||This article may have too many section headers dividing up its content. (January 2017)|
Vinegar is a liquid consisting of about 5–20% acetic acid (CH3COOH), water, and other trace chemicals, which may include flavorings. The acetic acid is produced by the fermentation of ethanol by acetic acid bacteria. Vinegar is now mainly used as a cooking ingredient, or in pickling. As the most easily manufactured mild acid, it has historically had a great variety of industrial, medical, and domestic uses, some of which (such as its use as a general household cleaner) are still commonly practiced today.
Commercial vinegar is produced either by a fast or a slow fermentation processes. In general, slow methods are used in traditional vinegars where fermentation proceeds slowly over the course of a few months or up to a year. The longer fermentation period allows for the accumulation of a non-toxic slime composed of acetic acid bacteria. Fast methods add mother of vinegar (bacterial culture) to the source liquid before adding air to oxygenate and promote the fastest fermentation. In fast production processes, vinegar may be produced between 20 hours to three days.
The conversion of ethanol (CH3CH2OH) and oxygen (O2) to acetic acid (CH3COOH) takes place by the following reaction:
- CH3CH2OH + O2 → CH3COOH + H2O
Apple cider vinegar is made from cider or apple must, and has a brownish-gold color. It is sometimes sold unfiltered and unpasteurized with the mother of vinegar present, as a natural product. It can be diluted with fruit juice or water or sweetened (usually with honey) for consumption.
Balsamic vinegar is an aromatic aged vinegar produced in the Modena and Reggio Emilia provinces of Italy. The original product—Traditional Balsamic Vinegar—is made from the concentrated juice, or must, of white Trebbiano grapes. It is very dark brown, rich, sweet, and complex, with the finest grades being aged in successive casks made variously of oak, mulberry, chestnut, cherry, juniper, and ash wood. Originally a costly product available to only the Italian upper classes, traditional balsamic vinegar is marked "tradizionale" or "DOC" to denote its Protected Designation of Origin status, and is aged for 12 to 25 years. A cheaper non-DOC commercial form described as "aceto balsamico di Modena" (balsamic vinegar of Modena) became widely known and available around the world in the late 20th century, typically made with concentrated grape juice mixed with a strong vinegar, then coloured and slightly sweetened with caramel and sugar.
Regardless of how it is produced, balsamic vinegar must be made from a grape product. It contains no balsam fruit. A high acidity level is somewhat hidden by the sweetness of the other ingredients, making it very mellow.
Vinegar made from sugarcane juice is most popular in the Philippines, in particular in the northern Ilocos Region (where it is called Sukang Iloko), although it also is produced in France and the United States. It ranges from dark yellow to golden brown in color, and has a mellow flavor, similar in some respects to rice vinegar, though with a somewhat "fresher" taste. Because it contains no residual sugar, it is no sweeter than any other vinegar. In the Philippines it often is labeled as sukang maasim (Tagalog for "sour vinegar").
Cane vinegars from Ilocos are made in two different ways. One way is to simply place sugar cane juice in large jars and it will become sour by the direct action of bacteria on the sugar. The other way is through fermentation to produce a local wine known as basi. Low-quality basi is then allowed to undergo acetic acid fermentation that converts alcohol into acetic acid. Contaminated basi also becomes vinegar.
A white variation has become quite popular in Brazil in recent years, where it is the cheapest type of vinegar sold. It is now common for other types of vinegar (made from wine, rice and apple cider) to be sold mixed with cane vinegar to lower the cost.
Sugarcane sirka is made from sugarcane juice in Punjab, India. During summer people put cane juice in earthenware pots with iron nails. The fermentation takes place due to the action of wild yeast. The cane juice is converted to vinegar having a blackish color. The sirka is used to preserve pickles and for flavoring curries.
Coconut and dateEdit
Coconut vinegar, made from fermented coconut water or sap, is used extensively in Southeast Asian cuisine (notably the Philippines), as well as in some cuisines of India and Sri Lanka, especially Goan cuisine. A cloudy white liquid, it has a particularly sharp, acidic taste with a slightly yeasty note.
