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Mundari (Muɳɖa) is a Munda language of the Austroasiatic language family spoken by the Munda people in eastern India (primarily Assam and Jharkhand), Bangladesh, and Nepal. It is closely related to Santali. Mundari Bani, a script specifically to write Mundari, was invented by Rohidas Singh Nag.[3][4] It has also been written in Devanagari, Odia, Bengali, and Latin.

Mundari
ମୁଣ୍ଡା, মুন্ডা, मुंडारि
Native toIndia, Bangladesh, Nepal
EthnicityMunda
Native speakers
1,128,228 (2011 census)[1]
Austroasiatic
Dialects
  • Bhumij
Mundari Bani, Devanagari, Bengali–Assamese script, Oriya script, Latin script
Language codes
ISO 639-3unrinclusive code
Individual code:
unx – Kili (called "Munda" in the census)
Glottologmund1320[2]

Contents

HistoryEdit

According to linguist Paul Sidwell (2018), Munda languages probably arrived on coast of Odisha from Indochina about 4000–3500 years ago after Indo-Aryan migration to Odisha.[5]

DialectsEdit

Toshiki Osada (2008:99), citing the Encyclopaedia Mundarica (vol. 1, p. 6), lists the following dialects of Mundari, which are spoken mostly in Jharkhand state.

Bhumij, listed in many sources as a separate language, may in fact be a variety of the Latar (Tamaria) dialect of Mundari. It is spoken across Jharkhand state and in Mayurbhanj district, Odisha (Anderson 2008:196). There may be around 50,000 Bhumij speakers. [6]

PhonologyEdit

The phonology of Mundari is similar to the surrounding closely related Austroasiatic languages but considerably different from either Indo-Aryan or Dravidian. Perhaps the most foreign phonological influence has been on the vowels. Whereas the branches of Austroasiatic in Southeast Asia are rich in vowel phonemes, Mundari has only five. The consonant inventory of Mundari is similar to other Austroasiatic languages with the exception of retroflex consonants, which seem to appear only in loanwords. (Osada 2008)

VowelsEdit

Mundari has five vowel phonemes. All vowels have long and short as well as nasalized allophones, but neither length nor nasality are contrastive. All vowels in open monosyllables are quantitatively longer than those in closed syllables, and those following nasal consonants or /ɟ/ are nasalized. Vowels preceding or following /ɳ/ are also nasalized.

Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid e o
Open a

ConsonantsEdit

Mundari's consonant inventory consists of 23 basic phonemes. The Naguri and Kera dialects include aspirated stops as additional phonemes, here enclosed in parentheses.

Labial Dental Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Stop voiceless p ʈ t͡ɕ k ʔ
aspirated (pʰ) (t̪ʰ) (ʈʰ) (t͡ɕʰ) (kʰ)
voiced b ɖ d͡ʑ g
Fricative h
Nasal m ɳ ɲ ŋ
Approximant w l ɽ j
Trill r

CountingEdit

Mundari Transliteration Translation
मिसा Missa Once
बरसा Birsa Twice
अपिसा Apisa Thrice
उपनुसा Upnisa four times
मोंड़ेसा Mondesa Five times
तुरिसा Turisa Six times
ए'सा Eh sa Seven times
इरलसा Erklsa Eight Times
अरे-सा Are sa Nine times
गेलसा Gelsa Ten times

RelationsEdit

Mundari Transliteration Translation
ऐंन्गा Enga Mother
आपूम Apum Father
हग्गा Hagga Brother
मिस्सी Missi Sister
गुया Guya Sister/brother of sister/brother in law
गतिंग Gatin Friend

VerbEdit

Mundari Transliteration Translation
रिकाएआ-करेगा Rikā'ē'ā Does
ओलेआ Ol'ē'ā Write
जगरेआ Jagor'ē'ā Talk
पढ़वएआ Padv'ē'ā Read
लेलेआ Lel'ē'ā Look/ See
सेनेआ Sen'ē'ā Come along with
नमेआ Nem'ē'ā Found
निरेआ Nir'ē'ā Run
सबेआ Sab'ē'ā Hold
लेका एआ Leka'ē'ā Count
मुकाएआ Muka'ē'ā Measure
रिका एआ Rika'ē'ā Cut

SamplesEdit

Mundari Transliteration Translation
सिंग बोंगा मरांग बोंगा । Sing bonga marang bonga God is almighty.
अमा नुतुम चिना ? Amā nutum chénā What is your name?
अायं नुतुम रिमिल तना । A̔iy nutum Rimil tanā. My name is Rimil.
अम कोते सेनो तना? Am kōtēm sēnō tanā Where are you going?
नेते हुजू में Nētē hijū mē Come here.
अम चिल्का मेना ? Am chilkā mēnāme How are you?
आलोम नाक खुजाओ में Ālama nāka khujā'ō maiṁ Don't scratch your nose.
जागर लाई पैसा लॉगो। Jāgar natin paisā lagawa Talking costs money.
अम सिनेमा लाई सेनो तना चि का ? Ām cinēmā lel sēnō tanā cī . Will you go to Cinema?
अम चिकम चिका ताना ? Am kanam cekā tānā? What are you doing?
एमके चिकना मेना ? Ēmakē cikanā mēnā? you have any problem
अम कोते ते हिजु ताना ? Ām kōtēm senoh tānā? Where did you go?
अम कोते ते हिजु ताना ? Koteyam hijuh tan Where are you coming from?
थड़ीआ Thaṛī'ā Utensils.
बहा Baā Flower.
हइः Hai Fish
हइःपसे Hai pase Fishing

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Statement 1: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues – 2011". www.censusindia.gov.in. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 7 July 2018.
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Mundari". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ "BMS to intensify agitation on Mundari language". oneindia.com. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  4. ^ "Adivasi. Volume 52. Number 1&2. June&December 2012". Page 22
  5. ^ Sidwell, Paul. 2018. Austroasiatic Studies: state of the art in 2018. Presentation at the Graduate Institute of Linguistics, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan, May 22, 2018.
  6. ^ "Keeping Munda in mind – Pune Mirror -". punemirror.in. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  • Anderson, Gregory D.S (ed). 2008. The Munda languages. Routledge Language Family Series 3.New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-32890-X.
  • Osada Toshiki. 2008. "Mundari". In Anderson, Gregory D.S (ed). The Munda languages, 99–164. Routledge Language Family Series 3.New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-32890-X.

Further readingEdit

  • Evans, Nicholas & Toshki Osada. 2005a. Mundari: the myth of a language without word classes. In Linguistic Typology 9.3, pp. 351–390.
  • Evans, Nicholas & Toshki Osada. 2005b. Mundari and argumentation in word-class analysis. In Linguistic Typology 9.3, pp. 442–457
  • Hengeveld, Kees & Jan Rijkhoff. 2005. Mundari as a flexible language. In Linguistic Typology 9.3, pp. 406–431.
  • Newberry, J. (2000). North Munda dialects: Mundari, Santali, Bhumia. Victoria, B.C.: J. Newberry. ISBN 0-921599-68-4

TextsEdit

External linksEdit