Jujube (//), sometimes jujuba, known by the scientific name Ziziphus jujuba and also called red date, Chinese date, and Chinese jujube, is a species in the genus Ziziphus in the buckthorn family Rhamnaceae.
|Ziziphus jujuba, habitus|
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||331 kJ (79 kcal)|
|Vitamin A equiv.|
|†Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. |
Source: USDA FoodData Central
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||1,201 kJ (287 kcal)|
|Vitamin A equiv.|
|†Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. |
Source: USDA FoodData Central
It is a small deciduous tree or shrub reaching a height of 5–12 metres (16–39 feet), usually with thorny branches. The leaves are shiny-green, ovate-acute, 2–7 centimetres (3⁄4–2+3⁄4 inches) long and 1–3 cm (3⁄8–1+1⁄8 in) wide, with three conspicuous veins at the base, and a finely toothed margin. The flowers are small, 5 millimetres (1⁄4 in) wide, with five inconspicuous yellowish-green petals. The fruit is an edible oval drupe 1.5–3 cm (5⁄8–1+1⁄8 in) deep; when immature it is smooth-green, with the consistency and taste of an apple with lower acidity, maturing brown to purplish-black, and eventually wrinkled, looking like a small date. There is a single hard kernel, similar to an olive pit, containing two seeds.
Flavinoids found in the fruits include Kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside, Quercetine 3-O-robinobioside, Quercetine 3-O-rutinoside. Terpenoids such as colubrinic acid and alphitolic acid were found in the fruits.
The ultimate source of the name is Ancient Greek ζίζυφον zízyphon. This was borrowed into Classical Latin as zizyphum (used for the fruit) and zizyphus (the tree). A descendant of the Latin word into a Romance language, which may have been French jujube or medieval Latin jujuba, in turn gave rise to the common English jujube. This name is not related to jojoba, which is a loan from Spanish jojoba, itself borrowed from hohohwi, the name of that plant in a Native American language.[which?]
The binomial name has a curious nomenclatural history, due to a combination of botanical naming regulations, and variations in spelling. It was first named in the binomial system by Carl Linnaeus as Rhamnus zizyphus, in Species Plantarum (1753). Philip Miller, in his Gardener's Dictionary, considered that the jujube and its relatives were sufficiently distinct from Rhamnus to be placed in a separate genus (as it had already been by the pre-Linnaean author Tournefort in 1700), and in the 1768 edition he gave it the name Ziziphus jujuba (using Tournefort's spelling for the genus name). For the species name, he used a different name, as tautonyms (repetition of exactly the same name in the genus and species) are not permitted in botanical naming. However, because of Miller's slightly different spelling, the combination of the earlier species name (from Linnaeus) with the new genus, Ziziphus zizyphus, is not a tautonym, and was therefore permitted as a botanical name. This combination was made by Hermann Karsten in 1882. In 2006, a proposal was made to suppress the name Ziziphus zizyphus in favor of Ziziphus jujuba, and this proposal was accepted in 2011. Ziziphus jujuba is thus the correct scientific name for this species.
Distribution and habitatEdit
Its precise natural distribution is uncertain due to extensive cultivation, but its origin is thought to be in southern Asia, between Lebanon, northern India, and southern and central China, and possibly also southeastern Europe though more likely introduced there. The plant in Arabic and Persian is known as "Enab (عناب)", and is known as the "hinap" or "finab" in the eastern part of Bulgaria. It grows wild but is also a garden shrub, kept for its fruit. The fruit is picked in the autumn.
The tree tolerates a wide range of temperatures and rainfall, though it requires hot summers and sufficient water for acceptable fruiting. Unlike most of the other species in the genus, it tolerates fairly cold winters, surviving temperatures down to about −15 °C (5 °F), and the tree is, for instance, commonly cultivated in Beijing. This wide tolerance enables the jujube to grow in mountain or desert habitats, provided there is access to underground water throughout the summer. The jujube (Z. jujuba) grows in cooler regions of Asia. Five or more other species of Ziziphus are widely distributed in milder climates to hot deserts of Asia and Africa.
This plant has been introduced in Madagascar and grows as an invasive species in the western part of the island, threatening mostly protected areas. It is cultivated in parts of southern California.
