The term Hispanic (Spanish: hispano or hispánico) broadly refers to the people, nations, and cultures that have a historical link to the Spanish language or the country of Spain, depending on the context.
It commonly applies to countries once under colonial possession by the Spanish Empire following Spanish colonization of the Americas, parts of the Asia-Pacific region and Africa. Principally, what are today the countries of Hispanic America, the Spanish Philippines, Spanish Guinea and Spanish Sahara where Spanish may or may not be the predominant or official language and their cultures are heavily derived from Spain although with strong local indigenous or other foreign influences.
It could be argued that the term Hispanic should apply to all Spanish-speaking cultures or countries, as the historical roots of the word specifically pertain to the Iberian region. It is difficult to label a nation or culture with one term, such as Hispanic, as the ethnicities, customs, traditions, and art forms (music, literature, dress, culture, cuisine, and others) vary greatly by country and region. The Spanish language and Spanish culture are the main distinctions.
Hispanus was used to define people of ancient Roman Hispania, which roughly comprised the Iberian Peninsula, including the contemporary states of Spain, Portugal, and Andorra, and the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar.
The term Hispanic derives from Latin Hispanicus ('Spanish'), the adjectival derivation of Latin (and Greek) Hispania ('Spain') and Hispanus/Hispanos ('Spaniard'), ultimately probably of Celtiberian origin. In English the word is attested from the 16th century (and in the late 19th century in American English).
The words Spain, Spanish, and Spaniard are of the same etymology as Hispanus, ultimately.
Hispanus was the Latin name given to a person from Hispania during Roman rule. In English, the term Hispano-Roman is sometimes used. The Hispano-Romans were composed of people from many different indigenous tribes, in addition to Italian colonists. Some famous Hispani (plural of Hispanus) and Hispaniensis were the emperors Trajan, Marcus Aurelius, Hadrian, Theodosius I and Magnus Maximus, the poets Marcus Annaeus Lucanus, Martial and Prudentius, the philosophers Seneca the Elder and Seneca the Younger, or the usurper Maximus of Hispania. A number of these men, such as Trajan, Hadrian and others, were in fact descended from Roman colonial families.
Here follows a comparison of several terms related to Hispanic:
- Hispania was the name of the Iberian Peninsula/Iberia from the 3rd century BC to the 8th AD, both as a Roman Empire province and immediately thereafter as a Visigothic kingdom, 5th–8th century.
- Hispano-Roman is used to refer to the culture and people of Hispania.
- Hispanic is used to refer to modern Spain, to the Spanish language, and to the Spanish-speaking nations of the world, particularly the Americas, Pacific Islands and Asia, such as the Philippines and Guam.
- Spanish is used to refer to the people, nationality, culture, language and other things of Spain.
- Spaniard is used to refer to the people of Spain.
Hispania was the Roman name for the whole territory of the Iberian Peninsula. Initially, this territory was divided into two provinces: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. In 27 B.C, Hispania Ulterior was divided into two new provinces, Hispania Baetica and Hispania Lusitania, while Hispania Citerior was renamed Hispania Tarraconensis. This division of Hispania explains the usage of the singular and plural forms (Spain, and The Spains) used to refer to the peninsula and its kingdoms in the Middle Ages.
Before the marriage of Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon in 1469, the four Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula—the Kingdom of Portugal, the Crown of Aragon, the Crown of Castile, and the Kingdom of Navarre—were collectively called The Spains. This revival of the old Roman concept in the Middle Ages appears to have originated in Provençal, and was first documented at the end of the 11th century. In the Council of Constance, the four kingdoms shared one vote.
The word Lusitanian, relates to Lusitania or Portugal, also in reference to the Lusitanians, possibly one of the first Indo-European tribes to settle in Europe. From this tribe's name had derived the name of the Roman province of Lusitania, and Lusitania remains the name of Portugal in Latin.
The terms Spain and the Spains were not interchangeable. Spain was a geographic territory, home to several kingdoms (Christian and Muslim), with separate governments, laws, languages, religions, and customs, and was the historical remnant of the Hispano-Gothic unity. Spain was not a political entity until much later, and when referring to the Middle Ages, one should not be confounded with the nation-state of today. The term The Spains referred specifically to a collective of juridico-political units, first the Christian kingdoms, and then the different kingdoms ruled by the same king.
