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Nadia district (pronounced [nɔd̪iːaː]) is a district in the state of West Bengal, in eastern India. It borders Bangladesh to the east, North 24 Parganas and Hooghly districts to the south, Purba Bardhaman to the west, and Murshidabad to the north.

Nadia district
District of West Bengal
Location of Nadia district in West Bengal
Location of Nadia district in West Bengal
Country India
State West Bengal
Administrative division Presidency
Headquarters Krishnanagar, Nadia
Government
 • Lok Sabha constituencies Krishnanagar, Ranaghat Some of area covered with Bangaon
 • Assembly seats Karimpur, Tehatta, Palashipara, Kaliganj, Nakashipara, Chapra, Krishnanagar Uttar, Nabadwip, Krishnanagar Dakshin, Santipur, Ranaghat Uttar Paschim, Krishnaganj, Ranaghat Uttar Purba, Ranaghat Dakshin, Chakdaha, Kalyani, Haringhata
Area
 • Total 3,927 km2 (1,516 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Total 5,168,488
 • Density 1,300/km2 (3,400/sq mi)
 • Urban 979,519
Demographics
 • Literacy 75.58 per cent[1]
 • Sex ratio 947
Major highways NH 34 State Highway 11
Website Official website

Contents

HistoryEdit

Nabadwip, a town in Nadia district, is often referred to as “Oxford of Bengal”.[2] Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (b.1486–d.1534) was born in Nabadwip. One of the Indian schools of logic (Tarka sastra) called Navya Nyaya system was developed in Nabadwip, which produced great logicians in the 15th century. Nabadwip was an important seat of political power in Bengal under Ballal Sen and later Lakshman Sen, kings of the Sena Empire, who ruled from 1159 to 1206.[3] In 1202, Nabadwip was captured by Bakhtiyar Khilji. This victory paved the way for Muslim rule in Bengal.[4] Nabadwip and some other places in Nadia were centres of learning and intellectual prowess. It was the place where Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, a major Hindu saint, reformer was born and lived. The religious atmosphere of Nabadwip is a combination of Vaishnava, Shakta, Buddhist, Shaiva. The main festival of Nabadwip is "Rash Utsab" (Rasa lila). It is also known as "Pat Purnima" or "Rash Kali Puja" or "Shakta Rash". The varieties of Baishnaba, Shakta, Saiba Pratima (Idols) attracts every one.

Raja Krishnachandra (1710-1783) was a raja and zamindar of Krishnagar, Nadia, West Bengal, India from 1728 to 1782. He belonged to the Nadia Raj family. According to 1968's History of Bengal: Mughal period, 1526-1762, Krishnachandra was "the most important man of the period in the Hindu society of Bengal." He is credited not only with his resistance to the Mughal rule, but with his expansion of and patronage of the arts in his kingdom.

During his reign, Krishnachandra was highly influential on Hindu practices, for which reason Raja Rajballabh Sen of Bikrampur sought the assistance of his pandits in supporting the overturning of the prohibition on widow remarriage after his own daughter was widowed young. Krishnachandra strongly opposed the measure. To illustrate his feelings, legend relates, he had the visitors served the meat of a buffalo calf. Offended, they rejected the food on their honor as orthodox Hindus, and when challenged, indicated that though it was not explicitly prohibited, it was neither their practice nor their custom. Krishnachandra's courtiers pointed out that they had taken umbrage at being presented something not forbidden but against custom, but that they expected Krishnachandra to accept their own unorthodox proposal. With the opposition of Krishnachandra, Rajballabh failed to achieve the change he sought.

Another legend connected to Krishnachandra involved the conflict between his diwan, Raghunandan, and Manikchandra, the diwan of Burdwan and a future raja. After Raghunandan and Manikchandra quarreled, Manikchandra accused the other man of theft and had sufficient power to order and see to his execution. In, the book "Land and Local Kingship in Eighteenth-Century Bengal", John McLane speculates that the root of the disagreement may have been Manikchandra's well-known resentment of Krishnachandra's patronage of the poet Bharatchandra, who had insulted the Burdwan raj family in a poem in retaliation for their depriving him of his own family estate.

Krishnachandra is also legendarily associated with the popularization of the worship of the Hindu goddess Jagaddhatri. According to the story, Krishnachandra had been imprisoned by Muslims, causing him to miss the celebration of Durga Puja. Durga appeared to him in the form of Jagaddhatri and ordered him to worship her in one month, which he did, commissioning a sculptor to create a statue of the goddess. Eminent Shakta poet of that era, Sadhak Ramprasad Sen became well known for his devotional songs, eventually becoming the court poet of Raja Krishnachandra.

