Amaravati (English: /əməˈrɑːvəti/) is the capital of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.[a] It is located on the right bank of the river Krishna in Guntur district.

Place for immortals
Amaravati is located in Andhra Pradesh
Amaravati (Andhra Pradesh)
Amaravati is located in India
Amaravati (India)
Coordinates: 16°30′47″N 80°30′59″E / 16.513100°N 80.516500°E / 16.513100; 80.516500
CountryIndia India
State Andhra Pradesh
DistrictGuntur district
Mission1 September 2014
Established30 December 2014; 9 years ago (2014-12-30)
Founded byN. Chandrababu Naidu
Named forAmareswara Swamy
 • TypePlanning agencies
 • BodyAPCRDA[1]
 • State capital217.23 km2 (83.87 sq mi)
 • Metro8,352.69 km2 (3,224.99 sq mi)
49 m (161 ft)
 • State capital103,000
 • Metro5,873,588
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
520 XXX, 521 XXX, 522 XXX
Vehicle registrationAP-7, AP-8, AP-39[7]
Official languagesTelugu
WebsiteAmaravati official website
  1. ^ The Amaravati metropolitan area also includes portions of Guntur, Vijayawada, Amaravati, Tenali, Gudivada, Tadepalle, Jaggayyapeta, Mangalagiri, Mopidevi, Nuzvid, Ponnur, Sattenapalle, Challapalle, Nandigama, Ghantasala, Vuyyuru adjoining the APCR.

Dharanikota, the ancient city site nearby, was founded more than 2,200 years ago, serving as an ancient capital.[9] The Amaravati Stupa was an important Buddhist site of pilgrimage and holy learning. Under the British Raj, many ancient Buddhist sculptures were taken to other museums in India and Britain.

The Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi laid the foundation stone at a ceremonial event in Uddandarayunipalem village on 22 October 2015.[10]

The office of the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh has operated from Velagapudi since April 2016. The Andhra Pradesh Legislature remained in Hyderabad until March 2017, when it was relocated to newly constructed interim legislative buildings in Velagapudi.[11][12]

Etymology edit

The name "Amaravati" only dates back to the 18th century; the Amaravathi village is near Dharanikota, the ancient capital of the Satavahana dynasty.[13] The metropolitan areas of Guntur, Vijayawada and Tenali are the major conurbations of Amaravati.[14] Amaravati literally translates to 'the place for immortals'.

History edit

Southern India, Andhra Pradesh, Amaravati, Satavahana Period – Veneration of the Buddha as a Fiery Pillar -100 BC – c. AD 200 – Cleveland Museum of Art, Ohio, United States

Dharanikota (Dhānyakatakam) near Amaravati was an important city in the cultural heritage and history of Andhra Pradesh. Its history dates back to 2nd Century BCE when it was the capital of the Satavahana Dynasty of the (Andhras), one of the earliest Indian empires and the ancestral dynasty of Andhra Pradesh. The Satavahanas are prominent in the history of Andhra Pradesh. Their main language was Prakrit written using Brahmi Script, which served as the base for the script of Telugu Language. They issued many coins with this Prakrit language which can be found in many inscriptions in this region today. The practice of Buddhism was predominant during this period and the dynasty was partly responsible for the prevalence of Buddhism in the region.

The city was also once a holy site of Mahayana Buddhism. The city used to have a large Buddhist Stupa now known as Amaravati Stupa but then called a Mahachaitya, which was ruined over time. It was also the centre of Buddhist learning and art where many buddhist followers from many South East Asian countries used to visit. It can be seen from the Amaravati Stupa, many Buddhist inscriptions, sculptures and Gautam Buddha Statue in the city. Many other ancient Amaravati sculptures and Buddhist relics from the region were unfortunately destroyed over the time and the largest group was removed to the Government Museum, Chennai and others to the British Museum during British rule, which can be seen there today. The sculptures from Amaravati depict many scenes from Buddhist art, inscriptions and Buddhist stupas. The city along with Nagarjuna Konda is viewed as one of the richest holy sites of Buddhism in the whole of India.  

