# Human body weight

(Redirected from Body weight)

Human body weight refers to a person's mass or weight. Body weight is measured in kilograms, a measure of mass, throughout the world in countries that use the Metric system, although in some countries such as the United States it is measured in pounds, or as in the United Kingdom, stones and pounds. Most hospitals, even in the United States, now use kilograms for calculations, but use kilograms and pounds together for other purposes.[citation needed]

Strictly speaking, body weight is the measurement of weight without items located on the person. Practically though, body weight may be measured with clothes on, but without shoes or heavy accessories such as mobile phones and wallets, and using manual or digital weighing scales. Excess or reduced body weight is regarded as an indicator of determining a person's health, with body volume measurement providing an extra dimension by calculating the distribution of body weight.

Average adult human weight varies by continent from about 60 kg (130 lb) in Asia and Africa to about 80 kg (180 lb) in North America, with men on average weighing more than women.

## Estimation in children

An example of a half unfolded Broselow tape

There are a number of methods to estimate weight in children for circumstances (such as emergencies) when actual weight cannot be measured. Most involve a parent or health care provider guessing the child's weight through weight-estimation formulas. These formulas base their findings on the child's age and tape-based systems of weight estimation. Of the many formulas that have been used for estimating body weight, some include the APLS formula, the Leffler formula, and Theron formula.[1] There are also several types of tape-based systems for estimating children's weight, with the most well-known being the Broselow tape.[2] The Broselow tape is based on length with weight read from the appropriate color area. Newer systems, such as the PAWPER tape, make use of a simple two-step process to estimate weight: the length-based weight estimation is modified according to the child's body habitus to increase the accuracy of the final weight prediction.[3]

The Leffler formula is used for children 0–10 years of age.[1] In those less than a year old it is

${\displaystyle m={\tfrac {1}{2}}a_{m}+4}$

and for those 1–10 years old it is

${\displaystyle m=2a_{y}+10}$

where m is the number of kilograms the child weighs and am and ay respectively are the number of months or years old the child is.[1]

The Theron formula is

${\displaystyle m=e^{0.175571a_{y}+2.197099}}$

where m and ay are as above.[1]

## Fluctuation

Body weight varies throughout the day, as the amount of water in the body is not constant. It changes frequently due to activities such as drinking, urinating, or exercise.[4][5] Professional sports participants may deliberately dehydrate themselves to enter a lower weight class, a practice known as weight cutting.[6]

## Ideal body weight

Ideal body weight (IBW) was initially introduced by Ben J. Devine in 1974 to allow estimation of drug clearances in obese patients;[7] researchers have since shown that the metabolism of certain drugs relates more to IBW than total body weight.[8] The term was based on the use of insurance data that demonstrated the relative mortality for males and females according to different height-weight combinations.

The most common estimation of IBW is by the Devine formula; other models exist and have been noted to give similar results.[8] Other methods used in estimating the ideal body weight are body mass index and the Hamwi method. The IBW is not the perfect fat measurement as it does not show the fat or muscle percentage in one's body. For example, athletes' results show that they are overweight when they are actually very fit and healthy. Machines like the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can accurately measure the percentage and weight of fat, muscle, and bone in a body.

### Devine formula

The Devine formula for calculating ideal body weight in adults is as follows:[8]

• Male ideal body weight = 50 kilograms (110 lb) + 0.9 kilograms (2.0 lb) × (height (cm) − 152)
• Female ideal body weight = 45.5 kilograms (100 lb) + 0.9 kilograms (2.0 lb) × (height (cm) − 152)

### Hamwi method

The Hamwi method is used to calculate the ideal body weight of the general adult:[9]

• Male ideal body weight = 48 kilograms (106 lb) + 1.1 kilograms (2.4 lb) × (height (cm) − 152)
• Female ideal body weight = 45.4 kilograms (100 lb) + 0.9 kilograms (2.0 lb) × (height (cm) − 152)

## Usage

### Sports

Participants in sports such as boxing, mixed martial arts, wrestling, rowing, judo, Olympic weightlifting, and powerlifting are classified according to their body weight, measured in units of mass such as pounds or kilograms. See, e.g., wrestling weight classes, boxing weight classes, judo at the 2004 Summer Olympics, and boxing at the 2004 Summer Olympics.

