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Natural and sexual selection are often presumed to act most directly on behavior (e.g., what an animal chooses to do when confronted by a predator), which is expressed within limits set by whole-organism performance abilities (e.g., how fast it can run) that are determined by subordinate traits (e.g., muscle fiber-type composition). A weakness of this conceptual and operational model is the absence of an explicit recognition of the place of life history traits.

Evolutionary physiology is the study of physiological evolution, which is to say, the manner in which the functional characteristics of individuals in a population of organisms have responded to selection across multiple generations during the history of the population.[1]

It is a subdiscipline of both physiology and evolutionary biology. Practitioners in this field come from a variety of backgrounds, including physiology, evolutionary biology, ecology and genetics.

Accordingly, the range of phenotypes studied by evolutionary physiologists is broad, including life history, behavior, whole-organism performance,[2][3] functional morphology, biomechanics, anatomy, classical physiology, endocrinology, biochemistry, and molecular evolution. It is closely related to comparative physiology and environmental physiology, and its findings are a major concern of evolutionary medicine. One definition that has been offered is "the study of the physiological basis of fitness, namely, correlated evolution (including constraints and trade-offs) of physiological form and function associated with the environment, diet, homeostasis, energy management, longevity, and mortality and life history characteristics."[4]

Contents

HistoryEdit

As the name implies, evolutionary physiology is the product of what was at one time two distinct scientific disciplines. According to Garland and Carter,[1] evolutionary physiology arose in the late 1970s, following debates concerning the metabolic and thermoregulatory status of dinosaurs (see physiology of dinosaurs) and mammal-like reptiles.

This period was followed by attempts in the early 1980s to integrate quantitative genetics into evolutionary biology, which had spill-over effects on other fields, such as behavioral ecology and ecophysiology. In the mid- to late-1980s, phylogenetic comparative methods started to become popular in many fields, including physiological ecology and comparative physiology. A 1987 volume titled "New Directions in Ecological Physiology"[5] had little ecology[6] but a considerable emphasis on evolutionary topics. It generated vigorous debate, and within a few years the National Science Foundation had developed a panel titled Ecological and Evolutionary Physiology.

Shortly thereafter, selection experiments and experimental evolution became increasingly common in evolutionary physiology. Macrophysiology has emerged as a subdiscipline, in which practitioners attempt to identify large-scale patterns in physiological traits (e.g., patterns of covariation with latitude) and their ecological implications.[7] [8] [9]

More recently, the importance of a merger of evolutionary biology and physiology has been argued from the perspective of functional analyses, epigenetics, and an extended evolutionary synthesis.[10] The growth of evolutionary physiology is also reflected by the emergence of subdisciplines, such as evolutionary endocrinology,[11][12] which addresses such hybrid questions as "What are the most common endocrine mechanisms that respond to selection on behavior or life-history traits?"[13]

Emergent propertiesEdit

As a hybrid scientific discipline, evolutionary physiology provides some unique perspectives. For example, an understanding of physiological mechanisms can help in determining whether a particular pattern of phenotypic variation or covariation (such as an allometric relationship) represents what could possibly exist or just what selection has allowed.[1] Similarly, a thorough knowledge of physiological mechanisms can greatly enhance understanding of possible reasons for evolutionary correlations and constraints than is possible for many of the traits typically studied by evolutionary biologists (such as morphology).

Areas of researchEdit

Important areas of current research include:

TechniquesEdit

Funding and societiesEdit

In the United States, research in evolutionary physiology is funded mainly by the National Science Foundation. A number of scientific societies feature sections that encompass evolutionary physiology, including:

