The BANGLADESH PORTAL
21:29, Monday, January 21, 2019 (UTC) • 3:29, Tuesday January 22, 2019 (BST) • Magh 9
Bangladesh (; Bengali: বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh [ˈbaŋladeʃ] (listen), lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ Gônoprojatontri Bangladesh), is a country in South Asia. It shares land borders with India and Myanmar (Burma).The country's maritime territory in the Bay of Bengal is roughly equal to the size of its land area. Bangladesh is the world's eighth most populous country. Dhaka is its capital and largest city, followed by Chittagong, which has the country's largest port. Bangladesh forms the largest and easternmost part of the Bengal region. Bangladeshis include people from a range of ethnic groups and religions. Bengalis, who speak the official Bengali language, make up 98% of the population. The politically dominant Bengali Muslims make the nation the world's third largest Muslim-majority country. Islam is the official religion of Bangladesh.
Most of Bangladesh is covered by the Bengal Delta, the largest delta on Earth. The country has 700 rivers and 8,046 km (5,000 mi) of inland waterways. Highlands with evergreen forests are found in the northeastern and southeastern regions of the country. Bangladesh has many islands and a coral reef. The second longest unbroken sea beach of the world, Cox's Bazar Beach, is located in the southeast. It is home to the Sundarbans, the largest mangrove forest in the world. The country's biodiversity includes a vast array of plant and wildlife, including endangered Bengal tigers, the national animal.
The Greeks and Romans identified the region as Gangaridai, a powerful kingdom of the historical Indian subcontinent, in the 3rd century BCE. Archaeological research has unearthed several ancient cities in Bangladesh, which enjoyed international trade links for millennia. The Bengal Sultanate and Mughal Bengal transformed the region into a cosmopolitan Islamic imperial power between the 14th and 18th centuries. The region was home to many principalities that made use of their inland naval prowess. It was also a notable center of the global muslin and silk trade. As part of British India, the region was influenced by the Bengali renaissance and played an important role in anti-colonial movements. The Partition of British India made East Bengal a part of the Dominion of Pakistan; and renamed it as East Pakistan. The region witnessed the Bengali Language Movement in 1952 and the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. After independence was achieved, a parliamentary republic was established. A presidential government was in place between 1975 and 1990, followed by a return to parliamentary democracy. The country continues to face challenges in the areas of poverty, education, healthcare, and corruption.
Bangladesh is a middle power and a developing nation. Listed as one of the Next Eleven, its economy ranks 43rd in terms of nominal gross domestic product and 29th in terms of purchasing power parity. It is one of the largest textile exporters in the world. Its major trading partners are the European Union, the United States, China, India, Japan, Malaysia and Singapore. With its strategically vital location between South, East and Southeast Asia, Bangladesh is an important promoter of regional connectivity and cooperation. It is a founding member of SAARC, BIMSTEC, the Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar Forum for Regional Cooperation and the Bangladesh Bhutan India Nepal Initiative. It is also a member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Commonwealth of Nations, the Developing 8 Countries, the OIC, the Indian-Ocean Rim Association, the Non Aligned Movement, the Group of 77 and the World Trade Organization. Bangladesh is one of the largest contributors to United Nations peacekeeping forces.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
was a military confrontation between India
that occurred during the liberation war
in East Pakistan
from 3 December 1971 to the fall of Dacca
) on 16 December 1971. The war began with preemptive aerial strikes
on 11 Indian air stations
, which led to the commencement of hostilities with Pakistan and Indian entry into the war of independence
in East Pakistan on the side of Bengali nationalist forces
. Lasting just 13 days, it is one of the shortest wars in history.