The present capital area has its historical significance of having recorded its first-ever legislation 2,200 years ago.[9] The present-day capital region includes the Amaravati village. The area has been ruled by the Mauryas, Satavahanas, Ikshvakus, Vishnukundina, Pallavas, Cholas, Kakatiyas, Delhi Sultanate, Musunuri Nayaks, Bahmani Sultanate, Vijayanagara Empire, Sultanate of Golconda and Mughal Empire successively before the founding of the Nizam of Hyderabad in 1724. It was ceded to France in 1750 but was captured by the East India Company in 1759. Guntur returned to the Nizamate in 1768 but was ceded to Britain again in 1788. It was briefly occupied by Hyder Ali. It was then ruled by Vasireddy Venkatadri Nayudu, who founded the modern Amaravathi village, using building materials from the stupa, which he largely demolished. It was part of the Madras Presidency during the British colonial period.

As per the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014, Hyderabad became the capital of the then newly formed state of Telangana, post bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh. However, Hyderabad would remain as the joint capital of both states for a period not exceeding ten years. Hence, Amaravati is being built to serve as the capital of Andhra Pradesh.[15]

The foundation for the city was laid at Uddandarayunipalem on 22 October 2015. The Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi; the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, N. Chandrababu Naidu; the Vice President of India and the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha Muppavarapu Venkaiah Naidu; then Governor E. S. L. Narasimhan; the Japanese minister for economy trade and industry, Yosuke Takagi; and the Singaporean Minister for Trade and Industry, S. Iswaran, laid the foundation for the city.[10][16]

In August 2020, Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly passed Andhra Pradesh Decentralisation and Inclusive Development of All Regions Act, 2020. According to its provisions, Visakhapatnam is the executive capital while Amaravati and Kurnool serve as legislative and judicial capitals, respectively.[17] The decision resulted in widespread protests by the farmers of Amaravati.[18] The act has been challenged in Andhra Pradesh High Court, which ordered to maintain status quo until the court completes its hearing. On 22 November 2021, the government, led by Y. S. Jagan Mohan Reddy, have withdrawn the act.[19]

Geography edit

The city is being built in Guntur district and Palnadu district, on the banks of the Krishna River. The city will be 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) south-west of Vijayawada, 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) north of Guntur, 45 kilometres (28 mi) south-east of Tenali surrounding the Coromandel Coast of Coastal Andhra region in Andhra Pradesh.[20]

Climate edit

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 30.1
Daily mean °C (°F) 24.3
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 19.0
Average precipitation mm (inches) 7
Average rainy days 1 1 2 2 4 10 13 13 12 11 5 1 75
Average relative humidity (%) 65 60 57 58 50 59 68 73 77 78 73 68 66
Mean daily sunshine hours 8.1 8.7 9.2 9.8 10.9 11 10.3 9.7 9.2 8.7 8.3 8 9.3
Source: Climate[21]

Vision edit

Amaravati 3D sketch map at APCRDA office

The 13th Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh N. Chandrababu Naidu envisioned Amaravati to be the people-centric pioneer Smart City of India, built around sustainability and livability principles, and to be the happiest city in the world.[22] Among the innovative features on the drawing board are navigation canals[23] around the city, and connecting to an island in the Krishna River. The Government has envisaged an investment needed[24] of US$2–4 billion for the development of the city.[25]

The city is being designed to have 51% green space and 10% of water bodies, with a plan to house some of the most iconic buildings there. It is being modeled on Singapore, with the master plan being prepared by two Singapore government-appointed consultants. Other international consultants and architects will then be brought in to give the city an international flavor.[26]

