Apple cider vinegar
Apple cider vinegar, or cider vinegar, is a vinegar made from fermented apple juice, and used in salad dressings, marinades, vinaigrettes, food preservatives, and chutneys. It is made by crushing apples, then squeezing out the juice. Bacteria and yeast are added to the liquid to start the alcoholic fermentation process, which converts the sugars to alcohol. In a second fermentation step, the alcohol is converted into vinegar by acetic acid-forming bacteria (Acetobacter species). Acetic acid and malic acid combine to give vinegar its sour taste.
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||90 kJ (22 kcal)|
|Dietary fiber||0 g|
|Vitamin A equiv.|
|†Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. |
Source: USDA FoodData Central
Apples are loaded onto a processing belt where they are crushed, pressed, and the juice separated. The material is stored in a submerged tank where the first fermentation process begins through which oxygen is supplied. Alcoholic fermentation is completed using the bacterial strain, acetobacter, with the ethanol produced yielding acetic acid and vinegar. The "mother" is an undefined microbial culture left in the vinegar prior to distilling and pasteurization.
Despite its history of use in traditional medicine, there is no clinical evidence to support any health claims – such as for weight loss or skin infections – in humans, and its use is not recommended for any indication in medical guidelines of major public health organizations or regulatory agencies.
Although oral use of small quantities of apple cider vinegar is considered safe, ingestion of apple cider vinegar in tablet form poses a risk of injury to soft tissues of the mouth, throat, stomach, and kidneys. Irritation and redness are common when the eyes come into contact with vinegar, and corneal injury can occur. Using vinegar as a topical medication, ear cleaning solution, or eye wash is hazardous. Due to its acidity, exposure of teeth from consuming undiluted apple cider vinegar may damage tooth enamel. Although small amounts of apple cider vinegar may be used as a food flavoring, it may be unsafe for use by pregnant and breastfeeding women and by children. Different commercial brands of apple cider vinegar were found to have inconsistent acid levels, with some contaminated by molds and yeast.
People with allergies to apples may experience adverse reactions to apple cider vinegar. Topical use of apple cider vinegar to treat skin diseases may cause burns. The use of apple cider vinegar may cause interactions with prescription drugs, such as insulin or diuretics.
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