With the Decretos de Nueva Planta, Philip V started to organize the fusion of his kingdoms that until then were ruled as distinct and independent, but this unification process lacked a formal and juridic proclamation.
Although colloquially and literally the expression "King of Spain" or "King of the Spains" was already widespread, it did not refer to a unified nation-state. It was only in the constitution of 1812 that was adopted the name Españas (Spains) for the Spanish nation and the use of the title of "king of the Spains". The constitution of 1876 adopts for the first time the name "Spain" for the Spanish nation and from then on the kings would use the title of "king of Spain".
The expansion of the Spanish Empire between 1492 and 1898 brought thousands of Spanish migrants to the conquered lands, who established settlements, mainly in the Americas, but also in other distant parts of the world (as in the Philippines, the lone Spanish territory in Asia), producing a number of multiracial populations. Today, the term Hispanic is typically applied to the varied populations of these places, including those with Spanish ancestry. Filipinos, although were heavily influenced by Spain's language and culture, are not considered Hispanic.
Definitions in ancient RomeEdit
The Latin gentile adjectives that belong to Hispania are Hispanus, Hispanicus, and Hispanienses. A Hispanus is someone who is a native of Hispania with no foreign parents, while children born in Hispania of (Latin) Roman parents were Hispaniensis. Hispaniensis means 'connected in some way to Hispania', as in "Exercitus Hispaniensis" ('the Spanish army') or "mercatores Hispanienses" ('Spanish merchants'). Hispanicus implies 'of' or 'belonging to' Hispania or the Hispanus or of their fashion as in "glaudius Hispanicus". The gentile adjectives were not ethnolinguistic but derived primarily on a geographic basis, from the toponym Hispania as the people of Hispania spoke different languages, although Livy said they could all understand each other, not making clear if they spoke dialects of the same language or were polyglots. The first recorded use of an anthroponym derived from the toponym Hispania is attested in one of the five fragments, of Ennius in 236 B.C. who wrote "Hispane, non Romane memoretis loqui me" ("Remember that I speak like a Spaniard not a Roman") as having been said by a native of Hispania.
Definitions in Portugal and SpainEdit
The term Hispanic signifies the cultural resonance, among other elements and characteristics, of the descendants of the people who inhabited ancient Hispania (Iberian Peninsula). It has been used throughout history for many purposes, including drawing a contrast to the Moors and differentiating explorers and settlers.
Technically speaking, persons from Portugal or of Portuguese extraction are referred to as Lusitanians. In Portugal, Hispanic refers to something related to ancient Hispania, Spain or the Spanish language and culture, Portugal. Portugal and Spain do not have exactly the same definition for the term Hispanic, but they do share the etymology for the word (pt: hispânico, es: hispánico). The Royal Spanish Academy (Spanish: Real Academia Española, RAE), the official royal institution responsible for regulating the Spanish language defines the terms "Hispano" and "Hispánico" (which in Spain have slightly different meanings) as:
- Of Hispania.
- Belonging or relative to old Hispania.
- Spanish, as applied to a person.
- Of or pertaining to Hispanic America.
- Of or pertaining to the population of Hispanic American origin who live in the United States of America.
- A person of this origin who lives in the United States of America.
- People for The Republic of the Philippines
- Belonging or relative to old Hispania and the peoples which were once part of it.
- Belonging or relative to Spain and Spanish-speaking countries.
Note that both terms include Portugal as part of "Hispania" as Hispania is the old Roman name given to the entire Iberian peninsula and their peoples, including the Lusitanians.
The common modern term to identify Portuguese and Spanish cultures under a single nomenclature is "Iberian", and the one to refer to cultures derived from both countries in the Americas is "Iberian-American". These designations can be mutually recognized by people in Portugal and Brazil, unlike "Hispanic", which is totally void of any self-identification in those countries, and quite on the opposite, serves the purpose of marking a clear distinction in relation to neighboring countries´ culture.
