States and union territories of India

  (Redirected from Indian state)

India is a federal union comprising 28 states and 8 union territories,[1] for a total of 36 entities. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions.

States and Union Territories of India
India dark grey.svg
CategoryFederated states
LocationRepublic of India
Number28 States
8 Union territories
PopulationsStates: Sikkim - 610,577 (lowest); Uttar Pradesh - 199,812,341(highest)
Union Territories: Lakshadweep - 64,473 (lowest); Delhi - 16,787,941 (highest)
AreasStates: 3,702 km2 (1,429 sq mi) Goa – 342,269 km2 (132,151 sq mi) Rajasthan
Union territories: 32 km2 (12 sq mi) Lakshadweep – 59,146 km2 (22,836 sq mi) Ladakh
GovernmentState governments, Union government (Union territories)
SubdivisionsDistricts, Divisions

History

 
Administrative divisions of India in 1951

Pre-independence

The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][excessive citations] During the British Raj, the preceding (Mughal) administrative structure was mostly kept, and India was divided into provinces (also called Presidencies) that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty (suzerainty) over the princely states.

1947–1950

Between 1947 and 1950 the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces; others were organised into new provinces, such as Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Bharat, and Vindhya Pradesh, made up of multiple princely states; a few, including Mysore, Hyderabad, Bhopal, and Bilaspur, became separate provinces. The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was also declared to be a "Union of States".[13] The constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states:[citation needed]

States reorganisation (1951–1956)

Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State.[14]

Pondicherry, comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karikal, Yanaon and Mahé was transferred to India in 1954 and became a union territory in 1962. The French enclave of Chandernagore was transferred to West Bengal.[15]

In the same year, pro-India forces liberated the Portuguese-held enclaves of Dadrá and Nagar Aveli, declaring the short-lived de facto state Free Dadra and Nagar Haveli. In 1961, it was annexed by India as the Union Territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli.[16][17][18][19]

The States Reorganisation Act, 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states.[20] As a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to form Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organized with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara (excluding Kasaragod taluk) and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, Bijapur, North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay State, the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar, Raichur and Gulbarga from Hyderabad State and the Coorg State. The Laccadive Islands, Aminidivi Islands and Minicoy Island which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep.

Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State. Rajasthan and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer State and Patiala and East Punjab States Union respectively and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal.

Post-1956

Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act.[21] Former Union Territory of Nagaland achieved statehood on 1 December 1963.[22] The Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh.[23] The act also designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana.[24][25]

Madras State was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1969. North-eastern states of Manipur, Meghalaya and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972.[26] Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished.[27] In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while erstwhile union territory of Goa, Daman and Diu's northern exclaves Damão and Diu became separate union territory as Daman and Diu.[28]

In November 2000, three new states were created; namely, Chhattisgarh from eastern Madhya Pradesh, Uttaranchal from northwest Uttar Pradesh (renamed Uttarakhand in 2007) and Jharkhand from southern districts of Bihar with the enforcement of Madhya Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000, Uttar Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000 and Bihar Reorganisation Act, 2000 respectively.[29][30][31][32] Pondicherry was renamed as Puducherry in 2007 and Orissa was renamed as Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 as ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh.[33][34]

In August 2019, the Parliament of India passed the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019, which contains provisions to reorganise the state of Jammu and Kashmir into two union territories; Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh, effective from 31 October 2019.[35]

In November 2019, the Government of India introduced legislation to merge the union territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli into a single union territory to be known as Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, effective from 26 January 2020.[36][37][38]

