaditya lost both the battles of Salka and Magrahat. His fate was sealed and he was compelled to tender submission to Islam Khan at Dhaka. His kingdom was annexed. He probably died at Benares on his way to Delhi from Dhaka, as a prisoner[5] of war to the Mughals.

After his death, Bhavanand Majumdar, who had been in the service of Pratapaditya, was given the throne by Raja Man Singh, and he later became the founder of the Nadiya Raj family.[6] Laksmikanta Gangopadhyay better known as Laksmikanta Roy Choudhury, the well known Brahmin scholar who was the son of great saint Kamdev Brahmachari and also a close associate of Raja Basanta Ray, was given tax free jaigir of eight parganas, including the areas in and around Kalikatah as Gurudakshina by Raja Man Singh in 1608.[7][8]

Jashoreshwari Kali Temple (built by Pratapaditya), Chanda Bhairab Mandir at Ishwaripur (built during the Sena period), Five domed Tenga Mosque at Banshipur (Mughal period), two big and four small domed Hammankhana (constructed by Pratapaditya) at Bangshipur, Govinda Dev Temple at Gopalpur (built by Basanta Roy, uncle of Maharaja Pratapaditya in 1593), Jahajghata Port (Khanpur), Kalighat Temple (owned by Laksmikanta Roy Choudhury) bear archaeological evidences of the Bhuiyan and Majumdar kings.

British RajEdit

The territory of Greater 24 Parganas were under the Satgaon (ancient Saptagram, now in Hoogly district) administration during the Mughal era and later it was included in Hoogly chakla (district under post-Mughal Nawabi rule) during the rule of Murshid Quli Khan. In 1757, after the Battle of Plassey, Nawab Mir Jafar conferred the Zamindari of 24 parganas and janglimahals (small administrative units) upon the British East India Company. These Parganas are: 1. Akbarpur, 2. Amirpur, 3. Asimabad, 4. Balia, 5. Baridhati, 6. Basandhari, 7. Calcutta, 8. Dakshin Sagar, 9. Garh, 10. Hathiagarh, 11. Ikhtiarpur, 12. Kharijuri, 13. Khaspur, 14. Maidanmal or Mednimall, 15. Magura, 16. Mayda, 17. Manpur, 18. Murnagacha, 19. Paika, 20. Pechakul, 21. Satal, 22. Shahnagar, 23. Shahpur, and 24. Uttar Pargana (O'Mally, L.S.S. (1914) Bengal District Gazetteers: 24 Parganas. Page 44). Since then, this entire territory is known as 'Twentyfour Parganas'.

In 1751, the Company assigned John Zephaniah Holwell as zemindar of the District.[9] In 1759, after the Bengali War of 1756–1757, the Company assigned it to Lord Clive as a personal Jaghir (zamindari) and after his death it again came under the direct authority of the company.

In 1793, during the rule of Lord Cornwallis, entire Sunderbans were in Twentyfour Parganas. In 1802, some parganas on the western banks of river Hoogly were included into it. These parganas were in Nadia earlier. In 1814, a separate collectorate was established in Twenty-four Parganas. In 1817, Falta and Baranagar and in 1820, some portions of Nadia's Balanda and Anwarpur were encompassed to it. In 1824, portions of Barasat, Khulna and Bakhargunge (now in Bangladesh) were also included to it. In 1824, the district headquarters was shifted from Kolkata to Baruipur, but in 1828, it was removed to Alipore. In 1834, the district was split into two districts – Alipore and Barasat, but later these were united again.

In 1905, some portion of this district around the Sunderbans was detached and linked to Khulna and Barishal. These parts remained in Bangladesh territories where Jessore's Bangaon was joined to Twentyfour Pargana after the 1947 partition.

After IndependenceEdit

In 1980, an administrative reform committee under the chairmanship of Dr. Ashok Mitra suggested splitting the district into two and as per the recommendation of the committee in 1983, on 1 March 1986, two new districts – North 24 Parganas (24 PGS (N)) and South 24 Parganas (24 PGS (S)) were created. The North 24 Parganas which was included in the Presidency division has been formed with five sub-divisions of the Greater 24 Parganas, namely Barasat Sadar (Headquarters), Barrackpore, Basirhat, Bangaon, and Bidhannagar (a satellite township of Kolkata, popularly known as Salt Lake).

