Micronutrients are essential dietary elements required by organisms in varying quantities throughout life to orchestrate a range of physiological functions to maintain health.[2][3] Micronutrient requirements vary among organisms. Humans and other animals require numerous vitamins and dietary minerals.[4] Plants tend not to require vitamins, however minerals are required still.[5][6] For human nutrition, micronutrient requirements are in amounts generally less than 100 milligrams per day, whereas macronutrients are required in gram quantities daily.

Structure of the Mn4O5Ca core of the oxygen-evolving site in plants, illustrating one of many roles of trace mineral manganese.[1]

The "minerals" for humans and other animals are several elements.[7][8] Micronutrient requirements for animals also include vitamins, which are organic compounds required in microgram or milligram amounts.[8][9] Since plants are the primary origin of nutrients for humans and animals, some micronutrients may be in low levels and deficiencies can occur when dietary intake is insufficient, as occurs in malnutrition.[5]

A multiple micronutrient powder of at least iron, zinc, and vitamin A was added to the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines in 2019.[10]

Nutritional elements in the periodic table[11]
H   He
Li Be   B C N O F Ne
Na Mg   Al Si P S Cl Ar
K Ca   Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
Rb Sr   Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
Cs Ba * Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
Fr Ra ** Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Nh Fl Mc Lv Ts Og
  * La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb
  ** Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No
  Quantity elements
  Essential trace elements
  Deemed essential trace element by U.S., not by European Union
  Suggested function from deprivation effects or active metabolic handling, but no clearly-identified biochemical function in humans
  Limited circumstantial evidence for trace benefits or biological action in mammals
  No evidence for biological action in mammals, but essential in some lower organisms.
(In the case of lanthanum, the definition of an essential nutrient as being indispensable and irreplaceable is not completely applicable due to the extreme similarity of the lanthanides. The stable early lanthanides up to Sm are known to stimulate the growth of various lanthanide-using organisms.)[12][13]

Selected strategies for human health Edit

The returns of applying micronutrient-enriched fertilizers could be significant for human health, social and economic development. Enriching fertilizers with micronutrients not only impacts plants but also on humans and animals through the food chain. A 1994 report by the World Bank estimated that micronutrient malnutrition costs developing economies at least 5 percent of gross domestic product.[14] The Asian Development Bank has summarized the benefits of eliminating micronutrient deficiencies as follows:

Along with a growing understanding of the extent and impact of micronutrient malnutrition, several interventions have demonstrated the feasibility and benefits of correction and prevention. Distributing inexpensive capsules, diversifying to include more micronutrient-rich foods, or fortifying commonly consumed foods can make an enormous difference. Correcting iodine, vitamin A, and iron deficiencies can improve the population-wide intelligence quotient by 10–15 points, reduce maternal deaths by one-fourth, decrease infant and child mortality by 40 percent, and increase people's work capacity by almost half. The elimination of these deficiencies will reduce health care and education costs, improve work capacity and productivity, and accelerate equitable economic growth and national development. Improved nutrition is essential to sustain economic growth. Micronutrient deficiency elimination is as cost-effective as the best public health interventions and fortification is the most cost-effective strategy.[15]

Salt iodization Edit

Salt iodization is major strategy for addressing iodine deficiency, which is a major cause of mental health problems. In 1990, less than 20 percent of households in developing countries were consuming iodized salt.[16] By 1994, international partnerships had formed in a global campaign for Universal Salt Iodization. By 2008, it was estimated that 72 percent of households in developing countries were consuming iodized salt[17] and the number of countries in which iodine deficiency disorders were a public health concern reduced by more than half from 110 to 47 countries.[16]

Vitamin A supplementation Edit

In 1997, national vitamin A supplementation programming received a boost when experts met to discuss rapid scale-up of supplementation activity, and the Micronutrient Initiative, with support from the Government of Canada, began to ensure supply to UNICEF.[18]

In areas with vitamin A deficiency, it is recommended that children aged 6–59 months receive two doses annually. In many countries, vitamin A supplementation is combined with immunization and campaign-style health events.