Current proposals

States and Union territories

States

State ISO 3166-2:IN Vehicle
code
Zone Capital Largest city Statehood Population[39] Area
(km2)
Official
languages[40]
Additional official
languages[40]
Andhra Pradesh IN-AP AP Southern Visakhapatnam (Executive)
Amaravati (Legislative)
Kurnool (Judiciary)[41]
Visakhapatnam 1 November 1956 49,506,799 160,205 Telugu
Arunachal Pradesh IN-AR AR North-Eastern Itanagar 20 February 1987 1,383,727 83,743 English
Assam IN-AS AS North-Eastern Dispur Guwahati 26 January 1950 31,205,576 78,550 Assamese Bengali, Bodo
Bihar IN-BR BR Eastern Patna 26 January 1950 104,099,452 94,163 Hindi Urdu
Chhattisgarh IN-CT CG Central Naya Raipur Raipur 1 November 2000 25,545,198 135,194 Hindi
Goa IN-GA GA Western Panaji Vasco da Gama 30 May 1987 1,458,545 3,702 Konkani Marathi
Gujarat IN-GJ GJ Western Gandhinagar Ahmedabad 1 May 1960 60,439,692 196,024 Gujarati
Haryana IN-HR HR Northern Chandigarh Faridabad 1 November 1966 25,351,462 44,212 Hindi Punjabi[42][43]
Himachal Pradesh IN-HP HP Northern Shimla (Summer)
Dharamshala (Winter)[44]
Shimla 25 January 1971 6,864,602 55,673 Hindi Sanskrit[45]
Jharkhand IN-JH JH Eastern Ranchi Jamshedpur 15 November 2000 32,988,134 74,677 Hindi Urdu[46]
Karnataka IN-KA KA Southern Bangalore 1 November 1956 61,095,297 191,791 Kannada
Kerala IN-KL KL Southern Thiruvananthapuram Kochi 1 November 1956 33,406,061 38,863 Malayalam
Madhya Pradesh IN-MP MP Central Bhopal Indore 26 January 1950 72,626,809 308,252 Hindi
Maharashtra IN-MH MH Western Mumbai (Summer)
Nagpur (Winter)[47]
Mumbai 1 May 1960 112,374,333 307,713 Marathi
Manipur IN-MN MN North-Eastern Imphal 21 January 1972 2,855,794 22,347 Meitei English
Meghalaya IN-ML ML North-Eastern Shillong 21 January 1972 2,966,889 22,720 English Khasi[a]
Mizoram IN-MZ MZ North-Eastern Aizawl 20 February 1987 1,097,206 21,081 English, Hindi, Mizo
Nagaland IN-NL NL North-Eastern Kohima Dimapur 1 December 1963 1,978,502 16,579 English
Odisha IN-OR OD Eastern Bhubaneswar 26 January 1950 41,974,218 155,820 Odia
Punjab IN-PB PB Northern Chandigarh Ludhiana 1 November 1966 27,743,338 50,362 Punjabi
Rajasthan IN-RJ RJ Northern Jaipur 26 January 1950 68,548,437 342,269 Hindi English
Sikkim IN-SK SK North-Eastern Gangtok 16 May 1975 610,577 7,096 English, Nepali Bhutia, Gurung, Lepcha, Limbu, Manggar, Mukhia, Newari, Rai, Sherpa, Tamang
Tamil Nadu IN-TN TN Southern Chennai 1 November 1956 72,147,030 130,058 Tamil English
Telangana IN-TG TS Southern Hyderabad[b] 2 June 2014 35,193,978[48] 114,840[48] Telugu Urdu[49]
Tripura IN-TR TR North-Eastern Agartala 21 January 1972 3,673,917 10,492 Bengali, English, Kokborok
Uttar Pradesh IN-UP UP Northern Lucknow Kanpur 26 January 1950 199,812,341 243,286 Hindi Urdu
Uttarakhand IN-UT UK Northern Gairsain (Summer)
Dehradun (Winter)[50]
Dehradun 9 November 2000 10,086,292 53,483 Hindi Sanskrit[51]
West Bengal IN-WB WB Eastern Kolkata 26 January 1950 91,276,115 88,752 Bengali, Nepali[c] Hindi, Odia, Punjabi, Santali, Urdu

Union territories

Union territory ISO 3166-2:IN Vehicle code Capital Largest city UT established Population[39] Area
(km2)
Official
languages[40]
Additional official
languages[40]
Andaman and Nicobar Islands IN-AN AN Port Blair 1 November 1956 380,581 8,249 English, Hindi Bengali, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu
Chandigarh IN-CH CH Chandigarh [d] 1 November 1966 1,055,450 114 English, Hindi, Punjabi
Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu IN-DD DD Daman 26 January 2020 586,956 603 English, Gujarati, Hindi Konkani, Marathi
Delhi IN-DL DL New Delhi [d] 1 November 1956 16,787,941 1,490 English, Hindi Punjabi, Urdu[52]
Jammu and Kashmir IN-JK JK Srinagar (Summer)
Jammu (Winter)
Srinagar 31 October 2019 12,258,433 55,538[e] English, Urdu Dogri, Kashmiri
Ladakh IN-LA LA Leh (Summer)
Kargil (Winter)[53]
Leh 31 October 2019 290,492 174,852[f] English, Ladakhi, Urdu Balti, Purgi
Lakshadweep IN-LD LD Kavaratti 1 November 1956 64,473 32 English, Malayalam
Puducherry IN-PY PY Pondicherry 16 August 1962 1,247,953 492 English,[54] Tamil Malayalam, Telugu
 
Indian states voting power

Autonomous areas

The Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India allows for the formation of autonomous councils to administer areas which have been given autonomy within their respective states.[55] Most of these autonomous areas are located in Northeast India.