On 1 August 2022, the Chief Minister of West Bengal Mamata Banerjee announced to create two more districts named Ichamati district consisting Bangaon subdivision and a yet unnamed district consisting Basirhat subdivision by bifurcating the district for better development and smooth administration purpose.[10]

GeographyEdit

The district lies within the GangaBrahmaputra delta. The major distributory of river Ganga that is river Hooghly flows along the western border of the district. There are many other distributory branches, sub-branches of Ganga river and other local rivers, which include the Ichhamati, Jamuna, and Bidyadhari.

LandEdit

The type of soil varies widely from alluvial to clay loam.

Groundwater arsenic contaminationEdit

North 24 Parganas is one of the nine severely arsenic affected districts in West Bengal. On the basis of updated survey conducted by School of Environmental Studies (SOES), Jadavpur University, out of total 22 administrative blocks in 22, 21 and 16 blocks arsenic above the 10 μg/L (WHO Recommended value of arsenic in drinking water), 50 μg/L (Indian standard value of arsenic in drinking water) and 300 μg/L (the concentration predicting overt arsenical skin lesions) was noted respectively.

The maximum arsenic contamination level found in this district is 2830 μg/L in the Baduria block.[citation needed]

ClimateEdit

The climate is tropical, like the rest of the Gangetic West Bengal. It is also characterised by the Monsoon, which lasts from early June to mid September sometimes in October. The weather remains dry during the winter (late November to mid February) and too humid during summer.[citation needed]

Temperature ranges from 41 °C in May and 10 °C in January while relative humidity ranges between 50% in March & 90% in July. The average annual rainfall is 1,579mm.

EconomyEdit

 
Omega and Infinity Benchmark, office buildings in Salt Lake, Kolkata
 
The Bengal Intelligent Park in Sector V.
 
The Cognizant Technology Solutions office in Sector V.

People are mainly engaged in farming, fishing and other agricultural activities. The average size of agricultural landholdings is about 3.2 Bighas. North 24 Parganas is one of the less economically backward districts of West Bengal, but there is chronic poverty in the southern half of the District (the Sundarbans area)

The information technology hub of Kolkata is at this district, which is the centre of some of the notable IT/ITES Indian and multinational companies. Approximately 1,500 companies have their offices in Sector V.[11] Majority of the corporate offices are situated in Sector V and Sector III. Around 3.5 Lakh (by 2017) people are employed in Salt Lake City.

DivisionsEdit

Administrative subdivisionsEdit

The district comprises five subdivisions: Barrackpore, Barasat Sadar, Basirhat, Bangaon and Bidhannagar.

Barasat is the district headquarters. There are 35 police stations, 22 development blocks, 27 municipalities, 200 gram panchayats and 1599 villages in this district.[13][14]

Other than municipality area, each subdivision contains community development blocks which in turn are divided into rural areas and census towns. In total there are 48 urban units: 27 municipalities and 20 census towns and 1 cantonment board.[14][15]

Barrackpore subdivisionEdit

Barasat Sadar subdivisionEdit

Bangaon subdivisionEdit

Basirhat subdivisionEdit

Bidhannagar subdivisionEdit

This subdivision consists of the[13] Bidhannagar Municipal Corporation.

Assembly constituenciesEdit

As per order of the Delimitation Commission in respect of the delimitation of constituencies in the West Bengal, the district is divided into 33 assembly constituencies:[18][19]