City planning edit

3D model of Amaravati in APCRDA office
Model view of Amaravati in APCRDA office

The Andhra Pradesh State Cabinet meeting passed a resolution of 1 September 2014 to locate the Capital City in a central place of the state, around Vijayawada, and to go for decentralized development of the state with 3 Mega Cities and 14 Smart Cities. The State Government identified the Capital City area between Vijayawada and Guntur cities on the Southern bank of River Krishna upstream of Prakasam Barrage. The Amaravati Capital City has an area of 217.23 km2 and is spread across 25 villages in 3 mandals (Thullur, Mangalagiri and Tadepalli) of Guntur district. The 25 villages in the Capital City area have about 1 lakh population in about 27,000 households. The nearest cities are Vijayawada at a distance of 30 km and Guntur at a distance of 18 km. The nearest railway station is KC Canal railway station near Tadepalli and the nearest airport is Gannavaram which is at a distance of 22 km. The city is planned to spread over 217 km2 area with a total cost of ₹ 553.43 billions to the Capital Region Development Authority (CRDA) out of which state government contribution is only ₹ 126 billion (equity ₹ 66.29 billion and supporting grant ₹ 59.71 billion) spread over a period of 8 years from April 2018 to March 2026 (₹ 5 billion in 2018–19, ₹ 18 billion per year for later six years and ₹ 13 billion in 2025–26).[27]

Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority (APCRDA)
City area details: Land utilization
Roads, public utilities, parks, natural streams, water bodies 112.85 km2 (27,885 acres)
Plots for residential area allotted to the land contributors (farmers) 47.86 km2 (11,826 acres)
For the needs of other developments presently owned by the CRDA 56.81 km2 (14,037 acres)
Total area under the jurisdiction of CRDA 217.51 km2 (53,748 acres)
Amaravati City land usage
Land use Area (sq. km) %
Residential 60.77 27.9
Commercial 20.99 9.34
Public and semi-public 11.49 5.29
Open spaces and recreation 52.78 24.29
Industrial 12.26 5.64
Water bodies 25.78 11.87
Traffic and transportation 23.04 10.61
Cultural heritage 0.15 0.07
Seed capital 10.67 4.91
Total 217.23 100

The contribution from the government is to be repaid by the CRDA after 2037. Ultimately state or union governments are not incurring any expenditure to construct the city but wholly financed by the income accrued from the sale of land for various development schemes (₹ 171.51 billion), loans and the local taxes (₹ 146.41 billion by 2037) to the CRDA. The state and union governments are expected to earn ₹ 120 billion per annum out of which state goods and services tax (State GST) alone is ₹ 60 billion per annum.[27] The entire city construction is planned by self-financing from loans and land selling with the state government's moral support. CRDA is expecting a net surplus income of ₹ 333 billion by 2037 after meeting the total expenditure on the city. Amaravati government complex which is intended to provide world-class facilities needed for the state government and its employees' accommodation is also part of the CRDA project.[28] The bus rapid transit system (BRTS) in Amaravati to connect with the adjacent Vijayawada and Guntur cities by world-class road network is also part of the CRDA project.[29] Both Amaravati government complex and BRTS are planned with an expenditure of ₹ 140 billion.[27]

