Khulna (Bengali: খুলনা, [ˈkʰulna]) is the third-largest city in Bangladesh, after Dhaka and Chittagong.[5] It is the administrative centre of Khulna District and Khulna Division. Khulna's economy is the third-largest in Bangladesh, contributing $53 billion in gross state product and $95 billion in purchasing power parity (PPP) in 2020. In the 2022 census, the city had a population of 718,735.[6]

City of Tigers, Industrial City, Gateway to the Sundarbans
Khulna is located in Khulna division
Khulna is located in Bangladesh
Coordinates: 22°49′N 89°33′E / 22.82°N 89.55°E / 22.82; 89.55
DivisionKhulna Division
DistrictKhulna District
Municipal Council:8 September 1884 (139 years ago) (1884-09-08)
Municipal Corporation:12 December 1984 (38 years ago) (1984-12-12)
City Corporation:6 August 1990 (33 years ago) (1990-08-06)
 • TypeMayor-council
 • BodyKhulna City Corporation
 • MayorTalukder Abdul Khaleque
 • Police CommissionerMD Masudur Rahman Bhuiyan
 • Total150.57 km2 (58.14 sq mi)
 • Rank3rd
9 m (30 ft)
 • Rank3rd
 • Urban
 • Metro1,500,689
Time zoneUTC+6 (BST)
Postal codes
9000, 9100, 92xx
IDD:Calling Code+880 (0)41
LanguagesStandard Bengali(Official)
PoliceKhulna Metropolitan Police
AirportJessore Airport & Khan Jahan Ali Airport (Planned)
Development AuthorityKhulna Development Authority
Literacy rate71.5%[4]

Khulna is on the Rupsha and Bhairab Rivers. A center of Bangladeshi industry, the city hosts many national companies. It is served by the Port of Mongla, Bangladesh's second-largest seaport. Khulna River Port is one of the country's oldest and busiest river ports.

A colonial steamboat service, which includes the Tern, Osrich and Lepcha, operates on the river route to the city. Khulna is considered the gateway to the Sundarbans, the world's largest mangrove forest and home of the Bengal tiger. It is north of the Mosque City of Bagerhat, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[7][8]

History Edit

Khulna was part of the ancient kingdoms of Vanga and Samatata. It became a part of the Sena dynasty during the 12th-century reign of Ballala Sena, and formed part of the Bagri division of Bengal. During the 14th century, Shamsuddin Firoz Shah was the first Muslim ruler to arrive in the city. Muslim settlements increased during the time of Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah, and many mosques and shrines were established. A Muslim saint, Khan Jahan Ali, acquired a jagir (fiefdom) encompassing a large part of Khulna Division from the king of Gauḍa during the 15th century and renamed the region as Jahanabad. Ali ruled until he died in 1459.[9]

After Ali's death, the city became part of the Bengal Sultanate. During the reign of Daud Khan Karrani in the 16th century, Vikramaditya (one of Karrani's chief ministers) obtained a grant in southern Bengal—including Khulna—when Karrani was fighting the Mughals. Vikramaditya established a sovereign kingdom with its capital at Iswaripur (in present-day Satkhira District). He was succeeded by his son, Pratapaditya, who gained preeminence over the Baro-Bhuyans and controlled southern Bengal. Vikramaditya was defeated by Raja Man Singh I, a Hindu Rajput general of the Mughal emperor Akbar, in 1611.[10]

Khulna was ruled by autonomous Bengali nawabs until 1793 when the British East India Company abolished nizamat (local rule) and took control of the city. Becoming part of Jessore District in 1842, it became the headquarters of Khulna District (the Khulna and Bagerhat subdivisions of Jessore District, the Satkhira subdivision of 24 Parganas district, and the Sundarbans) in 1882.[10] Khulna had a pouroshava (municipal council) in 1884, which became a municipal corporation in 1984.

Before 19 August 1947, Khulna District was part of undivided Bengal. Khulna first declared itself as part of India in 1947, and the Indian flag was flown on 15 August. Syed Mohammad Abdul Halim (an official of the Bengali civil service) requested Khulna's inclusion in Pakistan, and the boundary commission declared that the city was part of East Bengal. Sher e Bangla A.K.Fazlul Haq, Muslim League leaders Khan A Sabur, Advocate Hamidul Haq Chowdhury, A. F. M. Abdul Jalil, and Abdul Mojid Khan were also involved in the process.