### Medicine

Ideal body weight, specifically the Devine formula, is used clinically for multiple reasons, most commonly in estimating renal function in drug dosing, and predicting pharmacokinetics in morbidly obese patients.[10][11]

## Average weight around the world

### By region

(millions)
Average weight Overweight population /
total population
Source
Africa 535 60.7 kg (133.8 lb) 28.9% [12]
Asia 2,815 57.7 kg (127.2 lb) 24.2% [12]
Europe 606 70.8 kg (156.1 lb) 55.6% [12]
Latin America and the Caribbean 386 67.9 kg (149.7 lb) 57.9% [12]
North America 263 80.7 kg (177.9 lb) 73.9% [12]
Oceania 24 74.1 kg (163.4 lb) 63.3% [12]
World 4,630 62.0 kg (136.7 lb) 34.7% [12]

### By country

Country Average male weight Average female weight Sample population /
age range
Methodology Year Source
Afghanistan 69.2 kg (152.6 lb) 62.6 kg (138.0 lb) 18-69 Measured 2018 [13]
Algeria 68.7 kg (151.5 lb) 65.1 kg (143.5 lb) 25-64 Measured 2005 [14]
Armenia 74.6 kg (164.5 lb) 66.4 kg (146.4 lb) 18-69 Measured 2016 [15]
Australia 87.0 kg (191.8 lb) 71.8 kg (158.3 lb) 18+ Measured 2018 [16]
Azerbaijan 72.1 kg (159.0 lb) 65.7 kg (144.8 lb) 16+ Measured 2005 [17]
Bangladesh 55.2 kg (121.7 lb) 49.8 kg (109.8 lb) 25+ Measured 2009-2010 [18]
Belarus 69 kg (152.1 lb) 56 kg (123.5 lb) 18+ Measured 2008 [19]
Belize 74.2 kg (163.6 lb) 70.5 kg (155.4 lb) 20+ Measured 2010 [20]
Benin 63.7 kg (140.4 lb) 60.9 kg (134.3 lb) 18-69 Measured 2015 [21]
Bhutan 63.2 kg (139.3 lb) 57.4 kg (126.5 lb) 18-69 Measured 2014 [22]
Botswana 63.6 kg (140.2 lb) 64.3 kg (141.8 lb) 15-69 Measured 2014 [23]
Brazil 72.7 kg (160.3 lb) 62.5 kg (137.8 lb) 20–74 Measured 2008–2009 [24]
Brunei 74.1 kg (163.4 lb) 62.9 kg (138.7 lb) 19+ Measured 2010-2011 [25]
Bulgaria 81.0 kg (178.6 lb) 67.0 kg (147.7 lb) 15+ Self-reported 2014 [26]
Burkina Faso 65.2 kg (143.7 lb) 59.0 kg (130.1 lb) 25-64 Measured 2013 [27]
Cambodia 56.8 kg (125.2 lb) 50.8 kg (112.0 lb) 25-64 Measured 2010 [28]
Cameroon 68.3 kg (150.6 lb) 67.0 kg (147.7 lb) 15+ Measured 2003 [29]
Canada 84.6 kg (187 lb) 70.1 kg (155 lb) 18-79 Measured 2007-2009 [30]
Chile 77.3 kg (170.4 lb) 67.5 kg (148.8 lb) 15+ Measured 2009–2010 [31]
China 77.7 kg (171.3 lb) 59.5 kg (131.2 lb) 18-69 Measured 2014 [32][33]
Costa Rica - San José 76.6 kg (168.9 lb) 64.9 kg (143.1 lb) 20+ Measured 2010 [34]
Czech Republic 92.1 kg (203.0 lb) 73.8 kg (162.7 lb) 25-64 Measured 2016-2017 [35]