Sl. No. Name Lok Sabha constituency MLA Party
94 Bagdah (SC) Bangaon Biswajit Das All India Trinamool Congress
95 Bangaon Uttar (SC) Ashok Kirtania Bharatiya Janata Party
96 Bangaon Dakshin (SC) Swapan Majumder Bharatiya Janata Party
97 Gaighata (SC) Subrata Thakur Bharatiya Janata Party
98 Swarupnagar (SC) Bina Mondal All India Trinamool Congress
99 Baduria Basirhat Abdur Rahim Quazi All India Trinamool Congress
100 Habra Barasat Jyotipriya Mallick All India Trinamool Congress
101 Ashokenagar Narayan Goswami All India Trinamool Congress
102 Amdanga Barrackpore Rafiqur Rahaman All India Trinamool Congress
103 Bijpur Subodh Adhikary All India Trinamool Congress
104 Naihati Partha Bhowmick All India Trinamool Congress
105 Bhatpara Pawan Singh Bharatiya Janata Party
106 Jagatdal Somenath Shyam Ichini All India Trinamool Congress
107 Noapara Manju Basu All India Trinamool Congress
108 Barrackpore Raj Chakraborty All India Trinamool Congress
109 Khardaha Dum Dum Sovandeb Chattopadhyay All India Trinamool Congress
110 Dum Dum Uttar Chandrima Bhattacharya All India Trinamool Congress
111 Panihati Nirmal Ghosh All India Trinamool Congress
112 Kamarhati Madan Mitra All India Trinamool Congress
113 Baranagar Tapas Roy All India Trinamool Congress
114 Dum Dum Bratya Basu All India Trinamool Congress
115 Rajarhat New Town Barasat Tapash Chatterjee All India Trinamool Congress
116 Bidhannagar Sujit Bose All India Trinamool Congress
117 Rajarhat Gopalpur Dum Dum Aditi Munshi All India Trinamool Congress
118 Madhyamgram Barasat Rathin Ghosh All India Trinamool Congress
119 Barasat Chiranjeet Chakraborty All India Trinamool Congress
120 Deganga Rahima Mondal All India Trinamool Congress
121 Haroa Basirhat Haji Nurul Islam All India Trinamool Congress
122 Minakhan (SC) Usha Rani Mondal All India Trinamool Congress
123 Sandeshkhali (ST) Sukumar Mahata All India Trinamool Congress
124 Basirhat Dakshin Dr. Saptarshi Banerjee All India Trinamool Congress
125 Basirhat Uttar Rafikul Islam Mondal All India Trinamool Congress
126 Hingalganj (SC) Debes Mandal All India Trinamool Congress

EducationEdit

UniversitiesEdit

Indian Statistical Institute, Baranagar
West Bengal State University, located at Barasat, the main general degree university of the district

CollegesEdit

SchoolsEdit

CultureEdit

 
Dakshineswar Kali Temple
 
Durga idol at a pandel in Baranagar

This district is rich in culture. Many famous places like Dakshineswar Kali Temple, Baranagar Math[26] (first monastery of Ramakrishna Order) are situated in this district. Many places of this district are famous for festivals – Helencha, Habra, Barrackpore, Barasat, Naihati and Madhyamgram are for Kali puja, Bangaon, Baranagar, Basirhat are for Durga puja, Ashoknagar Kalyangarh is for Jagatdhatri puja, Berachampa is for Basanti puja etc.

TransportEdit

RailwaysEdit

The electrified suburban rail network of the ER is extensive and penetrates far and deep into the neighbouring districts of Kolkata, South 24 Parganas, Nadia, Howrah, Hooghly etc.

The Circular Rail encircles the entire city of Kolkata, and also used to provide an offshoot to connect the Dum Dum Airport, but now it is limited up to Dum Dum Cantonment. Jessore Road and Biman Bandar railway stations are closed for the construction work of Noapara–Dum Dum Airport–Barasat Metro rail (Kolkata Metro Line 4).[27]

Metro rail is also a transport medium of this district's people. Four stations of Kolkata Metro Line 1 are located here, Dum Dum metro station at Dum Dum, Baranagar metro station at Baranagar, Dakshineswar metro station at Dakshineswar and Noapara metro station at Noapara, Baranagar.[28]

AirportsEdit

 
Cityside view of the new Integrated Terminal of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport

The Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport (IATA code:CCU), which is at Dum Dum (previously known as Dum Dum Airport) in North 24 Parganas, is the only airport serving the city Kolkata. It operates both domestic and international flights. It is a gateway to North-East India, Bangkok, and Bangladesh. The number of people using the airport has consistently increased over the last few years.