Some journals that frequently publish articles in evolutionary physiologyEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e Garland, T., Jr.; P. A. Carter (1994). "Evolutionary physiology" (PDF). Annual Review of Physiology. 56: 579–621. PMID 8010752. doi:10.1146/annurev.ph.56.030194.003051. 
  2. ^ Arnold, S. J. (1983). "Morphology, performance and fitness" (PDF). American Zoologist. 23: 347–361. doi:10.1093/icb/23.2.347. 
  3. ^ Careau, V. C.; T. Garland, Jr. (2012). "Performance, personality, and energetics: correlation, causation, and mechanism" (PDF). Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. 85: 543–571. PMID 23099454. doi:10.1086/666970. 
  4. ^ Lovegrove, B. G. (2006). "The power of fitness in mammals: perceptions from the African slipstream". Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. 79: 224–236. doi:10.1086/499994. 
  5. ^ Feder, M. E.; A. F. Bennett; W. W. Burggren; R. B. Huey, eds. (1987). New directions in ecological physiology. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press. ISBN 0-521-34938-9. 
  6. ^ Kingsolver, J. G (1988). "Evolutionary physiology: Where's the ecology? A review of New Directions in Ecological physiology, Feder et al. 1987". Ecology. 69: 1644. doi:10.2307/1941674. 
  7. ^ Chown, S. L.; K. J. Gaston; D. Robinson (2004). "Macrophysiology: large-scale patterns in physiological traits and their ecological implications". Functional Ecology. 18 (2): 159–167. doi:10.1111/j.0269-8463.2004.00825.x. 
  8. ^ Gaston, K. J.; Chown, S. L.; Calosi, P.; Bernardo, J.; Bilton, D. T.; Clarke, A.; Clusella-Trullas, S.; Ghalambor, C. K.; Konarzewski, M.; Peck, L. S.; Porter, W. P.; Pörtner, H. O.; Rezende, E. L.; Schulte, P. M.; Spicer, J. I.; Stillman, J. H.; Terblanche, J. S.; van Kleunen, M. (2009). "Macrophysiology: a conceptual reunification". The American Naturalist. 174: 595–612. doi:10.1086/605982. 
  9. ^ Chown, S. L.; Gaston, K. J. (2015). "Macrophysiology - progress and prospects". Functional Ecology. 30: 330–344. doi:10.1111/1365-2435.12510. 
  10. ^ Noble, D.; Jablonka, E.; Joyner, M. J.; Müller, G. B.; Omholt, S. W. (2014). "Evolution evolves: physiology returns to centre stage". The Journal of Physiology. 592: 2237–2244. PMC 4048083 . PMID 24882808. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2014.273151. 
  11. ^ Zera, A. J.; Harshman, L. G.; Williams, T. D. (2007). "Evolutionary endocrinology: the developing synthesis between endocrinology and evolutionary genetics". Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics. 38: 793–817. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.38.091206.095615. 
  12. ^ Cox, R. M.; McGlothlin, J. W.; Bonier, F. (2016). "Hormones as mediators of phenotypic and genetic integration: an evolutionary genetics approach". Integrative and Comparative Biology. 56: 126–137. doi:10.1093/icb/icw033. 
  13. ^ Garland Jr, T.; Zhao, M.; Saltzman, W. (2016). "Hormones and the evolution of complex traits: insights from artificial selection on behavior". Integrative and Comparative Biology. 56: 207–224. doi:10.1093/icb/icw040. 
  14. ^ Garland, T., Jr.; S. C. Adolph (1991). "Physiological differentiation of vertebrate populations" (PDF). Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 22: 193–228. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.22.1.193. 
  15. ^ Kelly, S. A.; T. Panhuis; A. Stoehr (2012). "Phenotypic plasticity: molecular mechanisms and adaptive significance". Comprehensive Physiology. 2: 1417–1439. doi:10.1002/cphy.c110008. 
  16. ^ Bennett, A. F.; R. E. Lenski (1999). "Experimental evolution and its role in evolutionary physiology" (PDF). American Zoologist. 39 (2): 346–362. doi:10.1093/icb/39.2.346. 
  17. ^ Irschick, D. J.; J. J. Meyers; J. F. Husak; J.-F. Le Galliard (2008). "How does selection operate on whole-organism functional performance capacities? A review and synthesis" (PDF). Evolutionary Ecology Research. 10: 177–196. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.371.8464 . ISSN 0003-1569. 
  18. ^ Garland, T., Jr.; A. F. Bennett; E. L. Rezende (2005). "Phylogenetic approaches in comparative physiology" (PDF). Journal of Experimental Biology. 208 (Pt 16): 3015–3035. PMID 16081601. doi:10.1242/jeb.01745. 

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