During the war, Indian and Pakistani militaries simultaneously clashed on the eastern and western fronts; the war ended after the Eastern Command of the Pakistan military signed the Instrument of Surrender on 16 December 1971 in Dhaka, marking the formation of East Pakistan as the new nation of Bangladesh. Officially, East Pakistan had earlier called for its secession from the unity of Pakistan on 26 March 1971. Approximately 90,000 to 93,000 Pakistani servicemen were taken prisoner by the Indian Army, which included 79,676 to 81,000 uniformed personnel of the Pakistan Armed Forces, including some Bengali soldiers who had remained loyal to Pakistan. The remaining 10,324 to 12,500 prisoners were civilians, either family members of the military personnel or collaborators (razakars). It is estimated that between 300,000 and 3,000,000 civilians were killed in Bangladesh. As a result of the conflict, a further eight to ten million people fled the country to seek refuge in India.
During the 1971 Bangladesh war for independence, members of the Pakistani military and supporting Islamist militias called the Razakars raped between 200,000 and 400,000 Bangladeshi women and girls in a systematic campaign of genocidal rape.
Where in Bangladesh...
in Bangladesh known for its wide sandy beach, is believed to be the world's longest (120 km) natural sandy sea beach. It is located 152 km south of Chittagong
Photo Credit: ed g2s
This is a photographic reproduction of an original two-dimensional work of art by Francis Hayman
(1708–1776) created in 1762. The artwork is showing Lord Clive
meeting with Mir Jafar
after the Battle of Plassey
(1757). Hayman based much of the painting off of Indian miniatures, as he had never been to India and had no firsthand knowledge of Indian dress. The painting was displayed in Vauxhall
soon after completion.
The District of Rangamati
is a part of the Chittagong Hill Tracts
and is one of the most beautiful districts of the country. Its beauty lies in the people, culture, landscape and lifestyle. This picture featuring the skyline of Rangamati has been taken at Tabalchhori at BDR Rangamati.
Photo Credit: Sakib
is a traditional Bengali
sweet originated from Porabari
, Bangladesh. It is a very popular dessert in Bangladesh
. The cuisine comes in a variety of colors, mainly light pink, light yellow, and white. It is coated with coconut or mawa flakes as a garnish
. The sweet is oval and brownish.
Photo Credit: P.K.Niyogi
Asian Pied Starling
(Sturnus contra) is one of the 12 species of sturnidae
family birds that are resident in Bangladesh
. Locally known as Myna
) or Shalik
), these birds build their nests in holes or cavities in trees or buildings, or large globular structures of straw, twigs, etc. in trees.
Photo Credit: J.M.Garg
The District of Rangamati is a part of the Chittagong Hill Tracts and is one of the most beautiful districts of the country. Its beauty lies in the people, culture, landscape and lifestyle. The Hanging Bridge
at Rangamti district
, pictured here, is a famous landmark and tourist attraction of the district.
Photo Credit: Shakhawat Hossen Shafat
Jatiyo Sangsad Bhaban
is the National Assembly Building of Bangladesh
, located in the capital Dhaka
. It was created by architect Louis I. Kahn
and is one of the largest legislative complexes in the world. It houses all parliamentary activities of Bangladesh.
Photo Credit: Karl Ernst Roehl
, is the first day of the Bengali calendar, celebrated in both Bangladesh
and West Bengal
, and in Bengali
communities in Assam
. The most colourful New Year's Day festival takes place in Dhaka
. On this occasion the students and teachers of Institute of Fine Arts, University of Dhaka
take out a colourful procession and parade round the campus. This image shows a glimpse of the parade.
Photo Credit: Niloy
, one of the remotest districts of Bangladesh, is famous for the beauty of its hilly terrain. The numerous Buddhist temples and bihars in the town, Prantik Lake, Jibannagar and Kyachlong Lake are some more places of interest. Boat ride on the river Sangu is another attraction for tourists. This image shows the skyline of the district from the pouplar Nilachol resort managed by Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation
Photo Credit: Fahad Faisal
St. Martin's Island
is a small island in the northeastern part of the Bay of Bengal
, about 9 km south of the tip of the Cox's Bazar
peninsula, and forming the southernmost part of Bangladesh. There is a small adjoining island that is separated at high tide, called Chera Dwip
. It is about 8 kilometres (5 miles) west of the northwest coast of Myanmar
, at the mouth of the Naf River
Photo Credit: Niaz morshed Shovon
, the official residential palace and seat of the Dhaka Nawab Family
, situated on the banks of the Buriganga River
. The palace
is now a museum.
