Physiology (//; from Ancient Greek φύσις (physis), meaning 'nature, origin', and -λογία (-logia), meaning 'study of') is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which operate within a living system. A sub-discipline of biology, its focus is in how organisms, organ systems, organs, cells, and biomolecules carry out the chemical or physical functions that exist in a living system. Given the size of the field, it is divided into, among others, animal physiology (including that of humans), plant physiology, cellular physiology, microbial physiology (microbial metabolism), bacterial physiology, and viral physiology.
Central to an understanding of physiological functioning is its integrated nature with other disciplines such as chemistry and physics, coordinated homeostatic control mechanisms, and continuous communication between cells.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded to those who make significant achievements in this discipline by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In medicine, a physiologic state is one occurring from normal body function, rather than pathologically, which is centered on the abnormalities that occur in animal diseases, including humans.
The study of human physiology as a medical field dates back to at least 420 BC to the time of Hippocrates, also known as the "father of medicine." Hippocrates incorporated his belief system called the theory of humours, which consisted of four basic substance: earth, water, air and fire. Each substance is known for having a corresponding humour: black bile, phlegm, blood and yellow bile, respectively. Hippocrates also noted some emotional connections to the four humours, which Claudis Galenus would later expand on. The critical thinking of Aristotle and his emphasis on the relationship between structure and function marked the beginning of physiology in Ancient Greece. Like Hippocrates, Aristotle took to the humoral theory of disease, which also consisted of four primary qualities in life: hot, cold, wet and dry. Claudius Galenus (c. ~130–200 AD), known as Galen of Pergamum, was the first to use experiments to probe the functions of the body. Unlike Hippocrates though, Galen argued that humoral imbalances can be located in specific organs, including the entire body. His modification of this theory better equipped doctors to make more precise diagnoses. Galen also played off of Hippocrates idea that emotions were also tied to the humours, and added the notion of temperaments: sanguine corresponds with blood; phlegmatic is tied to phlegm; yellow bile is connected to choleric; and black bile corresponds with melancholy. Galen also saw the human body consisting of three connected systems: the brain and nerves, which are responsible for thoughts and sensations; the heart and arteries, which give life; and the liver and veins, which can be attributed to nutrition and growth. Galen was also the founder of experimental physiology. And for the next 1,400 years, Galenic physiology was a powerful and influential tool in medicine.
In the 1820s, the French physiologist Henri Milne-Edwards introduced the notion of physiological division of labor, which allowed to "compare and study living things as if they were machines created by the industry of man." Inspired in the work of Adam Smith, Milne-Edwards wrote that the "body of all living beings, whether animal or plant, resembles a factory ... where the organs, comparable to workers, work incessantly to produce the phenomena that constitute the life of the individual." In more differentiated organisms, the functional labor could be apportioned between different instruments or systems (called by him as appareils).
In 1858, Joseph Lister studied the cause of blood coagulation and inflammation that resulted after previous injuries and surgical wounds. He later discovered and implemented antiseptics in the operating room, and as a result decreases death rate from surgery by a substantial amount.
The Physiological Society was founded in London in 1876 as a dining club. The American Physiological Society (APS) is a nonprofit organization that was founded in 1887. The Society is, "devoted to fostering education, scientific research, and dissemination of information in the physiological sciences."
In the 19th century, physiological knowledge began to accumulate at a rapid rate, in particular with the 1838 appearance of the Cell theory of Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann. It radically stated that organisms are made up of units called cells. Claude Bernard's (1813–1878) further discoveries ultimately led to his concept of milieu interieur (internal environment), which would later be taken up and championed as "homeostasis" by American physiologist Walter B. Cannon in 1929. By homeostasis, Cannon meant "the maintenance of steady states in the body and the physiological processes through which they are regulated." In other words, the body's ability to regulate its internal environment. It should be noted that, William Beaumont was the first American to utilize the practical application of physiology.
Nineteenth century physiologists such as Michael Foster, Max Verworn, and Alfred Binet, based on Haeckel's ideas, elaborated what came to be called "general physiology", a unified science of life based on the cell actions, later renamed in the twentieth century as cell biology.
In the 20th century, biologists became interested in how organisms other than human beings function, eventually spawning the fields of comparative physiology and ecophysiology. Major figures in these fields include Knut Schmidt-Nielsen and George Bartholomew. Most recently, evolutionary physiology has become a distinct subdiscipline.
Women in physiologyEdit
Initially, women were largely excluded from official involvement in any physiological society. The American Physiological Society, for example, was founded in 1887 and included only men in its ranks. In 1902, the American Physiological Society elected Ida Hyde as the first female member of the society. Hyde, a representative of the American Association of University Women and a global advocate for gender equality in education, attempted to promote gender equality in every aspect of science and medicine.