Former states

Map State Capital Years Present-day state(s)
  Ajmer State Ajmer 1950–1956 Rajasthan
  Andhra State Kurnool 1953–1956 Andhra Pradesh
  Bhopal State Bhopal 1949–1956 Madhya Pradesh
  Bilaspur State Bilaspur 1950–1954 Himachal Pradesh
  Bombay State Bombay 1950–1960 Maharashtra and Gujarat
  Coorg State Madikeri 1950–1956 Karnataka
  East Punjab Shimla (1947–1953)
Chandigarh (1953–1966)
1947–1966 Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Chandigarh UT
  Hyderabad State Hyderabad 1948–1956 Telangana, and partially Maharashtra and Karnataka
Jammu and Kashmir Srinagar (Summer)
Jammu (Winter)
1954–2019 Jammu and Kashmir UT and

Ladakh UT

  Kutch State Bhuj 1947–1956 Gujarat
  Madhya Bharat Indore (Summer)
Gwalior (Winter)
1948–1956 Madhya Pradesh
  Madras State Madras 1950–1969 Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and partially Karnataka and Kerala
  Mysore State Mysore 1947–1973 Karnataka
  Patiala and East Punjab States Union Patiala 1948–1956 Punjab and Haryana
  Saurashtra Rajkot 1948–1956 Gujarat
  Travancore-Cochin Trivandrum 1949–1956 Kerala and partially Tamil Nadu
  Vindhya Pradesh Rewa 1948–1956 Madhya Pradesh

Responsibilities and authorities

The Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State.[56]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Khasi language has been declared as the Additional Official Language for all purposes in the District, Sub-Division and Block level offices of the State Government located in the Districts of Khasi-Jaintia Hills of Meghalaya.
  2. ^ Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014.[57][58][59] Hyderabad, located entirely within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as the capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years.[60] The Government of Andhra Pradesh and the Andhra Pradesh Legislature completed the process of relocating to temporary facilities in the envisaged new capital city Amaravati in early 2017.[61]
  3. ^ Bengali and Nepali are the Official Languages in Darjeeling and Kurseong sub-divisions of Darjeeling district.
  4. ^ a b Both a city and a union territory.
  5. ^ Jammu and Kashmir has 42,241 km2 of area administered by India and 13,297 km2 of area controlled by Pakistan as Azad Jammu and Kashmir. The Government of India is of the view that this territory legally belongs to India according to the Instrument of Accession signed by contemporary ruler of Jammu and Kashmir. The Instrument of Accession is a legal document executed by Maharaja Hari Singh, ruler of the Princely State of Jammu and Kashmir, on 26 October 1947. By executing this document under the provisions of the Indian Independence Act, Maharaja Hari Singh agreed to accede to the Dominion of India.
  6. ^ Ladakh has 59,146 km2 of area administered by India and 72,971 km2 of area controlled by Pakistan under Gilgit-Baltistan, which is claimed by India as part of Ladakh. Additionally, it has 5,180 km2 of area controlled by the People's Republic of China under Trans-Karakoram Tract and 37,555 km2 of area controlled by the People's Republic of China under Aksai Chin, which is claimed by India as part of Ladakh.

References

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  3. ^ Ramesh Chandra Majumdar (1977). Ancient India. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 978-81-208-0436-4.
  4. ^ Romila Thapar (1966). A History of India: Part 1.
  5. ^ V.D. Mahajan (2007). History of medieval India (10th ed.). New Delhi: S Chand. pp. 121, 122. ISBN 978-8121903646.
  6. ^ Antonova, K.A.; Bongard-Levin, G.; Kotovsky, G. (1979). A History of India Volume 1. Moscow, USSR: Progress Publishers.
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  47. ^ Monsoon session to start in Maha’s winter Capital Nagpur from July 4
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  56. ^ "Article 73 broadly stated, provides that the executive power of the Union shall extend to the matters with respect to which Parliament has power to make laws. Article 162 similarly provides that the executive power of a State shall extend to the matters with respect to which the Legislature of a State has power to make laws. The Supreme Court has reiterated this position when it ruled in the Ramanaiah case that the executive power of the Union or of the State broadly speaking, is coextensive and coterminous with its respective legislative power." Territoriality of executive powers of states in India, Balwant Singh Malik, Constitutional Law, 1998
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External links