Timeline edit

Permanent Secretariat Tower 5 under construction in Amaravati, April 2019
Amaravati Secretariat in Velagapudi
Raft foundation works of Andhra Pradesh secretariat in Amaravati
Government complex under construction near Rayapudi
Construction equipment at Government complex in Amaravati (January 2019)
NGO housing under construction in Amaravati (March 2019)
Constructions along seed access road
Year Date Event
2014 2 June 2014 AP Reorganization Act comes into force
1 September 2014 Location of new Capital City finalized
30 December 2014 APCRDA Act comes into effect and APCRDA established
2015 January 2015 Voluntary Land Pooling Scheme announced
March 2015 Consent for 33,000 acres obtained from farmers
30 March 2015 Submission of Perspective Plan by Singapore Govt
25 May 2015 Submission of Capital City Plan (391sq. km) by Singapore Govt
6 June 2015 Amaravati City Bhoomi Puja (ground-breaking ceremony) by Chief Minister N. Chandrababu Naidu[30][31]
20 July 2015 Submission of Seed Area Development Plan by Singapore Govt
7 August 2015 Workshop with experts on Capital City master plan (3 days)
19 October 2015 Workshop with experts on Capital City master plan
October 2015 Amaravati Greenfield Capital City Development receives environmental clearance.
22 October 2015 Foundation stone set by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi[32][33]
27 October 2015 Workshop with stake holders on Capital City Master Plan
26 December 2015 Notification of Draft Detailed Master Plan for Capital City
2016 12 January 2016 to
21 January 2016
Master Plan awareness programme (Grama Sabhas) in each of the 29 villages
23 February 2016 Notification of Detailed Master Plan for Capital City
August 2016 First returnable layout published.
12 October 2016 Andhra Pradesh interim Secretariat construction completed and inaugurated by Chief Minister Naidu in Amaravati[34]
November 2016 20 Returnable layouts published
2017 12 January 2017 Inaugurate new transit terminal in Gannavaram Airport
19 January 2017 Stakeholders Consultation Workshop on the Environmental & Social Management Framework (ESMF) and Resettlement Policy Framework (RPF)
15 August 2017 Foundation stone laidhfor Kings College Hospital by Indo UK Institute of Health[35]
16 August 2017 Police Headquarters building complex constructed on the NH-5 in Mangalagiri[36]
7 September 2017 Foundation stone laid for Amravati American Institute of Medical Sciences
26 November 2017 Real Time Governance State (RGTS) Center at Secretariat
2018 7 February 2018 Naidu lays foundation stone of Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham's 200-acre campus at Amaravati[37]
22 June 2018 Foundation stone laid for NRT Icon Towers In Amaravati
24 July 2018 Foundation stone laid for mega sports complex in Vijayawada for Project Gandiva
31 July 2018 Naidu inaugurates mobile ATMs in Amaravati[38]
4 December 2018 First international air services started from Gannavaram Airport to Singapore
27 December 2018 Naidu lays foundation stone for Andhra Pradesh Permanent secretariat towers[39][40]
2019 12 January 2019 Foundation stone laid for iconic bridge from Amaravati to Vijayawada
17 January 2019 Foundation stone laid for Xavier School of Management in Amaravati
3 February 2019 CJI lays foundation stone for Andhra High Court in Amaravati[41]
14 February 2019 foundation stone laid for Vykunthapuram Barrage across Krishna river[42]
2020 31 July 2020 Go by AP government to form AMRDA in place of CRDA.
2021 24 March 2021 GO by AP government to form Mangalagiri Tadepalle Municipal Corporation[43]
1 July 2021 AP Chief Minister Y. S. Jagan Mohan Reddy lays foundation for Krishna River Roads[44]
2022 4 January 2022 GO by AP government to form Amaravati Municipal Corporation[45]
2023 17 May 2023 Go by AP government to form Zone 5 and distributed housing plots for 53,000 poor people.

Status edit

In 2019, the new state government allocated a budget of only ₹500 crore and immediately stopped all running projects in the middle of construction that was started by the previous Naidu government.[46][47] The Amaravati project has substantially slowed with no deadline in sight.[48][49]

As of 2020, the fate of Amaravati as the sole capital of Andhra Pradesh hangs in balance as the incumbent YSRCP Government has proposed to move the Executive and Judicial components of the capital to Visakhapatnam and Kurnool respectively. There has been a continuing backlash from the farmers of the region against this decision of the Government for the past 644 days. The agitators are still awaiting the Chief Minister's appointment for a plausible solution.[50]

Government and politics edit

Map showing Amaravati in Andhra Pradesh Capital Region, spread across Guntur and Krishna districts

Administration edit

Amaravati is an Urban Notified Area and its urban development and planning activities are undertaken by the Amaravati Development Corporation Limited[51] and Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority (APCRDA).[52] The Andhra Pradesh Secretariat at Velagapudi is the administrative block for the employees of the state government.[53]

Secretariat of Andhra Pradesh at Velagapudi

The APCRDA has its jurisdiction over the city and is the conurbation covering Andhra Pradesh Capital Region.[54] The capital city is spread over an area of 217.23 km2 (83.87 sq mi),[55] and will comprise villages (including some hamlets) from three mandals viz., Mangalagiri, Thullur and Tadepalle.[56] The seed capital is spread over an area of 16.94 km2 (6.54 sq mi).[57]

The table below lists the identified villages and hamlets under their respective mandals, which became a part of the capital city.[2]

