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Minakhan is a community development block that forms an administrative division in Basirhat subdivision of North 24 Parganas district in the Indian state of West Bengal.

Minakhan
Community development block
Minakhan is located in West Bengal
Minakhan
Minakhan
Location in West Bengal, India
Coordinates: 22°30′04″N 88°43′08″E / 22.501°N 88.719°E / 22.501; 88.719Coordinates: 22°30′04″N 88°43′08″E / 22.501°N 88.719°E / 22.501; 88.719
Country India
StateWest Bengal
DistrictNorth 24 Parganas
Government
 • TypeRepresentative democracy
Area
 • Total158.82 km2 (61.32 sq mi)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total199,084
 • Density1,300/km2 (3,200/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialBengali, English
Literacy (2011)
 • Total literates122,283 (71.33%)
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
743441 (Minakhan)
Telephone/STD code03217
ISO 3166 codeIN-WB
Vehicle registrationWB-23, WB-24, WB-25, WB-26
Lok Sabha constituencyBasirhat
Vidhan Sabha constituencyMinakhan
Websitenorth24parganas.nic.in

Contents

GeographyEdit

Minakhan is located at 22°30′04″N 88°43′08″E / 22.501°N 88.719°E / 22.501; 88.719.

 
CD Blocks in North 24 Parganas district of West Bengal

Minakhan CD Block is bounded by Basirhat I CD Block in the north, Hasnabad and Sandeshkhali I CD Blocks in the east, Bhangar I and Bhangar II CD Blocks in South 24 Parganas district in the south and west, and Haroa CD Block in the west.[1]

Minakhan CD Block is part of the North Bidyadhari Plain, one of the three physiographic regions in the district located in the lower Ganges Delta. The area is full of marshes and salt water lakes. The Bidyadhari has a long course through the central part of the district.[2]

Minakhan CD Block has an area of 158.82 km2. It has 1 panchayat samity, 8 gram panchayats, 109 gram sansads (village councils), 74 mouzas and 73 inhabited villages. Minakhan police station serves this block.[3] Headquarters of this CD Block is at Minakhan.[4]

Gram panchayats of Minakhan block/ panchayat samiti are: Atpukur, Chaital, Dhuturdaha, Minakhan, Bamanpukur, Champali, Kumarjole and Mohanpur.[5]

SundarbansEdit

The Sundarbans is a flat lowland susceptible to storm surges along the 260 km shoreline of the Bay of Bengal. The total expanse of Sundarbans is about 2.05 million hectares (8,000 square miles). Of this, only 0.42 million hectares (1,629 square miles or 10,43,000 acres) are under the reserve forests including about 0.19 million hectares covered by creeks and channels. The area is prone to natural calamities such as cyclones, thunderstorms with occasional hail and floods. There are more than 63,400 km of embankments but the floods caused by high tidal bores, often wash away much of the embankments, already weakened and broken by earlier cyclonic storms.[6]

In May 2009, the district was hit by high speed cyclone named Aila and subsequent rainfall which continued for two days. This created a disaster in 20 out of 22 blocks of the district. 10 out of 27 municipalities of the district were also severely affected.[6]

Six CD Blocks of North 24 Parganas are included in the Sundabans area – Hingalganj, Hasnabad, Sandeskhali I and II, Minakhan and Haora.[6] The south-eastern part of the district gradually merges into the Sunderbans.[7]

DemographicsEdit

PopulationEdit

As per 2011 Census of India Minakhan CD Block had a total population of 199,084, of which 191,973 were rural and 7,111 were urban. There were 101,827 (51%) males and 97,257 (49%) females. Population below 6 years was 27,645. Scheduled Castes numbered 60,578 (30.43%) and Scheduled Tribes numbered 18,564 (9.32%).[8]

As per 2001 census, Minakhan block has a total population of 168,233 out of which 86,772 were males and 81,461 were females.[9]

There are two census towns in Minakhan CD Block (2011 census figures in brackets): Minakhan (3,474) and Balihati (3,637).[8]

Large villages in Mina Khan CD Block (2011 census figures in brackets): Uchildaha (6,986), Atpukur (7,717), Mohanpur (12,459), Baukhola (4,690), Debitala (5,744), Bargan Gopalpur (4,065), Kumarjol (7,967), Jaygram (4,962), Taplakushangra (4,738), Bamanpukuria (6,421) and Chaital (11,927).[8]

North 24 Parganas district is densely populated, mainly because of the influx of refugees from East Pakistan (later Bangladesh). With a density of population of 2,182 per km2 in 1971, it was 3rd in terms of density per km2 in West Bengal after Kolkata and Howrah, and 20th in India.[10] According to the District Human Development Report: North 24 Parganas, “High density is also explained partly by the rapid growth of urbanization in the district. In 1991, the percentage of urban population in the district has been 51.23.”[11]