In Spanish, the term "hispano" as in "hispanoamericano", refers to the people of Spanish origin who live in the Americas; it also refers to a relationship to Hispania or to the Spanish language. There are people in Hispanic America that are not of Spanish origin, as the original people of these areas are Amerindians.
Definitions in the United StatesEdit
While originally the term referred primarily to the Hispanos of New Mexico within the United States, today, organizations in the country use the term as a broad catchall to refer to persons with a historical and cultural relationship with Spain, such as Equatorial Guinea and Philippines which are- regardless of race and ethnicity. The U.S. Census Bureau defines the ethnonym Hispanic or Latino to refer to "a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race" and states that Hispanics or Latinos can be of any race, any ancestry, any ethnicity. Generically, this limits the definition of Hispanic or Latino to people from the Caribbean, Central and South America, or other Hispanic (Spanish) culture or origin, regardless of race. Latino can refer to males or females, while Latina refers to only females.
Because of the technical distinctions involved in defining "race" vs. "ethnicity," there is confusion among the general population about the designation of Hispanic identity. Currently, the United States Census Bureau defines six race categories:
- White or Caucasian
- Black or African American
- American Indian or Alaska Native
- Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander
- Some Other Race
According to census reports, of the above races the largest number of Hispanic or Latinos are of the White race, the second largest number come from the Native American/American Indian race who are the indigenous people of the Americas. The inhabitants of Easter Island are Pacific Islanders and since the island belongs to Chile they are theoretically Hispanic or Latinos. Because Hispanic roots are considered aligned with a European ancestry (Spain/Portugal), Hispanic/Latino ancestry is defined solely as an ethnic designation (similar to being Norse or Germanic). Therefore, a person of Hispanic descent is typically defined using both race and ethnicity as an identifier—i.e., Black-Hispanic, White-Hispanic, Asian-Hispanic, Amerindian-Hispanic or "other race" Hispanic.
A 1997 notice by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget defined Hispanic or Latino persons as being "persons who trace their origin or descent to Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Central and South America, and other Spanish cultures." The United States Census uses the ethnonym Hispanic or Latino to refer to "a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Hispanic culture or origin regardless of race."
The 2010 Census asked if the person was "Spanish/Hispanic/Latino". The United States Census uses the ethnonym Hispanic or Latino to refer to "a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race." The Census Bureau also explains that "[o]rigin can be viewed as the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the person's ancestors before their arrival in the United States. People who identify their origin as Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish may be of any race."
The U.S. Department of Transportation defines Hispanic as, "persons of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Central or South American, or other Spanish or Portuguese culture or origin, regardless of race." This definition has been adopted by the Small Business Administration as well as by many federal, state, and municipal agencies for the purposes of awarding government contracts to minority owned businesses. The Congressional Hispanic Caucus and the Congressional Hispanic Conference include representatives of Spanish and Portuguese, Puerto Rican and Mexican descent. The Hispanic Society of America is dedicated to the study of the arts and cultures of Spain, Portugal, and Latin America. The Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities, proclaimed champions of Hispanic success in higher education, is committed to Hispanic educational success in the U.S., Puerto Rico, Ibero-America, Spain and Portugal.
The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission encourages any individual who believes that he or she is Hispanic to self-identify as Hispanic. The United States Department of Labor - Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs encourages the same self-identification. As a result, any individual who traces his or her origins to part of the Spanish Empire or Portuguese Empire may self-identify as Hispanic, because an employer may not override an individual's self-identification.
In a recent study, most Spanish-speakers of Spanish or Hispanic American descent do not prefer the term "Hispanic" or "Latino" when it comes to describing their identity. Instead, they prefer to be identified by their country of origin. When asked if they have a preference for either being identified as "Hispanic" or "Latino," the Pew study finds that "half (51%) say they have no preference for either term." A majority (51%) say they most often identify themselves by their family's country of origin, while 24% say they prefer a pan-ethnic label such as Hispanic or Latino. Among those 24% who have a preference for a pan-ethnic label, "'Hispanic' is preferred over 'Latino' by more than a two-to-one margin—33% versus 14%." Twenty-one percent prefer to be referred to simply as "Americans."