Witch's broom, prevalent in China and Korea, is the main disease affecting jujubes, though plantings in North America currently are not affected by any pests or diseases. In Europe, the last several years have seen some 80%–90% of the jujube crop eaten by insect larvae (see picture), including those of the false codling moth, Thaumatotibia (Cryptophlebia) leucotreta.
In Madagascar, it is widely eaten by free-ranging zebus, and its seeds grow easily in zebu feces.
- Chico (also called GI 7-62) developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) in the 1950s
- Li, major commercial variety in the US
- Shanxi li, very large fruit
- Lang, major commercial variety in the US
- Sherwood 
- Silverhill (also known as Yu and Tigertooth) can be grown in areas with high humidity
- Shui Men
- GA 866
- Honey jar, small juicy fruit
- Sugar cane
- Winter delight, major commercial variety in China
The freshly harvested, as well as the candied dried fruit, are often eaten as a snack, or with coffee. Smoked jujubes are consumed in Vietnam and are referred to as black jujubes. A drink can be made by crushing the pulp in water. Both China and Korea produce a sweetened tea syrup containing jujube fruit in glass jars, and canned jujube tea or jujube tea in the form of teabags. To a lesser extent, jujube fruit is made into juice and jujube vinegar (called 枣 醋 or 红枣 醋 in Chinese). They are used for making pickles (কুলের আচার) in west Bengal and Bangladesh. In Assam it is known as "Bogori" and is famous for Bogori aachar (বগৰি আচাৰ). In China, a wine made from jujube fruit is called hong zao jiu (红枣酒).
Sometimes pieces of jujube fruit are preserved by storing them in a jar filled with baijiu (Chinese liquor), which allows them to be kept fresh for a long time, especially through the winter. Such jujubes are called zui zao (醉枣; literally "drunk jujube"). The fruit is also a significant ingredient in a wide variety of Chinese delicacies (e.g. 甑糕 jing gao, a steamed rice cake).
In Vietnam and Taiwan, fully mature, nearly ripe fruit is harvested and sold on the local markets and also exported to Southeast Asian countries. The dried fruit is used in desserts in China and Vietnam, such as ching bo leung, a cold beverage that includes the dried jujube, longan, fresh seaweed, barley, and lotus seeds.
On his visit to Medina, the 19th-century English explorer, Sir Richard Burton, observed that the local variety of jujube fruit was widely eaten. He describes its taste as like "a bad plum, an unripe cherry, and an insipid apple." He gives the local names for three varieties as "Hindi (Indian), Baladi (native), Tamri (date-like)." A hundred years ago, a close variety was common in the Jordan valley and around Jerusalem. The bedouin valued the fruit, calling it nabk. It could be dried and kept for winter or made into a paste which was used as bread.
In Persian cuisine, the dried drupes are known as annab, while in neighboring Azerbaijan, it is commonly eaten as a snack, and is known as innab. Confusion in the common name apparently is widespread. The innab is Z. jujuba: the local name ber is not used for innab. Rather, ber is used for three other cultivated or wild species, e.g., Z. spina-christi, Z. mauritiana and Z. nummularia in parts of India and is eaten both fresh and dried.[clarification needed] The Arabic name sidr is used for Ziziphus species other than Z. jujuba.
Traditionally in India, the fruits are dried in the sun and the hard seeds removed, after which the dried flesh is pounded with tamarind, red chillies, salt, and jaggery. In some parts of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, fresh whole ripe fruit is crushed with the above ingredients and sun-dried to make cakes called ilanthai vadai or regi vadiyalu (Telugu). It is also commonly consumed as a snack.
In Northern and Northeastern India the fruit is eaten fresh with salt and chilli flakes and also preserved as candy, jam or pickle with oil and spices.
Italy has an alcoholic syrup called brodo di giuggiole. In Senegal and The Gambia, Jujube is called Sii dem or Ceedem, and the fruit is used as snack and also turned into a dried paste favoured as a sweetmeat by schoolchildren. More recently it has been processed and sold in Dakar by women.
In Australia jujube beer is made.
The commercial jujube candy popular in movie theaters originally contained jujube juice but now uses other flavorings.