Decadal Population Growth Rate (%)

 

The decadal growth of population in Minakhan CD Block in 2001-2011 was 17.83%.[12] The decadal growth of population in Minakhan CD Block in 1991-2001 was 23.01%.[13]

The decadal growth rate of population in North 24 Parganas district was as follows: 47.9% in 1951-61, 34.5% in 1961-71, 31.4% in 1971-81, 31.7% in 1981-91, 22.7% in 1991-2001 and 12.0% in 2001-11.[14] The decadal growth rate for West Bengal in 2001-11 was 13.93%.[15] The decadal growth rate for West Bengal was 17.84% in 1991-2001, 24.73% in 1981-1991 and 23.17% in 1971-1981.[16]

Only a small portion of the border with Bangladesh has been fenced and it is popularly referred to as a porous border. It is freely used by Bangladeshi infiltrators, terrorists, smugglers, criminals et al.[17][18][19][20]

LiteracyEdit

As per the 2011 census, the total number of literates in Minakhan CD Block was 122,283 (71.33% of the population over 6 years) out of which males numbered 67,728 (77.20% of the male population over 6 years) and females numbered 54,555 (65.17% of the female population over 6 years). The gender disparity (the difference between female and male literacy rates) was 8.47%.[8]

See also – List of West Bengal districts ranked by literacy rate


Language and religionEdit

As per census definition, mother-tongue is the language spoken in childhood by the person’s mother to the person. As a mother-tongue, Bengali has decreased its share from 91.3% of the population of North Twenty Four Parganas district in 1961 to 87.9% in 2001, Hindi has increased its share from 5.0% in 1961 to 8.3% in 2001, Urdu has increased its share from 2.0% in 1961 to 2.5% in 2001. Other mother-tongues spoken in 2001 were Odiya (0.4%), Telugu (0.2%), Santhali (0.1%), Nepali (0.1%), Bhojpuri (0.1%) and Sadan/ Sadri (0.1%).[21]

Religion in Minakhan CD Block
Muslim
51.60%
Hindu
47.77%
Others
0.63%

In the 2011 census Muslims numbered 102,733 and formed 51.60% of the population Minakhan. Hindus numbered 95,091 and formed 47.77% of the population. Others numbered 1,260 and formed 0.63% of the population.[22]

In 1981 Muslims numbered 41,422 and formed 54.10% of the population and Hindus numbered 35,099 and formed 45.80% of the population. In 1991 Muslims numbered 76,169 and formed 55.45% of the population and Hindus numbered 60,332 and formed 43.92% of the population in Minakhan CD Block. (1981 and 1991 census was conducted as per jurisdiction of the police station.)[23]

In the 2011 census, Hindus numbered 7,352,769 and formed 73.46% of the population in North 24 Parganas district. Muslims numbered 2,584,684 and formed 25.82% of the population.[22] In West Bengal Hindus numbered 64,385,546 and formed 70.53% of the population. Muslims numbered 24,654,825 and formed 27.01% of the population.[22]

See also - North 24 Parganas: minority concentrated district

Rural PovertyEdit

38.42% of households in Minakhan CD Block lived below poverty line in 2001, against an average of 29.28% in North 24 Parganas district.[24]

EconomyEdit

LivelihoodEdit

Livelihood
in Minakhan CD Block

  Cultivators (15.10%)
  Agricultural labourers (42.82%)
  Household industries (5.93%)
  Other Workers (36.15%)

In Minakhan CD Block in 2011, amongst the class of total workers, cultivators numbered 10,316 and formed 15.10% of the total workers, agricultural labourers numbered 29,259 and formed 42.82%, household industry workers numbered 4,053 and formed 5.93% and other workers numbered 24,699 and formed 36.15%. Total workers numbered 68,327 and formed 34.32% of the total population, and non-workers numbered 130,757 and formed 65.68% of the population.[25]

In more than 30 percent of the villages in North 24 Parganas, agriculture or household industry is no longer the major source of livelihood for the main workers there. The CD Blocks in the district can be classified as belonging to three categories: border areas, Sundarbans area and other rural areas. The percentage of other workers in the other rural areas category is considerably higher than those in the border areas and Sundarbans area.[26]

Note: In the census records a person is considered a cultivator, if the person is engaged in cultivation/ supervision of land owned by self/government/institution. When a person who works on another person’s land for wages in cash or kind or share, is regarded as an agricultural labourer. Household industry is defined as an industry conducted by one or more members of the family within the household or village, and one that does not qualify for registration as a factory under the Factories Act. Other workers are persons engaged in some economic activity other than cultivators, agricultural labourers and household workers. It includes factory, mining, plantation, transport and office workers, those engaged in business and commerce, teachers, entertainment artistes and so on.[27]