Mandal Settlements
Thullur mandal Abbarajupalem, Ainavolu, Ananthavaram, Borupalem, Dondapadu, Kondarajupalem (de-populated), Lingayapalem (including Modugulankapalem hamlets), Malkapuram, Mandadam (Tallayapalem hamlets), Nekkallu, Nelapadu, Pitchikalapalem, Rayapudi, Sakhamuru, Thulluru, Uddandarayunipalem, Velagapudi, Venkatapalem
Mangalagiri mandal Krishnayapalem, Nidamarru, Kuragallu (including Nerukonda hamlets), Nowlur (including Yerrabalem & Bethapudi hamlets)
Tadepalle mandal Penumaka, Tadepalle (M) (part) (Nulakapet, Dolas Nagar etc.), Undavalli


  • M – municipality
  • The names in brackets are the hamlet villages of the respective settlement.

Language and religion edit

The residents of Amaravati are mainly Telugu-speaking people along with some Urdu and other minorities. Telugu is the official language of the city. Hindus form a very large majority, but there are also Muslim, Christian, and Buddhist communities.[58] Religious sites include the Amaralingeswara Swamy Temple, and the Amaravati stupa in the Amaravati heritage complex.[59][60][61]

Economy and infrastructure edit

The state government originally initiated the Singapore-based Ascendas-Singbridge and Sembcorp Development consortium for the city's construction. The city's infrastructure was to be developed in 7–8 years in phases, at an estimated cost of ₹33,000 crore. ₹7,500 crore from the Housing and Urban Development Corporation (HUDCO), $500 million from the World Bank and ₹2,500 crore from the Indian Government, of which ₹1,500 crore has been granted.[62]

As of July 2019, the World Bank dropped funding for Amaravati.[63] As of September 2019, the Ascendas-Singbridge and Sembcorp Development consortium have also withdrawn from the project.[64] With only state government allocated budget of ₹500 crore in 2019, the Amravati project has substantially slowed, with no deadline in sight.[48]

Nine themed cities consisting of Finance, Justice, Health, Sports, Media, and Electronics; including Government buildings designed by Norman Foster, Hafeez Contractor, Reliance Group, and NRDC-India will be built within the city.[65][66][67] Pi Data Centre, the fourth largest of its kind in Asia with an investment of 600 crore (US$75 million), and Pi Care Services, a healthcare BPO,[clarification needed] were inaugurated at Mangalagiri IT park.[68][69] HCL Technologies, an IT firm would set up one of its centres in Amaravati.[70][71]

BRS Medicity with an investment of $1.8 billion is to come to Amaravati.[72][73]Mangalagiri Sarees and Fabrics produced in Mangalagiri mandal,[74] a part of the state capital, were registered as one of the geographical indications from Andhra Pradesh.[75]

Education edit

Acharya Nagarjuna University

Colleges and universities

There are public funded universities within the city limits:

Private and autonomous colleges in the city include:

Private institutes like Amrita University, Amity University and the Indo-UK Institute of Health (IUIH) in collaboration with the King's College London, are among others to set up campus in Amaravati.[76][77][78][79] In 2018 the city's first management institute, Xavier School of Management, was under construction near Ainavolu.[80]

Tourism edit

Night view of Prakasam Barrage

Located on the banks of the Krishna River and between natural getaways and places of heritage, the city has several tourist attractions:

Transport edit

APSRTC Amaravati bus

The buses operated by Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) from Pandit Nehru Bus Station and NTR bus station, Tenali bus station connects the city with Vijayawada and Tenali, Guntur respectively.

The government, however, is to explore other means of mass transport like ‘monorail’, Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) and tramways.[81][82] Two new depots, North and South of the APSRTC are proposed to be constructed.[83] Auto rickshaws also operate for shorter distances in the capital city area.[84]

Air edit

Vijayawada International Airport serves the whole Andhra Pradesh Capital Region.[85]

Roadways edit

The Amaravati–Anantapur Expressway, supported by Kurnool and Kadapa Feeder Roads is an ongoing greenfield expressway project, which would provide faster road access from the districts of Anantapur, Guntur, Kadapa, Kurnool and Prakasam to Amaravati, Rajamahendravaram, Kakinada, and Visakhapatnam.[86][87] The Amaravati seed capital road is an arterial road under construction to access the core capital area from National Highway 16.[88] The Vijayawada-Amaravati road connects the city with Vijayawada.[89]