Hispanicization is the process by which a place or a person absorbs characteristics of Hispanic society and culture. Modern hispanization of a place, namely in the United States, might be illustrated by Spanish-language media and businesses. Hispanization of a person might be illustrated by speaking Spanish, making and eating Hispanic American food, listening to Spanish language music or participating in Hispanic festivals and holidays - Hispanization of those outside the Hispanic community as opposed to assimilation of Hispanics into theirs.
One reason that some people believe the assimilation of Hispanics in the U.S. is not comparable to that of other cultural groups is that Hispanic and Latino Americans have been living in parts of North America for centuries, in many cases well before the English-speaking culture became dominant. For example, California, Texas, Colorado, New Mexico (1598), Arizona, Nevada, Florida and Puerto Rico have been home to Spanish-speaking peoples since the 16th century, long before the U.S. existed. (The language of the Native Americans existed before this, until the invasion and forced assimilation by the Spanish.) These and other Spanish-speaking territories were part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, and later Mexico (with the exception of Florida and Puerto Rico), before these regions joined or were taken over by the United States in 1848. Some cities in the U.S. were founded by Spanish settlers as early as the 16th century, prior to the creation of the Thirteen Colonies. For example, San Miguel de Gualdape, Pensacola and St. Augustine, Florida were founded in 1526, 1559 and 1565 respectively. Santa Fe, New Mexico was founded in 1604, and Albuquerque was established in 1660. El Paso was founded in 1659, San Antonio in 1691, Laredo, Texas in 1755, San Diego in 1769, San Francisco in 1776, San Jose, California in 1777, New Iberia, Louisiana in 1779, and Los Angeles in 1781. Therefore, in many parts of the U.S., the Hispanic cultural legacy predates English/British influence. For this reason, many generations have largely maintained their cultural traditions and Spanish language well before the United States was created. However, Spanish-speaking persons in many Hispanic areas in the U.S. amounted to only a few thousand people when they became part of the United States; a large majority of current Hispanic residents are descended from Hispanics who entered the United States in the mid-to-late 20th and early 21st centuries.
Language retention is a common index to assimilation; according to the 2000 census, about 75 percent of all Hispanics spoke Spanish in the home. Spanish language retention rates vary geographically; parts of Texas and New Mexico have language retention rates over 90 percent, whereas in parts of Colorado and California, retention rates are lower than 30 percent. The degree of retention of Spanish as the native language is based on recent arrival from countries where Spanish is spoken. As is true of other immigrants, those who were born in other countries still speak their native language. Later generations are increasingly less likely to speak the language spoken in the country of their ancestors, as is true of other immigrant groups.
Spanish-speaking countries and regionsEdit
Spanish identified as sole official language
Spanish identified as co-official language
Former Spanish co-official, now identified as auxiliary
Today, Spanish is among the most commonly spoken first languages of the world. During the period of the Spanish Empire from 1492 and 1898, many people migrated from Spain to the conquered lands. The Spaniards brought with them the Castilian language and culture, and in this process that lasted several centuries, created a global empire with a diverse population.
Culturally, Spaniards (those living in Spain) are typically European, but they also have small traces of many peoples from the rest of Europe, such as for example, old Germania, Scandinavia, France, the Mediterranean, the Near East and northern Africa.
Language and ethnicities in Spanish-speaking areas around the worldEdit
|Continent/region||Country/territory||Languages spoken||Ethnic groups||Image||Ref(s)|
|Europe||Spain||Spanish 70%, Catalan 20%, Galician 7%, Basque 2% 
(Note: Spanish language is official nationwide, and thus spoken by 100% of the population, while the rest are co-official in their respective communities. The percentages shown mark the number of speakers that use each language as primary language at home.)
|88.0% Spanish, 12.0% others (Romanian, British, Moroccan, Hispanic American, German) (2009)
(See: Spanish people)
|Andorra||Catalan (official) 57.7%, Spanish 56.4%, French 14.5%, Portuguese 13.9%|||
|North America||Mexico||Spanish 92.7%, Spanish and other language 5.7%, native/indigenous only 0.8%, unspecified 0.8%; (Native/ Indigenous languages include Mayan languages, Mixtec, Nahuatl, Purépecha, Zapotec, and other) (2005)||Mestizo (European, mainly Spanish and Native Mixed) 65%, Amerindian (or predominantly Amerindian) 17.5%, White (full Spanish or other European) 16.5%, other (including Black minority) 1%
(See: Mexican people)
|United States||English 79.4%, Spanish 12.8%, other Indo-European 3.7%, Asian and Pacific Islander languages 3.0%, other 0.9% (2010 census) (Hawaiian is an official language in the state of Hawaii).
