Apple cider vinegar
Apple cider vinegar, a vinegar made from fermented apple juice, is used in salad dressings, marinades, vinaigrettes, food preservatives, and chutneys. It is made by crushing apples, then squeezing out the juice. Bacteria and yeast are added to the liquid to start the alcoholic fermentation process, which converts the sugars to alcohol. In a second fermentation step, the alcohol is converted into vinegar by acetic acid-forming bacteria (Acetobacter species). Acetic acid and malic acid combine to give vinegar its sour taste. Apple cider vinegar has no medicinal or nutritional value. It is 94% water, with calories and all nutrients at negligible levels.
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||88 kJ (21 kcal)|
|Dietary fiber||0 g|
|Vitamin A equiv.|
|†Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. |
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Apple cider vinegar has been used as a folk remedy for centuries. Since the 1970s, it has been promoted with a number of health claims, including that it can aid weight loss and prevent skin infection. No claims of benefit are supported by scientific evidence, and consumption may be hazardous, particularly if taken during pregnancy or consumed chronically.
Ingestion of the acetic acid in tablet form poses a risk of possible injury to soft tissues of the mouth, throat, stomach, and kidneys. Using vinegar for topical treatment, ear cleaning solutions, or eye washes, is hazardous.
- Ulbricht CE, ed. (2010). "Apple Cider Vinegar". Natural Standard Herb & Supplement Guide: An Evidence-Based Reference (1st ed.). Elsevier. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-323-07295-3.
- Hill, LL; Woodruff, LH; Foote, JC; Barreto-Alcoba, M (2005). "Esophageal injury by apple cider vinegar tablets and subsequent evaluation of products". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 105 (7): 1141–1144. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2005.04.003. PMID 15983536.
- "Vinegar: Not Just for Salad". National Capital Poison Center, Washington, DC. 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2017.