The term "distilled vinegar" as used in the United States (called "spirit vinegar" in the UK, "white vinegar" in Canada) is something of a misnomer because it is not produced by distillation but by fermentation of distilled alcohol. The fermentate is diluted to produce a colorless solution of 5% to 8% acetic acid in water, with a pH of about 2.6. This is variously known as distilled spirit, "virgin" vinegar, or white vinegar, and is used in cooking, baking, meat preservation, and pickling, as well as for medicinal, laboratory, and cleaning purposes. The most common starting material in some regions, because of its low cost, is malt, or in the United States, corn. It is sometimes derived from petroleum. Distilled vinegar in the UK is produced by the distillation of malt to give a clear vinegar which maintains some of the malt flavour. Distilled vinegar is used predominantly for cooking, although in Scotland it is used as an alternative to brown or light malt vinegar. White distilled vinegar can also be used for cleaning.
East Asian blackEdit
Chinese black vinegar is an aged product made from rice, wheat, millet, sorghum, or a combination thereof. It has an inky black color and a complex, malty flavor. There is no fixed recipe, so some Chinese black vinegars may contain added sugar, spices, or caramel color. The most popular variety, Zhenjiang vinegar, originates in the city of Zhenjiang in Jiangsu Province, eastern China. Shanxi mature vinegar is another popular type of Chinese vinegar that is made exclusively from sorghum and other grains[clarification needed]. Nowadays in Shanxi province, there are still some traditional vinegar workshops producing handmade vinegar which aged for at least five years with a high acidity. Only the vinegar made in Taiyuan and some counties in Jinzhong and aged for at least three years is considered authentic Shanxi mature vinegar according to the latest national standard.
A somewhat lighter form of black vinegar, made from rice, is produced in Japan, where it is called kurozu.
Fruit vinegars are made from fruit wines, usually without any additional flavoring. Common flavors of fruit vinegar include apple, blackcurrant, raspberry, quince, and tomato. Typically, the flavors of the original fruits remain in the final product.
Most fruit vinegars are produced in Europe, where there is a growing market for high-price vinegars made solely from specific fruits (as opposed to non-fruit vinegars that are infused with fruits or fruit flavors). Several varieties, however, also are produced in Asia. Persimmon vinegar, called gam sikcho, is popular in South Korea. Jujube vinegar, called zaocu or hongzaocu, and wolfberry vinegar are produced in China.
Vinegar made from honey is rare, although commercially available honey vinegars are produced in Italy, Portugal, France, Romania, and Spain.
A byproduct of commercial kiwifruit growing is a large amount of waste in the form of misshapen or otherwise-rejected fruit (which may constitute up to 30 percent of the crop) and kiwifruit pomace, the presscake residue left after kiwifruit juice manufacture. One of the uses for this waste is the production of kiwifruit vinegar, produced commercially in New Zealand  since at least the early 1990s, and in China in 2008.
Kombucha vinegar is made from kombucha, a symbiotic culture of yeast and bacteria. The bacteria produce a complex array of nutrients and populate the vinegar with bacteria that some claim promote a healthy digestive tract, although no scientific studies have confirmed this. Kombucha vinegar primarily is used to make a vinaigrette, and is flavored by adding strawberries, blackberries, mint, or blueberries at the beginning of fermentation.
Malt vinegar, also called alegar, is made by malting barley, causing the starch in the grain to turn to maltose. Then an ale is brewed from the maltose and allowed to turn into vinegar, which is then aged. It is typically light-brown in color. In the United Kingdom and Canada, malt vinegar (along with salt) is a traditional seasoning for fish and chips. Some fish and chip shops replace it with non-brewed condiment.
According to Canadian regulations, malt vinegar is defined as a vinegar that includes undistilled malt that has not yet undergone acetous fermentation. It must be dextro-rotary and cannot contain less than 1.8 grams of solids and 0.2 grams of ash per 100 millilitres at 20 degrees celsius. It may contain additional cereals or caramel. 
Palm vinegar, made from the fermented sap from flower clusters of the nipa palm (also called attap palm), is used most often in the Philippines, where it is produced, and where it is called sukang paombong. It has a citrusy flavor note to it and imparts a distinctly musky aroma. Its pH is between five and six.
Vinegar made from raisins, called khall ʻinab (Arabic: خل عنب "grape vinegar") is used in cuisines of the Middle East, and is produced there. It is cloudy and medium brown in color, with a mild flavor.
Rice vinegar is most popular in the cuisines of East and Southeast Asia. It is available in "white" (light yellow), red, and black varieties. The Japanese prefer a light rice vinegar for the preparation of sushi rice and salad dressings. Red rice vinegar traditionally is colored with red yeast rice. Black rice vinegar (made with black glutinous rice) is most popular in China, and it is also widely used in other East Asian countries.
White rice vinegar has a mild acidity with a somewhat "flat" and uncomplex flavor. Some varieties of rice vinegar are sweetened or otherwise seasoned with spices or other added flavorings.