Estonia 84.4 kg (186.1 lb) 71.2 kg (157.0 lb) 18+ Measured 2003-2010 [36]
Finland 82.1 kg (181 lb) Measured [citation needed]
France 77.1 kg (170 lb) 62.7 kg (138 lb) 15+ Measured 2005 [37]
Georgia 84.4 kg (186.1 lb) 73.6 kg (162.3 lb) 18-69 Measured 2016 [38]
Germany 82.4 kg (181.7 lb) 67.5 kg (148.8 lb) 18+ Measured 2005 [39]
India 65.0 kg (143.3 lb) 55.0 kg (121.3 lb) 16+ Measured 2020 [40]
Oman 74.9 kg (165.1 lb) 68.1 kg (150.1 lb) 18+ Measured 2017 [41]
Pakistan 66.0 kg (145.5 lb) 59.0 kg (130.1 lb) 18-69 Measured 2013-2014 [42]
Papua New Guinea 62.5 kg (137.8 lb) 56.8 kg (125.2 lb) 15-64 Measured 2007-2008 [43]
Qatar 84.6 kg (186.5 lb) 73.4 kg (161.8 lb) 18-64 Measured 2012 [44]
Rwanda 58.4 kg (128.7 lb) 55.9 kg (123.2 lb) 15-64 Measured 2012-2013 [45]
Saint Kitts and Nevis 84.5 kg (186.3 lb) 83.0 kg (183.0 lb) 25-64 Measured 2007-2008 [46]
Saudi Arabia 77.3 kg (170.4 lb) 71.7 kg (158.1 lb) 25-64 Measured 2005 [47]
Serbia 84.6 kg (186.5 lb) 70.0 kg (154.3 lb) 20+ Measured 2013 [48]
Sierra Leone 62.0 kg (136.7 lb) 59.0 kg (130.1 lb) 25-64 Measured 2009 [49]
Solomon Islands 75.3 kg (166.0 lb) 70.4 kg (155.2 lb) 25-64 Measured 2006 [50]
South Korea 68.6 kg (151.2 lb) 56.5 kg (124.6 lb) 18+ Measured 2007 [51]
Spain 82.4 kg (181.7 lb) 66.6 kg (146.8 lb) 18-64 Measured 2013 [52]
Sri Lanka 61.4 kg (135.4 lb) 54.6 kg (120.4 lb) 18-69 Measured 2014-2015 [53]
Sudan 65.4 kg (144.2 lb) 61.6 kg (135.8 lb) 18-69 Measured 2016 [54]
Sweden 81.9 kg (180.6 lb) 66.7 kg (147.0 lb) 16–84 Measured 2003-2004 [55]
Togo 63.2 kg (139.3 lb) 60.0 kg (132.3 lb) 15-64 Measured 2010 [56]
Tonga 99.4 kg (219.1 lb) 97.7 kg (215.4 lb) 25-64 Measured 2012 [57]
Trinidad and Tobago 76.7 kg (169.1 lb) 71.1 kg (156.7 lb) 15-64 Measured 2011 [58]
Turkey 78.0 kg (172.0 lb) 70.1 kg (154.5 lb) 15+ Measured 2017 [59]
Turkmenistan 76.6 kg (168.9 lb) 67.4 kg (148.6 lb) 18-69 Measured 2018 [60]
United KingdomWales 84.0 kg (185.2 lb) 69.0 kg (152.1 lb) 16+ Measured 2009 [61]
Ukraine 80.0 kg (176.4 lb) 71.0 kg (156.5 lb) 18+ Measured 2020 [62]
United States 90.6 kg (199.7 lb) 77.5 kg (170.9 lb) 20+ Measured 2015-2018 [63]

#### Global statistics

Researchers at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine published a study of average weights of adult humans in the journal BMC Public Health and at the United Nations conference Rio+20.[64]

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