RoadwaysEdit

The road network is fairly well developed. Sparsed across by state-highways, it provides a convenient means of transport. NH 12 connects the district with northern and southern region of the state and its sub road NH 112 connect the district headquarter Barasat with the border town Bangaon and Petrapole, the largest land port of India.

DemographicsEdit

According to the 2011 census North 24 Parganas district has a population of 10,009,781,[2][29] roughly equal to the nation of Bolivia[30] or the US state of Michigan.[31] This gave it a ranking of second in India (out of a total of 640) and first in its state.[2] However, in 2014 the Thane district (in Maharashtra), which had been ranked first in India in 2011, was divided into two, thus promoting North 24 Parganas District to first in India. The district has a population density of 2,463 inhabitants per square kilometre (6,380/sq mi).[2] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 12.86%.[2] North Twenty Four Parganas has a sex ratio of 949 females for every 1000 males,[2] and a literacy rate of 84.95%. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes make up 21.67% and 2.64% of the population respectively.[2]

  • Population Density: 2959 per square km
  • Sex ratio: 982 females per 1000 males
  • Growth Rate (1991–2000): 24.64% (approximately 2.5% per annum)
  • Literacy rate (excluding 0–6 age group), in percentage: 87.66 (highest in West Bengal).[32]
    • Male: 93.14; Female: 81.81

ReligionEdit

Religion in North 24 Parganas district (2011)[33]
Hinduism
73.46%
Islam
25.82%
Other or not stated
0.72%
Religion in present-day North 24 Parganas district[a]
Religion Population (1941)[34]: 80–81  Percentage (1941) Population (2011)[33] Percentage (2011)
Hinduism   927,418 57.09% 7,352,769 73.46%
Islam   648,920 39.95% 2,584,684 25.82%
Tribal religion   41,105 2.53% 2,930 0.03%
Others [b] 6,994 0.43% 69,398 0.69%
Total Population 1,624,437 100% 10,009,781 100%

Hinduism is the main religion in the district, and especially dominates urban areas where they are nearly 90% of the population. Most Muslims are rural, and in the rural areas Hindus and Muslims are in equal proportions. In Bongaon and Sandeshkhali regions, Hindus, mainly descendants of refugees from Bangladesh, dominate the rural population. But in the rest of the district, Muslims dominate the rural population. Muslims are in majority in Amdanga (58.48%), Barasat II (73.81%), Deganga (70.92%), Baduria (65.48%), Basirhat I (68.54%), Basirhat II (70.10%), Harora (61.12%), Minakhan (51.60%) and Hasnabad (56.51%) blocks. Muslims are significant minorities in Swarupnagar (47.58%), Habra II (48.76%), Barasat I (44.08%) and Rajarhat (39.89%) CD blocks.

LanguagesEdit

Languages of North 24 Parganas district (2011)

  Bengali (88.91%)
  Hindi (7.69%)
  Urdu (2.28%)
  Others (1.12%)

According to the 2011 census, 88.91% of the population spoke Bengali, 7.69% Hindi and 2.28% Urdu as their first language.[35]


Flora and faunaEdit

The district is also home to the Bibhutibhushan Wildlife Sanctuary, which was established in 1985 and has an area of 0.6 km2 (0.2 sq mi).[36]

Health facilitiesEdit

  • District Hospitals: 10 with 2500 beds
  • Sub Divisional Hospitals: 14 with 1870 beds
  • State General Hospitals: 18 with 1870 beds
  • ESI Hospital: 01 with 200 beds
  • Rural Hospitals: 07 with 228 beds
  • Block Primary Health Centers: 15