Traditional Chinese medicineEdit
The fruit and its seeds are used in Chinese and Korean traditional medicine, where they are believed to alleviate stress, and traditionally for anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory purposes and sedation, antispastic, antifertility/contraception, hypotensive and antinephritic, cardiotonic, antioxidant, immunostimulant, and wound healing properties. It is among the fruits used in Kampo. Jujube, along with Gan Cao, is used in Chinese medicine to harmonize and moderate other herbs.
Jujube fruit is also combined with other herbs to treat colds and influenza. The fruit contains many different healthy properties like Vitamins, amino acids. The use of the fruit can be helpful for spleen diseases in Chinese medicine.
In Japan, the natsume has given its name to a style of tea caddy used in the Japanese tea ceremony, due to the similar shape. Its hard, oily wood was, along with pear, used for woodcuts to print books starting in the 8th century and continuing through the 19th in China and neighboring countries. As many as 2000 copies could be produced from one jujube woodcut.
In China, the leaves are sometimes picked for teas, such as by families in Laoshan Village, Shandong Province, China, where it counts as a variety of herbal tea.
The timber is sometimes used for small items, such as tuning pegs for instruments. Select grade Jujube timber is often used in traditional Asian instruments for fingerboard, pegs, rests & soundposts, ribs & necks etc. It has a medium to hard density similar to luthier grade European maple and has excellent tonal qualities. Jujube Wood can be found in local folk instruments from Ceylon/India thru to China/Korea; it is also commonly used in China in violin & cello making for overseas export, though usually stained black to imitate the look of ebony. Luthier grade jujube wood planes and carves beautifully.
In Arabic-speaking regions the jujube and alternatively the species Z. lotus are closely related to the lote-trees (sing. "سدرة sidrah", pl. " سدر sidr") which are mentioned in the Quran, while in Palestine it is rather the species Z. spina-christi that is called sidr.
An ancient jujube tree in the city Al-Qurnah, Iraq, is claimed by locals as the Tree of Knowledge mentioned in the Bible.[failed verification] Local tradition holds that the place where the city was built was the original site of the Garden of Eden (a passage in the Book of Genesis creation narrative says that a river flowed from the garden and split into Tigris and Euphrates rivers, where is the city currently). The tree is a tourist spot in the town.
- Date palm – Palm tree cultivated for its edible sweet fruit
- "Ziziphus jujuba". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2007: e.T63538A12688176. 2007. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2007.RLTS.T63538A12688176.en. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
- The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species, retrieved 24 March 2016
- "Ziziphus jujuba". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 11 December 2017.
- Rushforth, K. (1999). Trees of Britain and Europe. Collins ISBN 0-00-220013-9.
- Kurihara, Y. (1992). "Characteristics of antisweet substances, sweet proteins, and sweetness-inducing proteins". Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 32 (3): 231–252. doi:10.1080/10408399209527598. PMID 1418601.
- Mahajan, R.; Chopda, M. (8 August 2017). "Phyto-Pharmacology of Ziziphus jujuba Mill- A Plant Review". Pharmacognosy Reviews: 320–329. S2CID 93775396.
- ζίζυφον, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
- "jujube". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
- "jojoba". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
- Clarke, D. L. (1988). W. J. Bean Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles, Supplement. John Murray ISBN 0-7195-4443-2.
- Kirkbride, Joseph H.; Wiersma, John H.; Turland, Nicholas J. (2006). "(1753) Proposal to conserve the name Ziziphus jujuba against Z. zizyphus (Rhamnaceae)". Taxon. International Association for Plant Taxonomy. 55 (4): 1049–1050. doi:10.2307/25065716. JSTOR 25065716.
- Barrie, Fred R. (2011). "Report of the General Committee: 11". Taxon. International Association for Plant Taxonomy. 60 (4): 1211–1214. doi:10.1002/tax.604026.
- S. Chaudhary. "Rhamnaceae" in: S. Chaudhary (Ed). Flora of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Vol II (Part One) 2001.
- "JUJUBE". www.crfg.org.
- Fruit Facts: Jujube Archived 1 November 1996 at the Wayback Machine
- "Fact Sheet: False codling moth - Citrus Pests". idtools.org.