Global vitamin A supplementation efforts have targeted 103 priority countries. In 1999, 16 percent of children in these countries received two annual doses of vitamin A. By 2007, the rate increased to 62 percent.[19]

The Micronutrient Initiative, with funding from the Government of Canada, supplies 75 percent of the vitamin A required for supplementation in developing countries.[20]

Fortification of staple foods with Vitamin A has uncertain benefits on reducing the risk of subclinical vitamin A deficiency.[21]

Double-fortified salt Edit

Double-fortified salt (DFS) is a public health tool for delivering nutritional iron. DFS is fortified with both iodine and iron. It was developed by Venkatesh Mannar, Executive Director of the Micronutrient Initiative and University of Toronto Professor Levente Diosady, who discovered a process for coating iron particles with a vegetable fat to prevent the negative interaction of iodine and iron.[22]

In India, Tata Salt Plus is an iodine-plus-iron fortified salt, developed by the National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad through double fortification technology. This technology was offered to Tata Chemicals under a long-term MoU after due studies on bio-availability across the population strata conducted and published by NIN.[23]

It was first used in public programming in 2004. In September 2010 DFS was produced in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and distributed through a state school feeding program. DFS has also been used to combat iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in the Indian state of Bihar.[24] In September 2010, Venkatesh Mannar was named a Laureat of the California-based Tech Awards for his work in developing Double-Fortified Salt.

Zinc Edit

Fortification of staple foods may improve serum zinc levels in the population. Other effects such as improving zinc deficiency, children's growth, cognition, work capacity of adults, or blood indicators are unknown.[25] Experiments show that soil and foliar application of zinc fertilizer can effectively reduce the phytate zinc ratio in grain. People who eat bread prepared from zinc enriched wheat show a significant increase in serum zinc, suggesting that the zinc fertilizer strategy is a promising approach to address zinc deficiencies in humans.

Plants Edit

About seven trace elements are essential to plant growth, although often in very small quantities.

  • Boron is believed to be involved in carbohydrate transport in plants; it also assists in metabolic regulation. Boron deficiency will often result in bud dieback.
  • Chlorine is necessary for osmosis and ionic balance; it also plays a role in photosynthesis.
  • Copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc are cofactors essential for the functioning of many enzymes.[26] For plants, deficiency in these elements often results in inefficient production of chlorophyll, manifested in chlorosis.