Notable peopleEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ "Provisional Population Totals Paper 1 of 2011 : West Bengal". Census of India. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
  3. ^ Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901. censusindia.gov.in.
  4. ^ Ganguly, Biswarup (24 February 2012). "English: Khana-Mihir Mound (bn:Khana-mihirer Dhipi, hi. Khana-mihir ka tila)..." Retrieved 29 March 2018 – via Wikimedia Commons.
  5. ^ Muazzam Hussain Khan (Banglapedia)
  6. ^ Bhattacharya, Jogendra Nath (1896). Hindu Castes and Sects. Calcutta: Thacker, Spink and Co.
  7. ^ Bangiya Sabarna Katha Kalishetra Kalikatah by Bhabani Roy Choudhury, Manna Publication. ISBN 81-87648-36-8.
  8. ^ "The Family History". www.devarshi.faithweb.com. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  9. ^ McCabe, Joseph (1920) "Holwell, John Zephaniah", A biographical dictionary of modern rationalists, Watts & Co., London, pp. 356–357, p. 357, OCLC 262462698.
  10. ^ "West Bengal to get 7 new districts, announces CM Mamata Banerjee". LiveMint. 1 August 2022. Retrieved 3 August 2022.
  11. ^ Chakraborti, Suman. "Soon, smart composting units at Sector V offices | Kolkata News". The Times of India. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  12. ^ a b c "Change of guard". www.telegraphindia.com.
  13. ^ a b c "Directory of District, Sub division, Panchayat Samiti/ Block and Gram Panchayats in West Bengal, March 2008". West Bengal. National Informatics Centre, India. 19 March 2008. Archived from the original on 25 February 2009. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
  14. ^ a b "District at a glance". Official website of the North 24 Parganas district. Archived from the original on 2 June 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
  15. ^ "Population, Decadal Growth Rate, Density and General Sex Ratio by Residence and Sex, West Bengal/ District/ Sub District, 1991 and 2001". West Bengal. Directorate of census operations. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
  16. ^ "Page on Barrackpore subdivision". Official website of North 24 Parganas district. Archived from the original on 25 March 2010. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
  17. ^ "bmcwbgov.in". Archived from the original on 6 August 2019. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  18. ^ "Press Note, Delimitation Commission" (PDF). Assembly Constituencies in West Bengal. Delimitation Commission. Retrieved 21 November 2008.
  19. ^ "list of MPs & MLAs of N 24 PGS". Archived from the original on 18 January 2014. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
  20. ^ a b c d e "Assembly under Bangaon Lok Sabha". www.indiastatelections.com.
  21. ^ "ISI Kolkata Campus". Archived from the original on 3 July 2019. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
  22. ^ "Narula Institute of Technology". NIT. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  23. ^ "Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis Mahavidyalaya | NAAC Accredited College". Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis Mahavidyalaya.
  24. ^ "Bagdah High School - Bagdah, North 24 Parganas - Reviews, Fee Structure, Admission Form, Address, Contact, Rating - Directory".
  25. ^ "Ramakrishna Mission Ashrama, Baranagar Mission". Retrieved 17 May 2015.
  26. ^ "Brief history of Baranagar Math". Tamakrishna Mission, Baranagar. Archived from the original on 18 November 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
  27. ^ "Services End on Kolkata's Circular Railway to Facilitate Metro's Construction". 13 October 2016.
  28. ^ Gupta, Jayanta (21 November 2012). "March 2013 date for Noapara Metro". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 4 September 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
  29. ^ Yeshwantrao, Nitin (1 April 2011). "Population explosion across Thane district worries officials". The Times of India. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
  30. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Archived from the original on 13 June 2007. Retrieved 1 October 2011. Bolivia 10,118,683 July 2011 est.
  31. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 30 September 2011. Michigan 9,883,640
  32. ^ "District wise Literacy rate in West Bengal 2001–2011 census". www.updateox.com. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
  33. ^ a b "Table C-01 Population by Religion: West Bengal". censusindia.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 2011.
  34. ^ "CENSUS OF INDIA, 1941 VOLUME VI BENGAL PROVINCE" (PDF). Retrieved 13 August 2022.
  35. ^ 2011 Census of India, Population By Mother Tongue
  36. ^ Indian Ministry of Forests and Environment. "Protected areas: West Bengal". Archived from the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
  1. ^ Barrackpore, Barasat and Basirhat subdivisions
  2. ^ Including Jainism, Christianity, Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Ad-Dharmis, or not stated

External linksEdit