InfrastructureEdit

There are 73 inhabited villages in Minakhan CD Block. 100% villages have power supply. 69 villages (94.52%) have drinking water supply. 16 villages (21.92%) have post offices. 65 villages (93.18%) have telephones (including landlines, public call offices and mobile phones). 23 villages (31.51%) have a pucca approach road and 21 villages (28.77%) have transport communication (includes bus service, rail facility and navigable waterways). 1 village (1.37%) has an agricultural credit society and 6 villages (8.22% ) have banks.[28]

AgricultureEdit

The North 24 Parganas district Human Development Report opines that in spite of agricultural productivity in North 24 Parganas district being rather impressive 81.84% of rural population suffered from shortage of food. With a high urbanisation of 54.3% in 2001, the land use pattern in the district is changing quite fast and the area under cultivation is declining. However, agriculture is still the major source of livelihood in the rural areas of the district.[29]

From 1977 on wards major land reforms took place in West Bengal. Land in excess of land ceiling was acquired and distributed amongst the peasants.[30] Following land reforms land ownership pattern has undergone transformation. In 2010-11, persons engaged in agriculture in Minakhan CD Block could be classified as follows: bargadars 10,011 (15.34%), patta (document) holders 9,963 (15.27%), small farmers (possessing land between 1 and 2 hectares) 3,344 (5.12%), marginal farmers (possessing land up to 1 hectare) 20,808 (31.88%) and agricultural labourers 21,140 (32.39%).[31]

Minakhan CD Block had 46 fertiliser depots, 4 seed stores and no fair price shop in 2010-11.[31]

In 2010-11, Minakhan CD Block produced 10,910 tonnes of Aman paddy, the main winter crop from 4,308 hectares, 123 tonnes of Aus paddy (summer crop) from 65 hectares, 6,926 tonnes of wheat from 2,658 hectares and 900 tonnes of potatoes from 45 hectares. It also produced pulses and oilseeds.[31]

There were no irrigation facilities in Minakhan in 2010-11.[31]

PiscicultureEdit

In 2010-11, the net area under effective pisciculture in Minakhan CD Block was 6,450.46 hectares. 17,638 persons were engaged in the profession. Approximate annual production was 193,513.8 quintals.[31]

BankingEdit

In 2010-11, Minakhan CD Block had offices of 4 commercial banks and 1 gramin bank.[31]

TransportEdit

In 2010-11, Minakhan CD Block had 7 ferry services and 12 originating/ terminating bus routes. The nearest railway station is 20 km from CD Block headquarters.[31]

SH 3 passes through this CD Block. SH 2 terminates at its junction with SH 3 at Malancha.[32][33]

EducationEdit

In 2010-11, Minakhan CD Block had 83 primary schools with 15,856 students, 2 middle schools with 653 students, 6 high schools with 3,673 students and 7 higher secondary schools with 6,857 students. Minakhan CD Block had 1 general college with 1,220 students and 411 institutions for special and non-formal education with 15,555 students.[31]

Bamanpukur Humayun Kabir Mahavidyalaya was established at Bamanpukuria in 1973.[34][35]

As per the 2011 census, in Minakhan CD Block, amongst the 73 inhabited villages, 17 villages did not have a school, 17 villages had more than 1 primary school, 22 villages had at least 1 primary and 1 middle school and 11 villages had at least 1 middle and 1 secondary school.[36]

HealthcareEdit

In 2011, Minakhan CD Block had 1 rural hospital and 2 primary health centres, with total 41 beds and 7 doctors (excluding private bodies). It had 39 family welfare subcentres. 2,303 patients were treated indoors and 74,623 patients were treated outdoor in the hospitals, health centres and subcentres of the CD Block.[31]

Minakhan Rural Hopital at Minakhan with 25 beds functions as the main medical facility in Minakhan CD Block. There are primary health centres at Nimichi (with 6 beds) and Duturdaha (with 10 beds).[37]