Pakistani Eastern Command plan for the defense of East Pakistan from 1967 to 1971 (generic representation—some unit locations not shown)

During the Bangladesh Liberation War, the Pakistan Army created the 314th ad hoc Brigade to hold Khulna.[11] The city's Mukti Bahini fighters were part of sector 8 under the command of Major Abu Osman Chowdhury and, later, under Major Mohammad Abdul Monjur.[12]

Geography Edit

Khulna is Bangladesh's third-largest city, after Dhaka and Chittagong. It is in the southwestern part of the country, on the Rupsha and Bhairab Rivers. The city covers 59.57 square kilometres (23.00 sq mi),[13] and Khulna District covers 4,394.46 square kilometres (1,696.71 sq mi). Khulna is south of Jessore and Narail Districts, east of Satkhira District, west of Bagerhat and north of the Bay of Bengal. It is part of the Ganges Delta, the world's largest river delta. Sundarbans, the world's largest mangrove forest, is in the southern part of the delta. Tidal-flat ecosystems are adjacent to the city.[14] Khulna is in the northern part of the district, and the Mayur River is the western boundary of its metropolitan area.

Climate Edit

In the Köppen climate classification, Khulna has a tropical wet and dry climate. The city is hot and humid during summer, and pleasantly warm during winter. Khulna is significantly affected by the Monsoon of South Asia. Khulna gets less rainfall than other parts of Bangladesh due to its location and the effects of the Sundarbans south of the city. Its annual average rainfall is 1,878.4 mm (73.95 in)h about 87 percent falling between May and October. Khulna also receives heavy rain from cyclones which form in the Bay of Bengal. The city has an annual average temperature of 26.3 °C (79.3 °F), with monthly averages ranging from 11.4 °C (52.5 °F) on January mornings to 34.6 °C (94.3 °F) during April afternoons.

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 25.6
Average low °C (°F) 11.4
Average precipitation mm (inches) 13.3
Average rainy days 2 3 3 6 11 14 17 16 13 7 2 1 95
Average relative humidity (%) 78 74 73 76 79 85 87 86 87 84 80 79 81
Source: Bangladesh Meteorological Department[15][16][17][18][19]

Administration Edit

Khulna Municipal Council was founded on 12 December 1884. It became a municipal corporation in 1984 and a city corporation in 1990. Khulna City Corporation (KCC) is a self-governing corporation run by an elected mayor, who governs the city's 31 wards. Currently, Talukder Abdul Khaled is the mayor of Khulna City Corporation (KCC).

The Khulna Metropolitan Police (KMP) maintains law and order and regulates traffic in the metropolitan area. It has eight police stations: Khulna Kotwali Thana, Sonadanga Thana, Khalishpur Thana, Daulatpur Thana, Khan Jahan Ali Thana, Aarongghata Thana, Horintana Thana and Labonchora Thana. The Metropolitan Magistrate Court (CMM) adjudicates the city's legal issues. The Khulna Development Authority (KDA) plans and coordinates the city's development. Khulna Water Supply & Sewerage Authority (KWASA) parallels the KCC.

Military Edit

Khulna is one of two principal naval command centers for the Bangladesh Navy. The BNS Titumir naval base is in the city. Jahanabad Cantonment, containing the Army Service Corps Center and School (ASCC&S), is 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) from Khulna.

Demographics Edit

In the 2011 census, Khulna City Corporation had a population of 751,237 in 177,852 households. Khulna had a sex ratio of 923 females to 1000 males and a literacy rate of 72.7%.[20]

Like the rest of Bangladesh, most of the city's population is Bengali. Khulna's native residents are known as Khulnaiya. Its population also consists of people from neighboring districts (including Noakhali District), Barisal and Faridpur Divisions, and Bihar.

Most residents speak Bengali (the national language), its dialects, and regional languages. English is understood by a large segment of the population, especially in business. An Urdu-speaking population, descendants of Muslims displaced from Bihar in 1947 who sought refuge in East Bengal, lives in the city's Khalishpur area.

Religions in Khulna city (2011)[20]
Religion Percent
Other or not stated

Islam is Khulna's major religion, practiced by 90.04% of the population. Other religions are Hinduism (practiced by 8.71%), and Christianity (1.23%).[20]

Economy Edit

Khulna is Bangladesh's third-largest economic center. North of the Port of Mongla, it has a variety of industries. Major sectors are jute, chemicals, fish and seafood packaging, food processing, sugar milling, power generation and shipbuilding. The Khulna Chamber of Commerce and Industry (KCCI) regulates commerce through its Licensed Measurers' Department (LMD) and certification, attestation, and publicity departments. The region has an Export Processing Zone, attracting foreign investment. The city is home to branch offices of a number of national companies, including M. M. Ispahani Limited, BEXIMCO, James Finlay Bangladesh, Summit Power and the Abul Khair Group. Khulna's largest companies include Khulna Shipyard, Bangladesh Cable Shilpa Limited, Bangladesh Oxygen, Platinum Jubilee Mills, Star Jute Mills, and the Khulna Oxygen Company.