Photo Credit: Mahbub Hossain Shaheed (mahosha)
In Bangladesh there are many tribal people live in Sylhet, Dinajpur, Cox's Bazar, Mymensingh, Rajshahi etc. But majority of tribal people live in the Chittagong Hill Tracts
. This picture features a tribal
kid with her little sister tied in her back at Farukpara, Bandarban
Photo Credit: Mohammad Rakibul Hasan
is a cotton fabric
of plain weave made in a wide range of weights from delicate sheers to coarse sheeting. This fabric used to be imported into Europe from India in the 17th century and was later manufactured in Scotland and England. Early muslin was hand woven of uncommonly delicate handspun yarn, especially in the region around Dhaka
, Bengal (now Bangladesh
). The picture depicts an 18th-century woman in Dhaka
clad in fine Bengali muslin.
Photo Credit: Francesco Renaldi
The Khan Mohammad Mridha Mosque
on Lalbagh road is situated less than half a kilometre west of the Lalbagh Fort
, in an area called Atish Khana
in old Dhaka
. Two Persian inscriptions, one over the central archway and the other over the central Mihrab, speak of its construction during 1704–05 AD.
Photo Credit: Ragib Hasan
Did you know...
Sher-e-Bangla National Cricket Stadium
- ... that Nawab Faizunnesa was the first woman in south Asia to be awarded the title of "Nawab" by Queen Victoria, for her campaign for female education and other social issues?
- ... that in most of the killings of the Bangladesh Drug War the victims were shot at night, and weapons and drugs were found near the bodies?
Kazi Nazrul Islam (Bengali: কাজী নজরুল ইসলাম) (25 May 1899–29 August 1976) was a Bengali poet, musician, revolutionary, and philosopher who pioneered poetic works espousing intense spiritual rebellion against orthodoxy and oppression. His poetry and nationalist activism earned him the popular title of Bidrohi Kobi (Rebel Poet). Accomplishing a large body of acclaimed works through his life, Nazrul is officially recognised as the national poet of Bangladesh and commemorated in India.
Born in a poor Muslim family, Nazrul received religious education and worked as a muezzin at a local mosque. He learned of poetry, drama, and literature while working with theatrical groups. After serving in the British Indian Army, Nazrul established himself as a journalist in Kolkata (then Calcutta). He assailed the British Raj in India and preached revolution through his poetic works, such as "Bidrohi" ("The Rebel") and "Bhangar Gaan" ("The Song of Destruction"), as well as his publication "Dhumketu" ("The Comet"). His impassioned activism in the Indian independence movement often led to his imprisonment by British authorities. While in prison, Nazrul wrote the "Rajbandir Jabanbandi" ("Deposition of a Political Prisoner") and condemned Islamic fundamentalism, orthodox traditions and bigotry in society. Exploring the life and conditions of the downtrodden masses of India, Nazrul agitated fiercely for their emancipation.
Nazrul's writings explore themes such as love, freedom, and revolution; he opposed all bigotry, including religious and gender. Throughout his career, Nazrul wrote short stories, novels, and essays but is best-known for his poems, in which he pioneered new forms such as Bengali ghazals. Nazrul wrote and composed music for his nearly 3,000 songs, collectively known as Nazrul geeti (Nazrul songs), which are widely popular today. At the age of 43 (in 1942) he began suffering from an unknown disease, losing his voice and memory. What was later diagnosed as Pick's Disease, caused Nazrul's health to decline steadily and forced him to live in isolation for many years. Invited by the Government of Bangladesh, Nazrul and his family moved to Dhaka in 1972, where he died four years later. (more...)