- Gupta, Anil K. "Origin of agriculture and domestication of plants and animals linked to early Holocene climate amelioration", Current Science, Vol. 87, No. 1, 10 July 2004, 54-59. Indian Academy of Sciences.
- Edward T. Hager. "Jujubes: Plant Care and Collection of Varieties". garden.org. Retrieved 5 July 2017.
- "Rare Fruit: Jujubes". Seasonalchef.com. Retrieved 1 August 2010.
- United States Department of the Army (2009). The Complete Guide to Edible Wild Plants. New York: Skyhorse Publishing. p. 45. ISBN 978-1-60239-692-0. OCLC 277203364.
- Lim, T. K. (2013). Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants. Vol. 5, Fruits. Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media. p. 580. ISBN 978-9400756526.
- Burton, Sir Richard Francis (1855) A Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to Al-Madinah and Meccah pp.404,405
- Easton, Matthew George (1893). . London, Edinburgh and New York: T. Nelson and Sons. p. 688 – via Wikisource.
It overruns a great part of the Jordan valley
- Crowfoot, M. Grace with Louise Baldenserger (1932) From Cedar to Hyssop. A study in the Folklore of Plants in Palestine. The Sheldon Press, London. pp.112,113
- "Kamala's Corner: Indian Jujube – Elanthai Pazham". Kamalascorner.com. 25 December 2008. Retrieved 1 August 2010.
- "La pastinaca di Santu Pati". www.quoquo.it.
- Schremmer, Jessica (14 August 2020). "Jujube growers find innovative ways to turn waste into sustainable new products". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 8 May 2022.
- Goetz, P. (2009). "Mise en évidence d'un effet psychotrope de la teinture mère de Zizyphus jujuba Mill". Phytothérapie. 7: 31–36. doi:10.1007/s10298-008-0362-7. S2CID 34867692.
- Jiang, Jian-Guo; Huang, Xiao-Juan; Chen, Jian; Lin, Qing-Sheng (2007). "Comparison of the sedative and hypnotic effects of flavonoids, saponins, and polysaccharides extracted from Semen Ziziphus jujube" (PDF). Natural Product Research. 21 (4): 310–320. doi:10.1080/14786410701192827. PMID 17479419. S2CID 7886008.
- Mahajan R.T., Chopda M.Z. "Phyto-pharmacology of Ziziphus jujuba mill – A plant review" Mahajan R.T., Chopda M.Z. Pharmacognosy Reviews 2009 3:6 (320–329)
- Traditional Chinese Medicine. Determination of heavy metals in herbal medicines used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, BSI British Standards, doi:10.3403/30281528u, retrieved 19 November 2020
- Martin, Laura C. (2007). Tea: the Drink that Changed the World. Rutland, Vermont: Tuttle. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-8048-3724-8.
- edX Course: HarvardX: HUM1.3x Print and Manuscript in Western Europe, Asia and the Middle East (1450-1650) > Comparandum: Printing in East Asia > Main Technology: Xylography 
- Abdullah, Yusuf Ali (1946) The Holy Qur-an. Text, Translation and Commentary, Qatar National Printing Press. p.1139, n. 3814.
- Stephen Lambden. "The Sidrah (Lote-Tree) and the Sidrat al-Muntaha (Lote-Tree of the Extremity): Some Apects of their Islamic and Bābī-Bahā'ī Iintepretations". Archived from the original on 6 September 2004. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
This is apparently the wild jujube or Zizyphus spina-christi (Christ's thorn), a tall, stout, tropical tree (see image above) with dense prickly branches which produces a sweet reddish fruit similar to that of the jujube (the 'unnāb = Zizyphus vulgaris / fruit)
- "The Tree of Knowledge". Atlas Obscura. Archived from the original on 2 June 2021. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
- Genesis 2:10–2:14: "A river watering the garden flowed from Eden; from there it was separated into four headwaters. [...] The name of the third river is the Tigris; it runs along the east side of Ashur. And the fourth river is the Euphrates."
- Fruits of Warm Climates. Julia. F. Morton, Yan Lin Aung, FL: 1986.