Soon thereafter, in 1913, J.S. Haldane proposed that women be allowed to formally join The Physiological Society, which had been founded in 1876. On 3 July 1915, six women were officially admitted: Florence Buchanan, Winifred Cullis, Ruth C. Skelton, Sarah C. M. Sowton, Constance Leetham Terry, and Enid M. Tribe. The centenary of the election of women was celebrated in 2015 with the publication of a book "Women physiologists: centenary celebrations and beyond for The Physiological Society ISBN 978-0-9933410-0-7.
Prominent women physiologists include:
- Gerty Cori, along with husband Carl Cori, received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1947 for their discovery of the phosphate-containing form of glucose known as glycogen, as well as its function within eukaryotic metabolic mechanisms for energy production. Moreover, they discovered the Cori cycle, also known as the Lactic acid cycle, which describes how muscle tissue converts glycogen into lactic acid via lactic acid fermentation.
- Barbara McClintock was rewarded the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of genetic transposition McClintock is the only female recipient who has won an unshared Nobel Prize.
- Gertrude Elion, along with George Hitchings and Sir James Black, received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1988 for their development of drugs employed in the treatment of several major diseases, such as leukemia, some autoimmune disorders, gout, malaria, and viral herpes.
- Linda B. Buck, along with Richard Axel, received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2004 for their discovery of odorant receptors and the complex organization of the olfactory system.
- Françoise Barré-Sinoussi, along with Luc Montagnier, received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2008 for their work on the identification of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), the cause of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).
- Elizabeth Blackburn, along with Carol W. Greider and Jack W. Szostak, was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of the genetic composition and function of telomeres and the enzyme called telomerase.
There are many ways to categorize the subdiscplines of physiology:
- based on the taxa studied: human physiology, animal physiology, plant physiology, microbial physiology, viral physiology
- based on the level of organization: cell physiology, molecular physiology, systems physiology, organismal physiology, ecological physiology, integrative physiology
- based on the process that causes physiological variation: developmental physiology, environmental physiology, evolutionary physiology
- based on the ultimate goals of the research: applied physiology (e.g., medical physiology), non-applied (e.g., comparative physiology)
Human physiology seeks to understand the mechanisms that work to keep the human body alive and functioning, through scientific enquiry into the nature of mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. The principal level of focus of physiology is at the level of organs and systems within systems. The endocrine and nervous systems play major roles in the reception and transmission of signals that integrate function in animals. Homeostasis is a major aspect with regard to such interactions within plants as well as animals. The biological basis of the study of physiology, integration refers to the overlap of many functions of the systems of the human body, as well as its accompanied form. It is achieved through communication that occurs in a variety of ways, both electrical and chemical.
Changes in physiology can impact the mental functions of individuals. Examples of this would be the effects of certain medications or toxic levels of substances. Change in behavior as a result of these substances is often used to assess the health of individuals.
Much of the foundation of knowledge in human physiology was provided by animal experimentation. Due to the frequent connection between form and function, physiology and anatomy are intrinsically linked and are studied in tandem as part of a medical curriculum.
- "physiology". Online Etymology Dictionary.
- Prosser, C. Ladd (1991). Comparative Animal Physiology, Environmental and Metabolic Animal Physiology (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Liss. pp. 1–12. ISBN 0-471-85767-X.
- Hall, John (2011). Guyton and Hall textbook of medical physiology (12th ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders/Elsevier. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-4160-4574-8.
- Widmaier, Eric P.; Raff, Hershel; Strang, Kevin T. (2016). Vander's Human Physiology The Mechanisms of Body Function. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education. pp. 14–15. ISBN 978-1-259-29409-9.
- "What is physiology?". Medical News Today.
- D. P. Burma; Maharani Chakravorty. From Physiology and Chemistry to Biochemistry. Pearson Education. p. 8.
- Francis Zimmermann. The Jungle and the Aroma of Meats: An Ecological Theme in Hindu Medicine. Motilal Banarsidass publications. p. 159.
- "Medicine Across Cultures". google.com.
- "Physiology". Science Clarified. Advameg, Inc. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- "Early Medicine and Physiology". ship.edu.
- "Galen of Pergamum". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- Fell, C.; Pearson, F. (November 2007). "Historical Perspectives of Thoracic Anatomy". Thoracic Surgery Clinics. 17 (4): 443–8. doi:10.1016/j.thorsurg.2006.12.001.
- Wilbur Applebaum. Encyclopedia of the Scientific Revolution: From Copernicus to Newton. Routledge. p. 344.
- R. M. Brain. The Pulse of Modernism: Physiological Aesthetics in Fin-de-Siècle Europe. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2015. 384 pp., .
- "Milestones in Physiology (1822-2013)" (PDF). 1 October 2013. Retrieved 2015-07-25.
- "The Society’s history | Physiological Society". www.physoc.org. Retrieved 2017-02-21.
- "American Physiological Society > About". www.the-aps.org. Retrieved 2017-02-21.