Transport Edit

Road Edit

Khan Jahan Ali Bridge, which carries the Khulna City Bypass over the Rupsha River

Rickshaws are the most popular means of public transport in Khulna for short trips, and auto rickshaws are also common. Nagar Paribahan buses have frequent service between Rupsha and Phultala, with stops throughout Khulna. Motorcycles are popular among the middle class, but wealthier people prefer a private car.

The N7 highway connects Khulna with the rest of Bangladesh, and the Khulna City Bypass is a major road. The R760 connects Satkhira and western Khulna Districts. There are several nationwide bus services available in Khulna (most privately owned), and the Bangladesh Road Transport Corporation operates inter-district buses from the city. Sonadanga Bus Terminal is Khulna's main bus terminal. Major bus routes include Khulna-Jessore-Dhaka; Khulna-Goplaganj-Dhaka; Khulna-Jessore-Kushtia; Khulna-Satkhira; Khulna-Bagerhat; Khulna-Mongla; Khulna-Narail; Khulna-Barisal; Khulna-Rajshahi; Khulna-Faridpur; Khulna-Kuakata, and Khulna-Dhaka-Chittagong.

Rail Edit

Bandhan Express at Khulna Railway Station

Khulna Railway Station is the city's main station. Bangladesh Railway operates six intercity trains: the Sundarban and Chitra Expresses (to Dhaka), the Kapotaksha and Sagardari Expresses (to Rajshahi), and the Rupsa and Seemanta Expresses to Chilahati. Two commuter express trains serve Benapole, in addition to mail trains to Parbatipur, Chapainawabganj and Goalanda. The international Bandhan Express runs to Kolkata. The city has four other railway stations, and two more (in addition to the Rupsha Rail Bridge) are under construction as part of the Khulna–Mongla Port Railway project.

Air Edit

S2-AFE United Airways ATR-72 at Jashore Airport

Jessore Airport, 50 kilometres (31 mi) north of Khulna, has flights to Dhaka on Biman Bangladesh Airlines, US-Bangla Airlines and Novoair, with air-conditioned bus service from the airport to the city. Khan Jahan Ali Airport, in Bagerhat Sadar Upazila, was planned but it is no longer a priority project for the government.[21]

Water Edit

Several passenger launches and cargo services operate from the Bangladesh Inland Water Transport Authority launch terminal in the city.

Public transport Edit

There are being public transportation in Khulna city through the mid 19's. Buses of that urban transportation of Khulna city were called 'Murir Tin'. Today besides the urban transportation buses, Cycle rickshaw, auto rickshaws are playing a vital role in transport within Khulna city and the adjoining metro area. Famous ride sharing services like Uber, Pathao, Obhai also available in the city. There are also bus and mini-bus services on some routes, connecting sub-urban areas of the city. Plenty of rental car agencies operate within the city and metro area, where sedans, SUVs, and micro-buses are available to hire on an hourly or daily basis.

Education Edit

Bangladesh Liberation War statue at the Khulna University of Engineering & Technology
Khulna University building
Brajalal College pond

Educational institutions in the city include Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET). The university, earlier known as Bangladesh Institute of Technology, Khulna, is the only engineering university in Khulna and was listed in the 2019 edition of QS Asian University Rankings.[22] Brajalal College, founded in 1902, is the city's oldest higher-education institution. Khulna University is the only public university in Bangladesh where student politics is prohibited.[23] There is also an agriculture university, named Khulna Agricultural University (KAU) was founded in 2019.[24] Sheikh Hasina Medical University and Khulna Medical College (KMC) are public medical institutions, while North Western University, Bangladesh (NWU) and the Northern University of Business and Technology (NUBT) are private.

Sports Edit

Cricket and football are the two most popular sports in Khulna, and the Khulna Division cricket team's home ground is in the city. Khulna's cricket Bangladesh Premier League Khulna Titans was formerly the Khulna Royal Bengals. The Khulna Abahani Club played in the Bangladesh Football Premier League for several seasons before its relegation in the 2008–09 season.

Sheikh Abu Naser Stadium, the city's international sports venue (hosting test cricket, One Day International and Twenty20 International matches), became Bangladesh's seventh test-cricket venue on 21 November 2012; it also hosts several Bangladesh Premier League matches.[25] Khulna District Stadium hosts other domestic sports and cultural events.