(Note: The U.S. is a predominantly English-speaking country. As is true of many immigrant families, the immigrants often speak Spanish and some English, while their children are fluent English speakers because they were born and educated in the U.S. Some retain their Spanish language as is true of other immigrant families. The recent influx of large numbers of immigrants from Spanish-speaking countries into the U.S. has meant that the number of Spanish-speaking U.S. residents has increased, but the children speaking English as is true of the historic U.S. immigrant experience, continues. Migration from Hispanic countries has increased the Spanish-speaking population in the United States. Of those who speak Spanish in the United States, three quarters speak English well or very well.)
|White 79.96%, Black 12.85%, Asian 4.43%, Amerindian and Alaska Native 0.97%, Native Hawaiian and other Pacific islanders 0.18%, two or more races 1.61% (July 2007 estimate)
(Note: a separate listing for Hispanics is not included because the U.S. Census Bureau considers Hispanic to mean a person of Hispanic American descent (including persons of Cuban, Mexican, or Puerto Rican origin) and of Spanish descent living in the U.S. who may be of any race or ethnic group (white, black, Asian, etc.); about 15–16% of the total U.S. population is Hispanic, not including estimates about alien residents).
|Central America||Belize||Spanish 43%, Belizean Creole 37%, Mayan dialects 7.8%, English 5.6% (official), German 3.2%, Garifuna 2%, other 1.5%||Mestizo 34%, Kriol 25%, Maya peoples 10.6%, Garifuna 6.1%, other 11% (2000 census)
|Costa Rica||Spanish (official)||White 81%, Mestizo 13%, Black 3%, Amerindian 1%, Chinese 1% Other 1%|||
|El Salvador||Spanish (official)||Mestizo 86%, White 12%, Amerindian 1%|||
|Guatemala||Spanish 59.4%, Amerindian languages 40.5% (23 officially recognized Amerindian languages, including K'iche, Kakchiquel, Kekchi, Mam, Garifuna, and Xinca).||Mestizo 41%, K'iche 9.1%, Kaqchikel 8.4%, Mam 7.9%, Q'eqchi 6.3%, other Maya peoples 8.6%, indigenous non-Mayan 0.2%, other 0.1%, White 18.5% (2001 census)|||
|Honduras||Spanish (official), (various Amerindian languages, including Garifuna, Lenca, Miskito, Ch’orti’, and Tol). English(on the Bay Islands)||Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) 90%, Amerindian 7%, Black 2%, White 1%|||
|Nicaragua||Spanish 97.5% (official), Miskito 1.7%, others 0.8% (1995 census) (English and indigenous languages on Atlantic coast).||Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) 69%, White 17%, Black 9%, Amerindian 5%|||
|Panama||Spanish (official), English 14% (bilingual: requires verification)||Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) 70%, Black 14%, White 10%, Amerindian 6%|||
|South America||Argentina||Spanish (official), other European and Amerindian languages||European Argentine 86% (mostly from Spanish and Italian ancestries), Mestizo, Amerindian and other non-European or non-White groups (including Arab, East Asian, and Black minorities) 14%
(See: Argentinian people)
|Bolivia||Spanish 60.7% (official), Quechua 21.2% (official), Aymara 14.6% (official), foreign languages 2.4%, other 1.2% (2001 census)||Quechua 30%, Mestizo (mixed White and Amerindian ancestry) 30%, Aymara 25%, White 15%, Black minority.|||
|Chile||Spanish (official), Mapudungun, other European languages||White 52.7%, Mestizo 44.1%, Amerindian 3.2%
(See: Chilean people)
|Colombia||Spanish (official), 68 ethnic languages and dialects. English also official in the San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina Islands.||Mestizo 49%, White 37%, Black 10.6% (includes Mulatto and Zambo), Amerindian 3.4%, Roma 0.01%, among other ethnic groups.