Sherry vinegar is linked to the production of sherrywines of Jerez. Dark-mahogany in color, it is made exclusively from the acetic fermentation of wines. It is concentrated and has generous aromas, including a note of wood, ideal for vinaigrettes and flavoring various foods.
The term 'spirit vinegar' is sometimes reserved for the stronger variety (5% to 21% acetic acid) made from sugar cane or from chemically produced acetic acid. To be called "Spirit Vinegar", the product must come from an agricultural source and must be made by "double fermentation". The first fermentation is sugar to alcohol and the second alcohol to acetic acid. Product made from chemically produced acetic acid cannot be called "vinegar". In the UK the term allowed is "Non-brewed condiment".
Wine vinegar is made from red or white wine, and is the most commonly used vinegar in Southern and Central Europe, Cyprus and Israel. As with wine, there is a considerable range in quality. Better-quality wine vinegars are matured in wood for up to two years, and exhibit a complex, mellow flavor. Wine vinegar tends to have a lower acidity than white or cider vinegars. More expensive wine vinegars are made from individual varieties of wine, such as champagne, sherry, or pinot gris.
Uses and medical propertiesEdit
Vinegar is commonly used in food preparation, in particular in pickling processes, vinaigrettes, and other salad dressings. It is an ingredient in sauces such as hot sauce, mustard, ketchup, and mayonnaise. Vinegar is sometimes used while making chutneys. It is often used as a condiment. Marinades often contain vinegar. In terms of its shelf life, vinegar's acidic nature allows it to last indefinitely without the use of refrigeration.
- Condiment for beetroot – cold, cooked beetroot is commonly eaten with vinegar and other ingredients
- Condiment for fish and chips (UK: chips; US: French fries) – in Britain, Ireland, Canada, United States and Australia, salt and malt vinegar is sprinkled on chips. In Canada and Australia, white vinegar is also often used.
- Flavoring for potato chips (UK: crisps) – many American, Canadian, British, and Australian manufacturers of packaged potato chips include a variety flavored with vinegar and salt.
- Vinegar pie – a North American variant on the dessert called chess pie. It is flavored with a small amount of cider vinegar and some versions also contain raisins, spices and sour cream.
- Pickling – any vinegar can be used to pickle foods.
- Cider vinegar and sauces – cider vinegar usually is not suitable for use in delicate sauces.
- Apple cider vinegar – Usually placed on the table in small bowls or cups so that people can dip their crab meat into it. Also mixed with water and used to steam crabs. Also, used in the US to flavor barbecue sauces
- Substitute for fresh lemon juice – cider vinegar can usually be substituted for fresh lemon juice in recipes and obtain a pleasing effect although it lacks the vitamin C.
- Saucing roast lamb – pouring cider vinegar over the meat when roasting lamb, especially when combined with honey or when sliced onions have been added to the roasting pan, produces a sauce.
- Sweetened vinegar is used in the dish of pork knuckles and ginger stew, which is made among Chinese people of Cantonese backgrounds to celebrate the arrival of a new child.
- Sushi rice – Japanese use rice vinegar as an essential ingredient for sushi rice.
- Commonly put into water-pepper sauce, for general palate preference.
- Red vinegar – Sometimes used in Chinese soups.
- Flavoring – used in the Southern U.S. to flavor collard greens, green beans, black-eyed peas, or cabbage to taste.
- Commonly put into mint sauce, for general palate preference.
- Vinegar – especially the coconut, cane, or palm variety – is one of the principal ingredients of Philippine cuisine.
- White vinegar can be used as flavoring in ham and beans.
- It is used in the making of escabeche fish.
Several beverages are made using vinegar, for instance Posca. The ancient Greek oxymel is a drink made from vinegar and honey, and sekanjabin is a traditional Persian drink similar to oxymel. Other preparations, known colloquially as "shrubs", range from simply mixing sugar water or honey water with small amounts of fruity vinegar, to making syrup by laying fruit or mint in vinegar essence for several days, then sieving off solid parts, and adding considerable amounts of sugar. Some prefer to boil the shrub as a final step. These recipes have lost much of their popularity with the rise of carbonated beverages, such as soft drinks.
Folk medicine and researchEdit
Many traditional remedies and treatments have been ascribed to vinegar over millennia and in many different cultures, although no medical uses are verified in controlled clinical trials. Some folk medicine uses have side effects that represent health risks.