Krishnachandra, Jagat Seth, Mir Jafar, Omichund were in a group which conspired against Siraj ud-Daulah and confided with Robert Clive, which led to the defeat of Siraj ud-Dullah in the Battle of Plassey and the foundation of British rule in India. Krishnachandra, unlike Omichund, remained on friendly terms with the British and especially Robert Clive. This relationship served him well in the 1760s when Bengal Nawab Mir Qasim ordered Krishnachandra's execution, for Clive not only overruled it but gifted Krishnachandra five cannons, the title maharaja, and governance as zamindar of the area of Krishnanagar.

Gopal Bhar or Gopal Bhand (Bengali: গোপাল ভাঁড়) was a jester in Krishnachandra's court. The king considered Gopal as a Navaratnas of his court.[5][6] His statue can still be seen in the palace of Krishnachandra and in the town of Ghurni in Krishnagar. Gopal was very intelligent and very keen of his idea.

Gopal, coming from a so-called low caste family, was quite intelligent from childhood. This made the upper caste brahmins jealous and they sought revenge upon Gopal and his family. His father died in Gopal's childhood, his mother was forced to flee to Sati-daha, and his elder brother became enslaved, while Gopal himself was abducted by an robber gang, where a lady raised him and at an adult age Gopal entered Krishnanagar Raj.

Stories about his exploits are narrated in West Bengal and Bangladesh to this day in numerous short stories. The stories are popular, short, beautiful, humorous and have specific social messages. His stories are comparable with those of Birbal, Tenali Raman and Molla Nasiruddin.

In the early nineteenth century, Gopal Bhar's name was first mentioned in Bengali literature. It is often said that Gopal Bhar is a legendary personality. But a reference has found that there was a bodyguard of Krishnachandra, named Shankar Taranga, who was given special status by the king for his courage and knowledge and probably gave rise to the legend of Gopal Bhar. There are many contradictory views regarding Gopal Bhar, whether he existed or not. Acharya Sukumar Sen, a linguist, opined that the character Gopal is purely fictitious.

GeographyEdit

Important townsEdit

Krishnanagar is the district headquarters of Nadia. It is located on the bank of Jalangi River. Krishnanagar is named after Raja Krishnachandra Roy (1728–1782). This was also a cultural heritage town of ancient Bengal.

Nabadwip was the capital of Bengal under Ballal Sen and later Lakshman Sen, the famous rulers of the Sena Empire, who ruled from 1159 to 1206.

And the birthplace of Sree Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.[3]

Kalyani is another important city and only smart city of this district. It was identified (and named) by Bidhan Chandra Roy to act as an alternative to the city of Kolkata, from which it is about 50 km away. Kalyani also known of education, industrial hub & medical hub in this district.

Ranaghat, situated 74 kilometres north of Kolkata on the bank of Churni River, is famous for its railway communication. Before the Indo -Bangladesh partition it was the most important junction station of Sealdah–Ranaghat line.

Santipur is a very old and popular city in Nadia district. This small town has been declared a city recently. The fort area of this city, also known as Daak-Gharh (calling or gathering room) is thought to have been built by Raja Krishnachandra of Nadia.

Chakdaha is also an important and old town of this district.

Birnagar is also an important town and oldest municipality of this district. Poet Nabinchandra Sen, writer Rajshekhar Basu (Parashuram) and Bhakti Vinod Thakur are famous person of Birnagar area.

Badkulla is also an important semi town of this district situated at a distance of 10 kilometres from district headquarters Krishnnaagar.

Bethuadahari is an important town of this district. This place is very much famous for Bethuadahari Wildlife Sanctuary.

Palashipara is an important semi town of Nadia in the bank of Jalangi River.

Shyamnagar is near Palashipara. Its a popular village. Its Pincode is 751155. Siddheswaritala Institution is here.

Tehatta is another subdivisional town of the district. It is the newest subdivision in the district of Nadia.

Palashi is a historical town of Nadia adjacent with Murshidabad District. Palashi Monument was erected there in memory of the infamous for the Battle of Plassey.

Shimurali is also a town and railway station of Nadia district. It has renowned for its cleanness and simplicity and it has 150 year old Terracotta temple near palpara. A government B.Ed college is there.