- Brown Theodore M.; Fee Elizabeth (October 2002). "Walter Bradford Cannon: Pioneer Physiologist of Human Emotions". American Journal of Public Health. 92 (10): 1594–1595. PMC . doi:10.2105/ajph.92.10.1594.
- Heilbron, J. L. (2003). The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science, Oxford University Press, p. 649, link.
- Feder, ME; Bennett, AF; WW, Burggren; Huey, RB (1987). New directions in ecological physiology. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-34938-3.
- Garland, Jr, Theodore; Carter, P. A. (1994). "Evolutionary physiology" (PDF). Annual Review of Physiology. 56 (1): 579–621. PMID 8010752. doi:10.1146/annurev.ph.56.030194.003051.
- "American Physiological Society > Founders". www.the-aps.org. The American Physiological Society.
- Tucker, GS (December 1981). "Ida Henrietta Hyde: the first woman member of the society" (PDF). The Physiologist. 24 (6): 1–9. PMID 7043502.
- "Ida Henrietta Hyde". jwa.org.
- "Women in Physiology". physoc.org.
- "Carl Cori and Gerty Cori". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- "Cori cycle". TheFreeDictionary.com.
- "Facts on the Nobel Prizes in Physiology and Medicine". nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB. Retrieved 2016-09-23.
- "Gertrude B. Elion". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004". nobelprize.org.
- "Francoise Barre-Sinoussi - biography - French virologist". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- "Elizabeth H. Blackburn". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- "Carol W. Greider". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- Moyes, C.D., Schulte, P.M. Principles of Animal Physiology, second edition. Pearson/Benjamin Cummings. Boston, MA, 2008.
- van der Linden, S. (2013). "A Response to Dolan. In A. Oliver (Ed.)" (PDF). pp. 209–2015. Retrieved April 15, 2017.
- "Mental disorders". World Health Organization. WHO. Retrieved 15 April 2017.
- "Eszopiclone" (PDF). F.A. Davis. 2017. Retrieved April 15, 2017.
- "Zolpidem" (PDF). F.A. Davis. Retrieved April 15, 2017.
- Bergman, Esther M; de Bruin, Anique BH; Herrler, Andreas; Verheijen, Inge WH; Scherpbier, Albert JJA; van der Vleuten, Cees PM (19 November 2013). "Students’ perceptions of anatomy across the undergraduate problem-based learning medical curriculum: a phenomenographical study". US National Library of Medicine. National Institutes of Health. PMC . doi:10.1186/1472-6920-13-152.
Together with physiology and biochemistry, anatomy is one of the basic sciences that are to be taught in the medical curriculum.
|Look up physiology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikisource has original works on the topic: Physiology|
- Widmaier, E.P., Raff, H., Strang, K.T. Vander's Human Physiology. 11th Edition, McGraw-Hill, 2009.
- Marieb, E.N. Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology. 10th Edition, Benjamin Cummings, 2012.
- Hill, R.W., Wyse, G.A., Anderson, M. Animal Physiology, 3rd ed. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, 2012.
- Moyes, C.D., Schulte, P.M. Principles of Animal Physiology, second edition. Pearson/Benjamin Cummings. Boston, MA, 2008.
- Randall, D., Burggren, W., and French, K. Eckert Animal Physiology: Mechanism and Adaptation, 5th Edition. W.H. Freeman and Company, 2002.
- Schmidt-Nielsen, K. Animal Physiology: Adaptation and Environment. Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
- Withers, P.C. Comparative animal physiology. Saunders College Publishing, New York, 1992.
- Larcher, W. Physiological plant ecology (4th ed.). Springer, 2001.
- Salisbury, F.B, Ross, C.W. Plant physiology. Brooks/Cole Pub Co., 1992
- Taiz, L., Zieger, E. Plant Physiology (5th ed.), Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer, 2010.
- Griffin, D.H. Fungal Physiology, Second Edition. Wiley-Liss, New York, 1994.
- Levandowsky, M. Physiological Adaptations of Protists. In: Cell physiology sourcebook: essentials of membrane biophysics. Amsterdam; Boston: Elsevier/AP, 2012.
- Levandowski, M., Hutner, S.H. (eds). Biochemistry and physiology of protozoa. Volumes 1, 2, and 3. Academic Press: New York, NY, 1979; 2nd ed.
- Laybourn-Parry J. A Functional Biology of Free-Living Protozoa. Berkeley, California: University of California Press; 1984.
- Lobban, C.S., Harrison, P.J. Seaweed ecology and physiology. Cambridge University Press, 1997.
- Stewart, W. D. P. (ed.). Algal Physiology and Biochemistry. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1974.
- El-Sharoud, W. (ed.). Bacterial Physiology: A Molecular Approach. Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg, 2008.
- Kim, B.H., Gadd, M.G. Bacterial Physiology and Metabolism. Cambridge, 2008.
- Moat, A.G., Foster, J.W., Spector, M.P. Microbial Physiology, 4th ed. Wiley-Liss, Inc. New York, NY, 2002.