Diet and diabetesEdit
Small amounts of vinegar (approximately 25 g of domestic vinegar) added to food, or taken along with a meal, were proposed in preliminary research to reduce the glycemic index of carbohydrate food for people with and without diabetes.
Among these are:
- Clostridium botulinum (which can survive anaerobic conditions and high temperatures and is thus not always affected by sterilization)
- Escherichia coli O157:H7 (which can tolerate an acidic environment to some extent)
Applying vinegar to common jellyfish stings deactivates the nematocysts, although not as effectively as hot water. This does not apply to the Portuguese man o' war, which, although generally considered to be a jellyfish, is not; vinegar applied to Portuguese man o' war stings can cause their nematocysts to discharge venom, making the pain worse.
Potential health hazardsEdit
Esophageal injury by apple cider vinegar tablets has been reported, and, because vinegar products sold for medicinal purposes are neither regulated nor standardized, they vary widely in content, pH, and other respects. Long-term heavy vinegar ingestion has one recorded case of possibly causing hypokalemia, high blood levels of renin, and osteoporosis.
White vinegar is often used as a household cleaning agent. Because it is acidic, it can dissolve mineral deposits from glass, coffee makers, and other smooth surfaces. For most uses, dilution with water is recommended for safety and to avoid damaging the surfaces being cleaned.
Vinegar is an excellent solvent for cleaning epoxy resin and hardener, even after the epoxy has begun to harden. Malt vinegar sprinkled onto crumpled newspaper is a traditional, and still-popular, method of cleaning grease-smeared windows and mirrors in the United Kingdom. Vinegar can be used for polishing brass or bronze. Vinegar is widely known as an effective cleaner of stainless steel and glass.
Vinegar has been reputed to have strong antibacterial properties. One test by Good Housekeeping's microbiologist found that 5% vinegar is 90% effective against mold and 99.9% effective against bacteria, though another study showed that vinegar is less effective than Clorox and Lysol against poliovirus. In modern times, experts have advised against using vinegar as a household disinfectant against human pathogens, as it is less effective than chemical disinfectants.
Vinegar is ideal for washing produce because it breaks down the wax coating and kills bacteria and mold. The editors of Cook's Illustrated found vinegar to be the most effective and safest way to wash fruits and vegetables, beating antibacterial soap, water and just a scrub brush in removing bacteria.
Vinegar has been marketed as an environmentally-friendly solution for many household cleaning problems. For example, vinegar has been cited recently as an eco-friendly urine cleaner for pets.[unreliable source?]
Vinegar is effective in removing clogs from drains, polishing silver, copper and brass as well as ungluing sticker-type price tags. Vinegar is one of the best ways to restore colour to upholstery like curtains and carpet.
Agricultural and horticulturalEdit
Most commercial vinegar solutions available to consumers for household use do not exceed 5%. Solutions above 10% require careful handling, as they are corrosive and damaging to the skin.
Vinegar eels (Turbatrix aceti), a form of nematode, may occur in some forms of vinegar unless the vinegar is kept covered. These feed on the mother of vinegar and can occur in naturally fermenting vinegar.
Some countries prohibit the selling of vinegar over a certain percentage acidity. As an example, the government of Canada limits the acetic acid of vinegars to between 4.1% and 12.3%.
According to legend, in France during the Black Plague, four thieves were able to rob houses of plague victims without being infected themselves. When finally caught, the judge offered to grant the men their freedom, on the condition that they revealed how they managed to stay healthy. They claimed that a medicine woman sold them a potion made of garlic soaked in soured red wine (vinegar). Variants of the recipe, called Four Thieves Vinegar, have been passed down for hundreds of years and are a staple of New Orleans hoodoo practices.
A solution of vinegar can be used for water slide decal application as used on scale models and musical instruments, among other things. One part white distilled vinegar (5% acidity) diluted with two parts of distilled or filtered water creates a suitable solution for the application of water-slide decals to hard surfaces. The solution is very similar to the commercial products, often described as "decal softener", sold by hobby shops. The slight acidity of the solution softens the decal and enhances its flexibility, permitting the decal to cling to contours more efficiently.
(Yeast) (acetobacter) Flow chart - coconut water —————————————————————————————→ ethyl alcohol ————————————————————————————→ Vinegar (Fermentation) (bacteria)
- Nakayama T (1959). "Studies on acetic acid-bacteria I. Biochemical studies on ethanol oxidation". J Biochem. 46 (9): 1217–25.