Media Edit

Print media include the Daily Purbanchal, Daily Janmabhumi, Daily Shomoyer Khobor and Dakhinanchal Protidin. The Daily Tribune is the only English-language newspaper. Electronic media include the Khulna Gazette,[26] Protidin Shebok,[27] Shomoyer Khobor.[28] Radio stations are Bangladesh Betar Khulna, Radio Today (89.6 MHz), Radio Foorti (88.0), and Radio Khulna FM (88.8).

Tourism Edit

The Sundarbans, in Khulna District, is home to the Bengal tiger and the world's largest virgin mangrove forest. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[29] The Mosque City of Bagerhat, in Bagerhat District about 15 miles (24 km) south-east of Khulna, is also a World Heritage Site.[30]

Rabindra Complex is in the village of Dakkhindihi, 19 kilometres (12 mi) from Khulna. The home of Rabindranath Tagore's father-in-law, Beni Madhab Roy Chowdhury, Tagore visited several times. The museum has been renovated and is administered by Bangladesh's Department of Archaeology.[31] The Khulna Divisional Museum, founded in 1998, was established by the country's Department of Archaeology.

Notable residents Edit

References Edit

  1. ^ "Area, Population and Literacy Rate by Paurashava −2001" (PDF). Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. 2001. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 June 2008. Retrieved 19 August 2009.
  2. ^ "Khulna Population 2022 (Demographics, Maps, Graphs)".
  3. ^ "Basic Statistics". Khulna City Corporation.
  4. ^ Tapan Palit (2012). "Khulna City Corporation". In Sirajul Islam and Ahmed A. Jamal (ed.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  5. ^ "Bangladesh–10 Largest Cities". Archived from the original on 13 February 2019. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
  6. ^ "Population & Housing Census-2011" (PDF). Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. p. 44. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
  7. ^ Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2007). World and Its Peoples: Eastern and Southern Asia. Marshall Cavendish. p. 491. ISBN 9780761476313.
  8. ^ Girard, Luigi Fusco (2003). The Human Sustainable City: Challenges and Perspectives from the Habitat Agenda. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 298. ISBN 9780754609452.
  9. ^ "জেলার ঐতিহ্য". Khulna District Portal. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 21 December 2013.
  10. ^ a b Hunter, William Wilson (1908). Imperial Gazetteer of India. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. p. 287.
  11. ^ Salik, Siddiq, Witness to Surrender, pp126
  12. ^ "War of Liberation, The". Banglapedia. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
  13. ^ Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics; Area, Population and Literacy Rate by Paurashava – 2001 (pdf-file) Retrieved on 29 September 2008.
  14. ^ Murray, N.J.; Clemens, R.S.; Phinn, S.R.; Possingham, H.P.; Fuller, R.A. (2014). "Tracking the rapid loss of tidal wetlands in the Yellow Sea" (PDF). Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 12 (5): 267–272. doi:10.1890/130260.
  15. ^ "Monthly Maximum Temperature". Bangladesh Meteorological Department. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
  16. ^ "Monthly Minimum Temperature". Bangladesh Meteorological Department. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
  17. ^ "Normal Monthly Rainfall". Bangladesh Meteorological Department. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
  18. ^ "Normal Monthly Rainy Day". Bangladesh Meteorological Department. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
  19. ^ "Normal Monthly Humidity". Bangladesh Meteorological Department. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
  20. ^ a b c "Community Series - Khulna District" (PDF). Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics.
  21. ^ "Khan Jahan Ali Airport no longer a priority project". 29 June 2021.
  22. ^ "Khulna University of Engineering and Technology".
  23. ^ "Khulna University". Archived from the original on 3 March 2019.
  24. ^ "Academic activities of Khulna Agricultural University commence". United News of Bangladesh. 30 January 2019. Retrieved 20 August 2022.
  25. ^ "BPL 2013 to kick off on January 17". ESPN Cricinfo. 11 October 2012. Retrieved 31 October 2012.
  26. ^ "Khulna Gazette" (in Bengali). Retrieved 20 August 2022.
  27. ^ "Protidin Shebok Newsportal" (in Bengali). Retrieved 20 August 2022.
  28. ^ "Shomoyer Khobor" (in Bengali). Retrieved 20 August 2022.
  29. ^ "The Sundarbans". World Heritage List. UNESCO. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
  30. ^ "Historic Mosque City of Bagerhat". World Heritage List. UNESCO. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
  31. ^ "Rabindra museum draws huge crowd". The Independent (Bangladesh). Retrieved 13 September 2019.

External links Edit