Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (Swedish: Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien) is one of the royal academies of Sweden. Founded on June 2, 1739, it is an independent, non-governmental scientific organization which takes special responsibility for promoting the natural sciences and mathematics and strengthen their influence in society, whilst endeavouring to promote the exchange of ideas between various disciplines.
Main building of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm
|Formation||2 June 1739|
175 Foreign members
|Göran K. Hansson|
The goals of the academy are:
- to be a forum where researchers meet across subject boundaries,
- to offer a unique environment for research,
- to provide support to younger researchers,
- to reward outstanding research efforts,
- to communicate internationally among scientists,
- to advance the case for science within society and to influence research policy priorities
- to stimulate interest in mathematics and science in school, and
- to disseminate and popularize scientific information in various forms.
Every year the academy awards the Nobel Prizes in physics and in chemistry, the Bank of Sweden's economics prize in Alfred Nobel's memory, the Crafoord Prize, the Sjöberg Prize and a number of other major awards. The Academy maintains close relations with foreign academies, learned societies and international scientific organizations and also promotes international scientific cooperation. The Academy of Sciences is located within the Stockholm region's Royal National City Park.
- Nobel Prizes in Physics and in Chemistry
- Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel
- Crafoord Prizes in astronomy and mathematics, geosciences, biosciences (with an emphasis on ecology), and polyarthritis (for example rheumatoid arthritis)
- Sjöberg Prize
- Rolf Schock Prizes in logic and philosophy
- Gregori Aminoff Prize in crystallography
- Tobias Prize
The academy has elected about 1,700 Swedish and 1,200 foreign members since it was founded in 1739. Today the academy has about 470 Swedish and 175 foreign members which are divided into ten "classes", representing ten various scientific disciplines:
List of permanent secretariesEdit
The following persons have served as permanent secretaries of the academy:
- Anders Johan von Höpken, 1739–1740, 1740–1741
- Augustin Ehrensvärd, April – June 1740
- Jacob Faggot, 1741–1744
- Pehr Elvius, 1744–1749
- Pehr Wilhelm Wargentin, 1749–1783
- Johan Carl Wilcke and Henrik Nicander, 1784–1796
- Daniel Melanderhjelm and Henrik Nicander, 1796–1803
- Jöns Svanberg and Carl Gustaf Sjöstén 1803–1808; Sjöstén was removed 1808 for negligence of his duties
- Jöns Svanberg, 1809–1811
- Olof Swartz, 1811–1818
- Jöns Jacob Berzelius, 1818–1848
- Peter Fredrik Wahlberg, 1848–1866
- Georg Lindhagen, 1866–1901
- Christopher Aurivillius, 1901–1923
- Henrik Gustaf Söderbaum, 1923–1933
- Henning Pleijel, 1933–1943
- Arne Westgren, 1943–1959
- Erik Rudberg, 1959–1972
- Carl Gustaf Bernhard, 1973–1981
- Tord Ganelius, 1981–1989
- Carl-Olof Jacobson, 1989–1997
- Erling Norrby, 1997 – 30 June 2003
- Gunnar Öquist, 1 July 2003 – 30 June 2010
- Staffan Normark, 1 July 2010 – 30 June 2015
- Göran K. Hansson, appointed from 1 July 2015
The transactions of the Academy (Vetenskapsakademiens handlingar) were published as its main series between 1739 and 1974. In parallel, other major series have appeared and gone:
- Öfversigt af Kungl. Vetenskapsakademiens förhandlingar (1844–1903)
- Bihang till Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar (1872–1902)
- Vetenskapsakademiens årsbok (1903–1969)
The academy started publishing annual reports in physics and chemistry (1826), technology (1827), botany (1831), and zoology (1832). These lasted into the 1860s, when they were replaced by the single Bihang series (meaning: supplement to the transactions). Starting in 1887, this series was once again split into four sections (afdelning), which in 1903 became independent scientific journals of their own, titled "Arkiv för..." (archive for...), among them
- Arkiv för matematik, astronomi och fysik (1903–1949)
Further restructuring of their topics occurred in 1949 and 1974. Other defunct journals of the Academy include:
- Electronic Transactions on Artificial Intelligence (1997–2001)
- Current publications
- Ambio (1972-)
- Acta Mathematica (1882-)
- Arkiv för matematik (1949- with this title; 1903-1949 also including physics and astronomy)
- Acta Zoologica (1920-)
- Levnadsteckningar över Vetenskapsakademiens ledamöter (1869-), biographies of deceased members
- Porträttmatrikel (1971-), portraits of current members
- Zoologica Scripta (1972-), jointly with the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters
The academy was founded on 2 June 1739 by naturalist Carl Linnaeus, mercantilist Jonas Alströmer, mechanical engineer Mårten Triewald, civil servants Sten Carl Bielke and Carl Wilhelm Cederhielm, and statesman/author Anders Johan von Höpken.
The purpose of the academy was to focus on practically useful knowledge, and to publish in Swedish in order to widely disseminate the academy's findings. The academy was intended to be different from the Royal Society of Sciences in Uppsala, which had been founded in 1719 and published in Latin. The location close to the commercial activities in Sweden's capital (which unlike Uppsala did not have a university at this time) was also intentional. The academy was modeled after the Royal Society of London and Academie Royale des Sciences in Paris, France, which some of the founding members were familiar with.
- "Nobel Prizes - The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences". www.kva.se. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
- "Prize in Economic Sciences - The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences". www.kva.se. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
- "Crafoord Prize - The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences". www.kva.se. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
- "Sjöberg Prize - The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences". www.kva.se. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
- "Rolf Schock Prizes - The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences". www.kva.se. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
- "Gregori Aminoff Prize - The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences". www.kva.se. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
- "Tobias Prize - The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences". www.kva.se. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
- "The members - The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences". www.kva.se. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
- Center for Molecular Medicine, "Göran K. Hansson new Permanent Secretary for the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences", 2015.
- "Electronic transactions on artificial intelligence : ETAI. (Journal, magazine, 1997) [WorldCat.org]". worldcat.org. Retrieved 1 July 2020.
- "History". The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 18 October 2009.
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