- Saladin, Kenneth S. (2015), Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function, McGraw-Hill Education, p. 55, ISBN 9814646431
- Holzapfel, Lisa Solieri, Paolo Giudici, editors ; preface by Wilhelm (2009). Vinegars of the world (Online-Ausg. ed.). Milan: Springer. pp. 22–23. ISBN 9788847008663.
Cleopatra dissolves pearls in vinegar [...] vinegar is quite often mentioned, is the Bible, both in the Old and in the New Testament.
- Sejo Regular del Vino y Brandy de Jerez (Council regulating the production of Jerezy wine and braef)
- "Balsamic vinegar". BBC Good Food.
- Das, Bhagwan; Sarin, J. L. (1936). "Vinegar from Dates". Industrial & Engineering Chemistry. 28 (7): 814. doi:10.1021/ie50319a016.
- Forbes, Robert James (1971). "Studies in Ancient Technology".
- "List of Ingredients and Allergens: Requirements; Exemptions, Prepackaged Products that Do Not Require a List of Ingredients; Standardized vinegars B.01.008(2)(g), FDR". Canadian Food Inspection Agency. 29 July 2016. Retrieved 20 April 2017.
- Allgeier RJ et al., Newer Developments in Vinegar Manufacture, 1960 ("manufacture of white or spirit vinegar"), in Umbreit WW, Advances in Microbiology: Volume 2, Elsevier/Academic Press Inc., ISBN 0-12-002602-3, accessed at Google Books 2009-04-22[page needed]
- Sinclair C, International Dictionary of Food and Cooking, Peter Collin Publishing, 1998 ISBN 0-948549-87-4[page needed]
- Bateman, Michael (2 May 2016). "Bliss and vinegar - why malt makes a pretty pickle: It's time for a revival of a very British condiment". The Independent, Independent Digital News & Media, London, UK. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
- "CPG Sec. 555.100 Alcohol; Use of Synthetic Alcohol in Foods". Fda.gov. 2014-09-18. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
- AsianWeek.com Archived February 20, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
- "What is Fruit Vinegar?". vinegarbook.net. Retrieved June 10, 2010.
- "Biotechnology in New Zealand" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-03-15.
- "The Vinegar Institute". Versatilevinegar.org. 2008-10-20. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
- Lumpia, Burnt (2009-05-17). "I’m Gonna Git You Suka (Filipino Vinegar)". Burntlumpiablog.com. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
- "The poetic goodness of pomegranates".
- "Shelf Life of Vinegar". Eatbydate.com.
- Claiborne, Craig (1961). The New York Times Cook Book. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 530. ISBN 0-06-010790-1.
- "New babies". Archived from the original on 18 November 2008.
- Johnston, Carol S.; Gaas, Cindy A. (2006). "Vinegar: medicinal uses and antiglycemic effect". MedGenMed. 8 (2): 61. PMC . PMID 16926800.
- Liljeberg, H; Björck, I (1998). "Delayed gastric emptying rate may explain improved glycaemia in healthy subjects to a starchy meal with added vinegar". European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 52 (5): 368–71. PMID 9630389. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1600572.
- Johnston, C. S.; Kim, C. M.; Buller, A. J. (2004). "Vinegar Improves Insulin Sensitivity to a High-Carbohydrate Meal in Subjects With Insulin Resistance or Type 2 Diabetes". Diabetes Care. 27 (1): 281–2. PMID 14694010. doi:10.2337/diacare.27.1.281.
- Östman, E; Granfeldt, Y; Persson, L; Björck, I (2005). "Vinegar supplementation lowers glucose and insulin responses and increases satiety after a bread meal in healthy subjects". European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 59 (9): 983–8. PMID 16015276. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602197.
- Roberts, Susan B. (2009). "High-glycemic Index Foods, Hunger, and Obesity: Is There a Connection?". Nutrition Reviews. 58 (6): 163–9. PMID 10885323. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2000.tb01855.x.
- Medina E, Romero C, Brenes M, De Castro A (May 2007). "Antimicrobial activity of olive oil, vinegar, and various beverages against foodborne pathogens". Journal of Food Protection. 70 (5): 1194–9. PMID 17536679.
- Cortesia, C.; Vilcheze, C.; Bernut, A.; Contreras, W.; Gomez, K.; De Waard, J.; Jacobs, W. R.; Kremer, L.; Takiff, H. (2014). "Acetic Acid, the Active Component of Vinegar, is an Effective Tuberculocidal Disinfectant". MBio. 5 (2): e00013–e00014. PMC . PMID 24570366. doi:10.1128/mBio.00013-14.