(See: Colombian people)
|Ecuador||Spanish (official), Amerindian languages (especially Quechua)||Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and White) 65%, Amerindian 25%, White 7%, Black 3%|||
|Paraguay||Paraguayan Guaraní, (official) Spanish (official)||Mestizo (mixed European and Amerindian) 55%, White 40% (European descent, mostly Spanish, German, Italian, French, Polish, Ukrainian, Arab (mostly Syrians and Lebanese) and Jew), Mulato 3.5%, Amerindian 1.5%|||
|Peru||Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara, and a large number of minor Amazonian languages||Mestizo 38%, Quechua 29.7%, Aymara 4.7%, Amazonian 1.8%, White 15.5%, Black 5%, East Asian 3.3%.|||
|Uruguay||Spanish (official)||White (mostly from Spanish and Italian ancestries) 88%, Mestizo 8%, Black 4%, Amerindian (less than 0.5%)|||
|Venezuela||Spanish (official), numerous indigenous dialects||Mestizos (mixed Amerindian, White and African) 49,9%, White 42,2%, Black 3,5% and Amerindians 2,7%
(See: Venezuelan people)
|Caribbean Islands||Cuba||Spanish (official)||White 64.1%, mulatto or mestizo 26.6%, black 9.3% (2012)(Cubans)|||
|Dominican Republic||Spanish (official)||Mestizo 30%, Mulatto 45%, White 16%, African 10%|||
(Territory of the U.S. with Commonwealth status)
|Spanish, English||White (mostly of Spanish ancestry) 67.2%, Black 9.9%, Asian 0.3%, Amerindian 0.2%, mixed 4.4%, other 12% (2007)|||
|Africa||Equatorial Guinea||Spanish 67.6% (official), other 32.4% (includes the other 2 official languages - French and Portuguese, Fang, Bube, Annobonese, Igbo, Krio, Pichinglis, and English) (1994 census)
Note: Equatorial Guinea was the only Spanish colony in Sub-Saharan Africa.
|Fang 85.7%, Bubi 6.5%, Mdowe 3.6%, Annobon 1.6%, Bujeba 1.1%, other 1.4% (1994 census)|||
Territory of Chile
|Spanish (official), Rapanui||Rapanui|||
|The CIA World Factbook is in the public domain. Accordingly, it may be copied freely without permission of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).|
Areas with Hispanic cultural influenceEdit
|Continent/region||Country/territory||Languages spoken ||Ethnic groups ||Ref(s)|
|Africa||Western Sahara||Arabic is the official language of Western Sahara, while Spanish is still widely spoken.||The major ethnic group of the Western Sahara are the Sahrawis, a nomadic or Bedouin group speaking Arabic.|||
|Asia||Philippines||Chavacano, a Spanish-based creole language is spoken in the Philippines by 600,000 people. Philippine Spanish is natively spoken by 5,000 people but second- and third-language speakers range from 500,000 to 2,500,000. Hispanic influences have impacted several native languages, such as Tagalog, Cebuano and Ilocano. Many aspects of Filipino culture including cuisine, traditional dances, music, festivals, religion, architecture, traditional costumes and crafts exhibit Hispanic origin and influences.||Spanish Filipino. Various ethnolinguistic groups particularly with some Hispanic heritage that forms up the Filipino people (Chavacanos, Cebuanos, Hiligaynons, Warays, Tagalogs, Ilocanos, Kapampangan, Bicolanos and others)|||
|Micronesia||Guam||Former Spanish territories in Asia-Pacific no longer recognize Spanish as an official language. The predominant languages used in Guam are English, Chamorro and Filipino. Also, in Guam – a U.S. territory – and the Northern Mariana Islands, a commonwealth in political union with the U.S., a Malayo-Polynesian language called Chamorro is spoken, with numerous loanwords with Spanish etymological origins. However it is not a Spanish creole language.||Chamorro, Filipinos, other Asians, and others|||
|FSM Micronesia||Micronesia's official language is English, although native languages, such as Chuukese, Kosraean, Pohnpeian, Yapese, Ulithian, Woleaian, Nukuoro and Kapingamarangi are also prominent.||Micronesians, Asians, and others|||
|Northern Mariana Islands||In the Northern Mariana Islands, a commonwealth in political union with the U.S., a Malayo-Polynesian language called Chamorro is spoken, with numerous loanwords with Spanish etymological origins. However it is not a Spanish creole language. The top four languages used in the Northern Mariana Islands are Filipino, Chinese, Chamorro and English.||Filipinos, Chamorro, other Asians, and others|||