Railways edit

A proposed Amaravati high-speed circular railway line would connect the city with the nearby cities of Vijayawada, Guntur and Tenali,[90] extending up to a length of 105 km (65 mi) with an estimated cost of 10,000 crore (US$1.3 billion).And a metro rail project is proposed between the cities of Tenali, Guntur, and Vijayawada of 100 km circular corridor. [91]

Sports edit

ACA International Cricket Stadium edit

ACA cricket stadium at Mangalagiri (April 2019)

ACA International Cricket Stadium (also known as the Andhra Cricket Association International Cricket Stadium) is a stadium under construction at Mangalagiri in Amaravati. It is situated in Guntur district and will be spread over 24 acres. The stadium will be owned by Andhra Cricket Association and has a seating capacity of 40,000.[92][93]

Amaravati International Sports Complex edit

The complex has been under construction at Vidyadharapuram on 8.9 acres (3.6 ha) of land. It consists of two swimming pools of 50×20 metres and 20×20 metres, an outdoor synthetic track, a multipurpose indoor hall, and a Ground+2 clubhouse. This complex will be the new headquarters for the Sports Authority of Andhra Pradesh (SAAP).[94]

Events edit

F1H2O Grand Prix of India edit

From 16 to 18 November in 2018, Amaravati hosted the second (after Mumbai in 2004) F1H2O World championship Grand Prix ever held in India. The event brought wide media attention especially after one of the teams took the color and the name of the state, making it the first Indian branded team in the history of F1H2O.[95] Team Amaravati led by drivers Jonas Andrson and Eric Edin.

First National Women's Parliament in Amaravati edit

Buddhist spiritual leader the Dalai Lama participated in the First National Women's Parliament in Amaravati on 10 February 2017. He said, "Making Amaravati, the capital of new Andhra Pradesh is a welcome move and I wish it develops well on all fronts. This heritage city has undergone a lot of change over the years... The economy would flourish where there is peace".[96][97]

Happy Cities Summit edit

The Happy Cities Summit Amaravati 2019 backed by APCRDA aims to build on the success and momentum of the inaugural summit to establish Amaravati at the forefront of the discourse on urban innovation with a focus on citizen happiness. Discussion of the Happy Homes project was underway after Y. S. Jagan Mohan Reddy was elected Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh.[98] The Government of Andhra Pradesh has also successfully hosted the inaugural Happy Cities Summit in Amaravati in April 2018. The summit saw the participation of 1,500+ delegates from 15+ countries, including eminent city leaders and urban experts.[99]

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ Amaravati currently serves as the seat of government where Andhra Pradesh Secretariat, Andhra Pradesh Legislature and High Court of Andhra Pradesh are located.[8]