DivisionsEdit

Administrative subdivisionsEdit

The district comprises four subdivisions: Krishnanagar Sadar, Kalyani, Ranaghat and Tehatta. Krishnanagar Sadar subdivision consists of Krishnanagar municipality, Nabadwip municipality and seven community development blocks: Kaliganj, Nakashipara, Chapra, Krishnanagar–I, Krishnanagar–II, Nabadwip and Krishnaganj. Kalyani subdivision consists of Chakdaha municipality, Gayespur municipality, Kalyani municipality and two community development blocks: Chakdaha and Haringhata. Ranaghat subdivision consists of Shantipur municipality, Ranaghat municipality, Birnagar municipality and four community development blocks: Hanskhali, Shantipur, Ranaghat–I and Ranaghat–II. Tehatta subdivision consists of four community development blocks: Karimpur–I, Karimpur–II, Tehatta–I and Tehatta–II.[7] Krishnanagar is the district headquarters. There are 19 police stations, 17 development blocks, 8 municipalities, 187 gram panchayats and 2639 villages in this district.[7][8]

Other than municipality area, each subdivision contains community development blocks which in turn are divided into rural areas and census towns. In total there are 29 urban units: 8 municipalities and 15 census towns and two notified areas.[9] Ranaghat, Aistala, Satigachha, Nasra and Cooper's Camp together forms Ranaghat urban agglomeration. Nabadwip, Char Maijdia and Char Brahmanagar forms Nabadwip UA. Chakdaha, Gopalpur and Parbbatipur forms Chakdaha UA. Krishnanagar and Badkulla together forms Krishnanagar UA. Birnagar, Phulia and Taherpur together forms Birnagar UA.

Krishnanagar Sadar SubdivisionEdit

Kalyani subdivisionEdit

Ranaghat subdivisionEdit

Tehatta subdivisionEdit

Santipur is about 16 km from Krishnanagar, the headquarters of Nadia District, in West Bengal. The place has a prominent place in the history of Bengali literature. It is famous as the birthplace of Krittibas, who first translated the epic Ramayana from Sanskrit to Bengali in verses.

The residence of Krittibas is now converted into Krittibas Memorial Community Hall cum Museum Library. Adjacent to this is a Gofa, the place of worship of Thakur Haridas.

The Ganges River flows close to the town. Santipur is also famous for producing Tangail Saree and Raas Utsaab.

The town of Plassey has a memorial of the Battle of Plassey, which took place on 23 June 1757, on the riverbanks of the Bhagirathi River, about 150 km north of Calcutta, near Murshidabad, then the capital of the Nawab of Bengal. marking a decisive victory for the British East India Company over Siraj Ud Daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal and his French allies.

Assembly constituenciesEdit

The district is divided into 17 assembly constituencies:[10]

  1. Karimpur (assembly constituency no. 77),
  2. Tehatta (assembly constituency no. 78),
  3. Palashipara (assembly constituency no. 79),
  4. Kaliganj (assembly constituency no. 80),
  5. Nakshipara (assembly constituency no. 81),
  6. Chapra (assembly constituency no. 82),
  7. Krishnanagar Uttar (assembly constituency no. 83),
  8. Nabadwip (assembly constituency no. 84),
  9. Krishnanagar Dakshin (assembly constituency no. 85),
  10. Santipur (assembly constituency no. 86),
  11. Ranaghat Uttar Paschim (assembly constituency no. 87),
  12. Krishnaganj (SC) (assembly constituency no. 88),
  13. Ranaghat Uttar Purba (SC) (assembly constituency no. 89),
  14. Ranaghat Dakshin (SC) (assembly constituency no. 90),
  15. Chakdaha (assembly constituency no. 91),
  16. Kalyani (SC) (assembly constituency no. 92) and
  17. Haringhata (SC) (assembly constituency no. 93).

Krishnaganj, Ranaghat Dakshin, Kalyani, Haringhata, Ranaghat Uttar Purba and Kaliganj constituencies are reserved for Scheduled Castes (SC) candidates. Along with six assembly constituencies from Murshidabad district, Karimpur assembly constituency forms the Murshidabad (Lok Sabha constituency). Palashipara, Nakashipara, Kaliganj, Chapra, Krishnaganj, Krishnanagar East and Krishnanagar West constituencies form the Krishnagar (Lok Sabha constituency). Nabadwip, Shantipur, Hanskhali, Ranaghat East, Ranaghat West, Chakdaha and Haringhata assembly constituencies form the Nabadwip (Lok Sabha constituency), which is reserved for Scheduled Castes (SC) candidates.

ConstituenciesEdit

Impact of delimitation of constituenciesEdit

As per order of the Delimitation Commission in respect of the delimitation of constituencies in the West Bengal, the district will be divided into 17 assembly constituencies:[11]

  1. Karimpur (assembly constituency no. 77),
  2. Tehatta (assembly constituency no. 78),
  3. Palashipara (assembly constituency no. 79),
  4. Kaliganj (assembly constituency no. 80),
  5. Nakshipara (assembly constituency no. 81),
  6. Chapra (assembly constituency no. 82),
  7. Krishnanagar Uttar (assembly constituency no. 83),
  8. Nabadwip (assembly constituency no. 84),
  9. Krishnanagar Dakshin (assembly constituency no. 85),
  10. Santipur (assembly constituency no. 86),
  11. Ranaghat Uttar Paschim (assembly constituency no. 87),
  12. Krishnaganj (SC) (assembly constituency no. 88),
  13. Ranaghat Uttar Purba (SC) (assembly constituency no. 89),
  14. Ranaghat Dakshin (SC) (assembly constituency no. 90),
  15. Chakdaha (assembly constituency no. 91),
  16. Shimurali,
  17. Kalyani (SC) (assembly constituency no. 92) and
  18. Haringhata (SC) (assembly constituency no. 93).