See also Edit

References Edit

  1. ^ Umena, Yasufumi; Kawakami, Keisuke; Shen, Jian-Ren; Kamiya, Nobuo (May 2011). "Crystal structure of oxygen-evolving photosystem II at a resolution of 1.9 Å" (PDF). Nature. 473 (7345): 55–60. Bibcode:2011Natur.473...55U. doi:10.1038/nature09913. PMID 21499260. S2CID 205224374.
  2. ^ Gernand, A. D; Schulze, K. J; Stewart, C. P; West Jr, K. P; Christian, P (2016). "Micronutrient deficiencies in pregnancy worldwide: Health effects and prevention". Nature Reviews Endocrinology. 12 (5): 274–289. doi:10.1038/nrendo.2016.37. PMC 4927329. PMID 27032981.
  3. ^ Tucker, K. L (2016). "Nutrient intake, nutritional status, and cognitive function with aging". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1367 (1): 38–49. Bibcode:2016NYASA1367...38T. doi:10.1111/nyas.13062. PMID 27116240.
  4. ^ Jane Higdon; Victoria J. Drake (2011). Evidence-Based Approach to Vitamins and Minerals: Health Benefits and Intake Recommendations (2nd ed.). Thieme. ISBN 978-3131644725.
  5. ^ a b Blancquaert, D; De Steur, H; Gellynck, X; Van Der Straeten, D (2017). "Metabolic engineering of micronutrients in crop plants" (PDF). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1390 (1): 59–73. Bibcode:2017NYASA1390...59B. doi:10.1111/nyas.13274. hdl:1854/LU-8519050. PMID 27801945. S2CID 9439102.
  6. ^ Marschner, Petra, ed. (2012). Marschner's mineral nutrition of higher plants (3rd ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press. ISBN 9780123849052.
  7. ^ "Minerals". Corvallis, OR: Micronutrient Information Center, Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University. 2018. Retrieved 19 February 2018.
  8. ^ a b "Vitamins and minerals". US Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library. 2016. Archived from the original on 31 July 2016. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
  9. ^ "Vitamins". Corvallis, OR: Micronutrient Information Center, Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University. 2018. Retrieved 19 February 2018.
  10. ^ World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019 (Technical report). hdl:10665/325771. Archived from the original on 14 October 2022. Retrieved 14 January 2023.
  11. ^ Ultratrace minerals. Authors: Nielsen, Forrest H. USDA, ARS Source: Modern nutrition in health and disease / editors, Maurice E. Shils ... et al. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, c1999., p. 283-303. Issue Date: 1999 URI: [1]
  12. ^ Daumann, Lena J. (25 April 2019). "Essential and Ubiquitous: The Emergence of Lanthanide Metallobiochemistry". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. doi:10.1002/anie.201904090. Retrieved 15 June 2019.
  13. ^ Koribanics NM, Tuorto SJ, Lopez-Chiaffarelli N, McGuinness LR, Häggblom MM, Williams KH, et al. (2015). "Spatial distribution of an uranium-respiring betaproteobacterium at the Rifle, CO field research site". PLOS ONE. 10 (4): e0123378. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1023378K. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0123378. PMC 4395306. PMID 25874721.
  14. ^ World Bank (1994). Enriching Lives: Overcoming Vitamin and Mineral Malnutrition in Developing Countries. Development in Practice Series.
  15. ^ Asia Development Bank (October 2000). [www.adb.org/Documents/TARs/REG/tar_oth34014.pdf Regional Initiative to Eliminate Micronutrient Malnutrition in Asia Through Public-Private Partnership]. TAR: OTH 34014. Retrieved on: 2011-10-13.
  16. ^ a b Flour Fortification Initiative, GAIN, Micronutrient Initiative, USAID, The World Bank, UNICEF, Investing in the future: a united call to action on vitamin and mineral deficiencies, p. 19.
  17. ^ UNICEF, The State of the World's Children 2010, Statistical Tables, p. 15.
  18. ^ UNICEF, "Vitamin A Supplementation: a decade of progress", p. 1.
  19. ^ Flour Fortification Initiative, GAIN, Micronutrient Initiative, USAID, The World Bank, UNICEF, Investing in the future: a united call to action on vitamin A and mineral deficiencies, p. 17.
  20. ^ Micronutrient Initiative, Annual Report 2009-2010, p. 4.
  21. ^ Hombali AS, Solon JA, Venkatesh BT, Nair NS, Peña-Rosas JP (May 2019). "Fortification of staple foods with vitamin A for vitamin A deficiency". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 (5): CD010068. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010068.pub2. PMC 6509778. PMID 31074495.
  22. ^ L.L. Diosady and M.G. Venkatesh Mannar, "Double Fortification Of Salt With Iron And Iodine", 2000
  23. ^ "Tata group | Tata Chemicals | Media releases | India's first iodine plus iron fortified salt launched by Tata Chemicals". Archived from the original on 2013-02-06. Retrieved 2013-06-07.
  24. ^ "Evaluating the Impact on Anemia of Making Double Fortified Salt Available in Bihar, India" | The Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab
  25. ^ Shah D, Sachdev HS, Gera T, De-Regil LM, Peña-Rosas JP (June 2016). "Fortification of staple foods with zinc for improving zinc status and other health outcomes in the general population". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 (6): CD010697. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010697.pub2. PMC 8627255. PMID 27281654.
  26. ^ Dittmar, Heinrich; Drach, Manfred; Vosskamp, Ralf; Trenkel, Martin E.; Gutser, Reinhold; Steffens, Günter (2009). "Fertilizers, 2. Types". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. doi:10.1002/14356007.n10_n01. ISBN 9783527303854.

External links Edit