- Gálvez, Miguel Carrero; Barroso, Carmelo García; Pérez-Bustamante, Juan Antonio (1994). "Analysis of polyphenolic compounds of different vinegar samples". Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und -Forschung. 199: 29–31. doi:10.1007/BF01192948.
- Cerezo, Ana B.; Tesfaye, Wendu; Torija, M. Jesús; Mateo, Estíbaliz; García-Parrilla, M. Carmen; Troncoso, Ana M. (2008). "The phenolic composition of red wine vinegar produced in barrels made from different woods". Food Chemistry. 109 (3): 606–615. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.01.013.
- Nomura, J; Sato, RL; Ahern, RM; Snow, JL; Kuwaye, TT; Yamamoto, LG (2002). "A randomized paired comparison trial of cutaneous treatments for acute jellyfish (Carybdea alata) stings". The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 20 (7): 624–6. PMID 12442242. doi:10.1053/ajem.2002.35710.
- "Portuguese Man 'o Wars and their sting treatment". Cinemaquatics.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
- Takanolee, M; Edman, J; Mullens, B; Clark, J (2004). "Home Remedies to Control Head Lice Assessment of Home Remedies to Control the Human Head Louse, Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae)". Journal of Pediatric Nursing. 19 (6): 393–8. PMID 15637580. doi:10.1016/j.pedn.2004.11.002.
- Steele, K.; Shirodaria, P.; O'Hare, M.; Merrett, J.D.; Irwin, W.G.; Simpson, D.I.H.; Pfister, H. (1988). "Monochloroacetic acid and 60% salicylic acid as a treatment for simple plantar warts: effectiveness and mode of action". British Journal of Dermatology. 118 (4): 537–43. PMID 3377974. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.1988.tb02464.x.
- Hill, L; Woodruff, L; Foote, J; Barreto-Alcoba, M (2005). "Esophageal Injury by Apple Cider Vinegar Tablets and Subsequent Evaluation of Products". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 105 (7): 1141–4. PMID 15983536. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2005.04.003.
- Lhotta, Karl; Höfle, Günther; Gasser, Rudolf; Finkenstedt, Gerd (1998). "Hypokalemia, Hyperreninemia and Osteoporosis in a Patient Ingesting Large Amounts of Cider Vinegar". Nephron. 80 (2): 242–3. PMID 9736833. doi:10.1159/000045180.
- "7 Unexpected Ways to Use Vinegar Around the House". www.yahoo.com. Retrieved 2015-09-11.
- "My Environment: Cleaning Products", Ontario Ministry of the Environment
- "Trade Secrets: Betty's Tips", BBC/Lifestyle/Homes/Housekeeping. Retrieved 2009-04-22.
- "Heloise Hears A Hint – 48 Hours". CBS News. 2000-12-28. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
- William A. Rutala; Susan L. Barbee; Newman C. Aguiar; Mark D. Sobsey; David J. Weber (2000). "Antimicrobial Activity of Home Disinfectants and Natural Products Against Potential Human Pathogens". Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. The University of Chicago Press on behalf of The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. 21 (1): 33–38. JSTOR 501694. PMID 10656352. doi:10.1086/501694.
- "Hometalk Discusses Vinegar". Hometalk. 2014-05-27. Retrieved 2014-05-27.
- "Cleaning Up After Your Pet...the Natural Way!", KeenforGreen.com
- "95+ Household Uses for Vinegar | Reader's Digest". Rd.com. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
- "Spray Weeds With Vinegar?". Ars.usda.gov. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
- "Vinegar as herbicide". Cahe.nmsu.edu. 2004-04-10. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
- "Conquer Weeds with Vinegar?". Hort.purdue.edu. 2006-03-24. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
- "Vinegar Information". Reinhart Foods. 2004-01-01. Retrieved 2013-06-23.
- "FDA: Sec. 525.825 Vinegar, Definitions – Adulteration with Vinegar Eels (CPG 7109.22)". Food and Drug Administration. 2009-07-27. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
- "Departmental Consolidation of the Food and Drugs Act and the Food and Drug Regulations – Part B – Division 19" (PDF). Health Canada. March 2003. Retrieved 2008-09-02.
- Hunter, Robert (1894). The Encyclopaedic Dictionary. Toronto: T.J. Ford. ISBN 0-665-85186-3.[page needed]
- Kacirk, Jeffery (2000). The Word Museum:The most remarkable English ever forgotten. Touchstone. ISBN 0-684-85761-8.[page needed]