References edit

  1. ^ "Andhra Pradesh govt to withdraw three-capital Bill". 22 November 2021. Retrieved 22 November 2021.
  2. ^ a b "Declaration of A.P. Capital City Area–Revised orders" (PDF). Andhra Nation. Municipal Administration and Urban Development Department. 22 September 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2018. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  3. ^ Subba Rao, GVR (23 September 2015). "Capital region expands as CRDA redraws boundaries". The Hindu. Vijayawada. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
  4. ^ "CRDA eyes CSR funds to push job potential in capital city". The Times of India. Guntur. 1 July 2015. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
  5. ^ "Amaravati to be divided into eight urban plan areas". The Hindu. 3 April 2015. Retrieved 21 June 2016.
  6. ^ CRDA, AP (2017). Facts and figures (PDF). Vijayawada: APCRDA. p. 14.
  7. ^ "Registration District Codes". Andhra Pradesh Transport Department. 6 December 2019. Retrieved 6 December 2019.
  8. ^ "Andhra Pradesh HC Restrains Govt From Shifting Offices out of Amaravati". The Wire. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
  9. ^ a b "After 2,200 years, Amaravati gets back its legislation power". The Times of India. Retrieved 1 May 2017.
  10. ^ a b "Thousands descend on Andhra village Uddandarayunipalem to watch history in making", The Economic Times, 22 October 2015, archived from the original on 2 August 2017, retrieved 22 October 2015
  11. ^ "Andhra Pradesh Holds Maiden Budget Session in New Capital Amaravati". News18. 6 March 2017.
  12. ^ "Amaravati Sustainable Capital City Development Project" (PDF). Amaravati Sustainable Capital City Development Project.
  13. ^ "After 18 centuries, Amaravati set to become a 'capital' again". The Times of India. 22 October 2015.
  14. ^ "Explained: Why Amaravati has been chosen as the new Andhra Pradesh capital". The Indian Express. 21 October 2015.
  15. ^ "The Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014" (PDF). AP Reorganisation Portal. New Delhi: The Gazette of India Extraordinary. 1 March 2014. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
  16. ^ "Andhra CM scales down Amaravathi foundation fete". Deccan Herald. 15 October 2015.
  17. ^ "YS Jaganmohan Reddy's three-capital plan on track as Andhra Pradesh governor gives nod to two bills".
  18. ^ Sudhir, Uma (13 January 2020). "Won't Celebrate Harvest Festival, Say Amaravati Farmers Amid Protests". NDTV. Retrieved 28 February 2021.
  19. ^ Service, Tribune News. "Andhra Pradesh scraps controversial three capital model". Tribuneindia News Service. Retrieved 22 November 2021.
  20. ^ U Sudhakar Reddy (31 October 2014). "Andhra Pradesh capital to come up on riverfront in Guntur district". Deccan Chronicle. Hyderabad. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
  21. ^ "Amaravati Climate: Temperature & Weather by month". Climate data. Retrieved 15 July 2023.
  22. ^ Sarma, Ch R. S. (10 April 2018). "Amaravati will be developed as the happiest city in the world: Andhra CM". @businessline.
  23. ^ "Civil works of administrative city to start by November 1: CM". The Times of India. 27 October 2016.
  24. ^ Sukumar, C. R. (22 August 2018). "Andhra's bonds for Amaravati oversubscribed by 1.5 times". The Economic Times.
  25. ^ "Amaravati development needs $2–4 billion investment: Chandrababu Naidu". The Economic Times. 27 August 2018.
  26. ^ Sharma, Shantanu Nandan (21 May 2017). "How Andhra Pradesh plans to make its new capital Amaravati a world-class city". The Economic Times.
  27. ^ a b c "Amaravati city a self financed project" (in Telugu). Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  28. ^ "Amaravati Project progress report, Edition 4, Feb 2019" (PDF). Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  29. ^ "BRTS planned for Amaravati to tackle vehicle, population growth". 2 March 2018. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  30. ^ Pavan, P (7 June 2015). "Naidu performs Bhoomi pooja for AP capital". Bangalore Mirror. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  31. ^ CM Chandrababu Naidu Performs 'Bhoomi Puja' For AP Capital City In Mandadam, retrieved 14 March 2020
  32. ^ "PM Modi to lay foundation stone of new Andhra Pradesh capital on October 22". India Today. 27 September 2015 [30 November 1999]. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  33. ^ PM Narendra Modi at the laying of foundation stone of Amaravathi, new Andhra Pradesh Capital, retrieved 14 March 2020
  34. ^ "Andhra CM Chandrababu Naidu inaugurates his office in Amravati". The Indian Express. 12 October 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  35. ^ "Andhra CM Chandrababu Naidu lays foundation stone for Kings College Hospital". Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  36. ^ Vasireddy, Amrutha (16 August 2017). "Chandrababu Naidu inaugurates DGP Office in Mangalagiri". The Times of India. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  37. ^ "Andhra CM Chandrababu Naidu lays foundation stone of Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham Video – Rediff Videos". Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  38. ^ "Asia's Premier News Agency – India News, Business & Political, National & International, Bollywood, Sports | ANI News". Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  39. ^ Pandey, Ashish (27 December 2018). "Chandrababu Naidu lays foundation stone of Rs 4,890 crore secretariat building in Amaravati". India Today. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  40. ^ "Andhra CM Chandrababu Naidu lays foundation of govt complex". The Times of India. 27 December 2018. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  41. ^ "CJI lays foundation stone for Andhra High Court in Amaravati". Retrieved 19 March 2020.
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