Minakhan block is one of the areas where ground water is affected by arsenic contamination.[38]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "North 24 Parganas District". Map Gallery – CD Blocks. North 24 Parganas district administration. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
  2. ^ "District Census Handbook North Twenty Four Parganas, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Page 13. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  3. ^ "District Statistical Handbook". North 24 Parganas 2010-2011, Tables 2.1, 2.2. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  4. ^ "District Census Handbook North Twenty Four Parganas, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Map of North Twenty Four Parganas with CD Block HQs and Police Stations (on the fifth page). Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  5. ^ "Directory of District, Subdivision, Panchayat Samiti/ Block and Gram Panchayats in West Bengal". North Twentfour Parganas - Revised in March 2008. Panchayats and Rural Development Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  6. ^ a b c "District Human Development Report: North 24 Parganas" (PDF). p 250. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2010. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
  7. ^ LSS O’Malley. "Bengal District Gazetteers: 24 Parganas". p 1-4. Google Books. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
  8. ^ a b c d "C.D. Block Wise Primary Census Abstract Data(PCA)". West Bengal – District-wise CD Blocks. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  9. ^ "Census of India 2001, Provisional Population Totals, West Bengal, Table - 4". North Twenty Four Parganas District (11). Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 2010-10-25.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  10. ^ "District Human Development Report: North 24 Parganas" (PDF). Intro P 6. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  11. ^ "District Human Development Report: North 24 Parganas" (PDF). Page 259, Table 11.2.2. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  12. ^ "District Census Handbook: North 24 Parganas, Series 20 Part XII A" (PDF). Brief Analysis of Inset Tables based on Primary Census Abstract 2011 (Inset Tables 1-35), Table I: Decadal change in population of Tahsils (Sub-district) by Residence, 2001-2011, Page 52. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  13. ^ "District Statistical Handbook". North 24 Parganas 2010-2011; Table 2.4A: Distribution of Rural and Urban Population by Sex in the district of North 24 Parganas, 1991; Table 2.4B: Distribution of Rural and Urban Population by Sex in the district of North 24 Parganas, 2001. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  14. ^ "District Census Handbook: North 24 Parganas, Series 20 Part XII A" (PDF). Growth Rate, Page 45. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
  15. ^ "Census of India 2011: Provisional Totals for West Bengal". Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
  16. ^ "District Human Development Report: North 24 Parganas" (PDF). Page 40, Table 3.2.1. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  17. ^ "Why BSF wants 81.7 km of Indo-Bangla border fenced urgently". Rediff.com. 21 August 2016. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  18. ^ Mishra, Abhinandan. "Laskar helped fan Basirhat tension". Sunday Guardian, 8 July 2017. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  19. ^ "Infiltrating porous Bangladesh-India border". Aljazeera. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  20. ^ "Bangladeshi Infiltrators – the Reality Check". The Pioneer, 27 June 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  21. ^ "District Census Handbook North Twenty Four Parganas, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Page 50: Mother-tongue. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  22. ^ a b c "C1 Population by Religious Community". West Bengal. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  23. ^ "Block Level Statistics of North 24 Parganas District" (PDF). Handbook 2004. Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  24. ^ "District Human Development Report: North 24 Parganas" (PDF). Page 259, Table 11.2.2. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  25. ^ "District Census Handbook North 24 Parganas, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Page 93, Table 33: Distribution of Workers by Sex in Four Categories ofEconomic Activity in Sub-district 2011; Page 84, Table 30: Number and Percentage of Main Workers, Marginal Workers and Non-workers by sex in sub-districts, 2011. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  26. ^ "District Human Development Report: North 24 Parganas" (PDF). Pages 27-28. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  27. ^ "District Census Handbook North 24 Parganas, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Census Concepts and Definitions, Page 31. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  28. ^ "District Census Handbook, Nort 24 Parganas district, 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Pages 103-104, Table 36: Distribution of villages according to availability of different amenities,2011. Directorate of Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  29. ^ "District Human Development Report: North 24 Parganas" (PDF). Pages 66, 195. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  30. ^ "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". (1) Chapter 1.2, South 24 Parganas in Historical Perspective, pages 7-9 (2) Chapter 3.4, Land reforms, pages 32-33. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2009. Retrieved 7 August 2016.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i "District Statistical Handbook". North 24 Parganas 2010-2011, Tables 17.2, 16.1, 18.1, 18.2, 18.3, 20.1, 21.2, 4.4, 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3 (arranged in order of use). Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  32. ^ "District Census Handbook North Twenty Four Parganas, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Map of Minakhan CD Block, Page 619. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  33. ^ "List of State Highways in West Bengal". West Bengal Traffic Police. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  34. ^ "Bamanpukur Humayun Kabir Mahavidyalaya". BHKM. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  35. ^ "Bamanpukur Humayun Kabir Mahavidyalay". Target Admission. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  36. ^ "District Census Handbook, North Twentyfour Parganas, 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Page 717, Appendix I A: Villages by number of Primary Schools and Appendix I B: Villages by Primary, Middle and Secondary Schools. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  37. ^ "Health & Family Welfare Department". Health Statistics. Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
  38. ^ "Groundwater Arsenic contamination in West Bengal-India (20 years study )". Groundwater arsenic contamination status of North 24-Parganas district, one of the nine arsenic affected districts of West Bengal-India. SOES. Retrieved 18 March 2016.