TransportEdit

RailEdit

Nabadwip Dham is 65 km from Bandel, 105 km from Howrah and 112 km from Sealdah on the Bandel-Katwa-Azimganj (B.A.K Loop Line) section of Eastern Railway.[12] It has three Railway Stations as Nabadwip Dham railway station (NDAE), Bishnupriya (VSPR) of Howrah Division and Nabadwip Ghat (NDF) of Sealdah Division.

Krishnanagar City Junction is 100 km from Sealdah on the Sealdah-Lalgola Section of Eastern Railway.Important express trains which has stoppage at Krishnanagar City Junction are

Kalinarayanpur Junction is 78 km from Sealdah on the sealdha-lalgola section of Eastern Railway. It is inportent station in nadia district.From this station Santipur railway branch divided.It is situated near Churni River.

Ranaghat Junction is 74 km from Sealdah on the Sealdah-Lalgola Section of Eastern Railway.It is the biggest railway station of Nadia District on the basis of huge number passenger and many trains availability.
Kalyani Junction is 46 km from Sealdah on the Sealdah Main route & 3 station inside the city- Silpanchal, Ghoshsapra & Simanta.This station is very popular for University, Colleges, Schools and Hospitals.

Santipur Junction is connected by a branch line to the main suburban network.

DemographicsEdit

According to the 2011 census Nadia district has a population of 5,168,488,[13] roughly equal to the United Arab Emirates[14] or the US state of Colorado.[15] This gives it a ranking of 18th in India (out of a total of 640).[13] The district has a population density of 1,316 inhabitants per square kilometre (3,410/sq mi) .[13] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 12.24%.[13] Nadia has a sex ratio of 947 females for every 1000 males,[13] and a literacy rate of 75.58%.[13]

ReligionsEdit

Religions of Nadia (2011)[16]

  Hinduism (72.15%)
  Islam (26.76%)
  Christian (0.65%)
  Sikhism (0.02%)
  Buddhism (0.01%)
  Jainism (0.01%)
  Others (0.33%)
  No Particular Religion (0.07%)

Flora and faunaEdit

In 1980 Nadia district became home to the Bethuadahari Wildlife Sanctuary, which has an area of 0.7 km2 (0.3 sq mi).[17]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "District-specific Literates and Literacy Rates, 2001". Registrar General, India, Ministry of Home Affairs. Retrieved 10 October 2010. 
  2. ^ Cotton, H.E.A., Calcutta Old and New, 1909/1980, p1, General Printers and Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
  3. ^ a b Official district website
  4. ^ Tourist Department Archived 9 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  5. ^ "www.historyofbengal.com: Shivniwas". www.historyofbengal.com. Retrieved 2016-04-11. 
  6. ^ Siegel, Lee (1987). [(2)https://books.google.com/books?id=d1qZhZz5RuEC Laughing Matters: Comic Tradition in India]. University of Chicago Press, United States. ISBN 0-226-75691-2. pp. 314-318.
  7. ^ a b "Directory of District, Sub division, Panchayat Samiti/ Block and Gram Panchayats in West Bengal, March 2008". West Bengal. National Informatics Centre, India. 19 March 2008. Archived from the original on 25 February 2009. Retrieved 30 November 2008. 
  8. ^ "District Profile". Official website of the Nadia district. Retrieved 30 November 2008. 
  9. ^ "Population, Decadal Growth Rate, Density and General Sex Ratio by Residence and Sex, West Bengal/ District/ Sub District, 1991 and 2001". West Bengal. Directorate of census operations. Retrieved 12 November 2008. 
  10. ^ "General election to the Legislative Assembly, 2001 – List of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies" (PDF). West Bengal. Election Commission of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 May 2006. Retrieved 22 November 2008. 
  11. ^ "Press Note, Delimitation Commission" (PDF). Assembly Constituencies in West Bengal. Delimitation Commission. Retrieved 22 November 2008. 
  12. ^ Eastern Railway time table.
  13. ^ a b c d e f "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011. 
  14. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 1 October 2011. United Arab Emirates 5,148,664 
  15. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 30 September 2011. Colorado 5,029,196 
  16. ^ "Nadia Religion 2011". Retrieved 22 March 2017. 
  17. ^ Indian Ministry of Forests and Environment. "Protected areas: West Bengal". Archived from the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2011. 

External linksEdit