|Palau||In Palau, Spanish is no longer used; instead, the people use their native languages, such as Palauan, Angaur, Sonsorolese and Tobian.||Palauan, Filipinos, other Asians, and others|||
|The CIA World Factbook is in the public domain. Accordingly, it may be copied freely without permission of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).|
Folk and popular dance and music also varies greatly among Hispanics. For instance, the music from Spain is a lot different from the Hispanic American, although there is a high grade of exchange between both continents. In addition, due to the high national development of the diverse nationalities and regions of Spain, there is a lot of music in the different languages of the Peninsula (Catalan, Galician and Basque, mainly). See, for instance, Music of Catalonia or Rock català, Music of Galicia, Cantabria and Asturias, and Basque music. Flamenco is also a very popular music style in Spain, especially in Andalusia. Spanish ballads "romances" can be traced in Argentina as "milongas", same structure but different scenarios.
On the other side of the ocean, Hispanic America is also home to a wide variety of music, even though "Latin" music is often erroneously thought of, as a single genre. Hispanic Caribbean music tends to favor complex polyrhythms of African origin. Mexican music shows combined influences of mostly European and Native American origin, while traditional Northern Mexican music — norteño and banda — polka, has influence from polka music brought by Central European settlers to Mexico which later influenced western music. The music of Hispanic Americans — such as tejano music — has influences in rock, jazz, R&B, pop, and country music as well as traditional Mexican music such as Mariachi. Meanwhile, native Andean sounds and melodies are the backbone of Peruvian and Bolivian music, but also play a significant role in the popular music of most South American countries and are heavily incorporated into the folk music of Ecuador and Chile and the tunes of Colombia, and again in Chile where they play a fundamental role in the form of the greatly followed nueva canción. In U.S. communities of immigrants from these countries it is common to hear these styles. Latin pop, Rock en Español, Latin hip-hop, Salsa, Merengue, colombian cumbia and Reggaeton styles tend to appeal to the broader Hispanic population, and varieties of Cuban music are popular with many Hispanics of all backgrounds.
Spanish-language literature and folklore is very rich and is influenced by a variety of countries. There are thousands of writers from many places, and dating from the Middle Ages to the present. Some of the most recognized writers are Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (Spain), Lope de Vega (Spain), Calderón de la Barca (Spain), Jose Rizal (Philippines), Carlos Fuentes (Mexico), Octavio Paz (Mexico), Miguel Ángel Asturias (Guatemala), George Santayana (US), José Martí (Cuba), Sabine Ulibarri (US), Federico García Lorca (Spain), Miguel de Unamuno (Spain), Gabriel García Márquez (Colombia), Rafael Pombo (Colombia), Horacio Quiroga (Uruguay), Rómulo Gallegos (Venezuela), Luis Rodriguez Varela (Philippines), Rubén Darío (Nicaragua), Mario Vargas Llosa (Peru), Giannina Braschi (Puerto Rico), Cristina Peri Rossi (Uruguay), Luisa Valenzuela (Argentina), Roberto Quesada (Honduras), Julio Cortázar (Argentina), Pablo Neruda (Chile), Gabriela Mistral (Chile), Jorge Luis Borges (Argentina), Pedro Henríquez Ureña (Dominican Republic), Ernesto Sabato (Argentina), Juan Tomás Ávila Laurel (Equatorial Guinea), Ciro Alegría (Peru), Joaquin Garcia Monge (Costa Rica), and Jesus Balmori (Philippines).
In the majority of the Hispanic countries, association football is the most popular sport. The men's national teams of Argentine, Uruguay and Spain have won the FIFA World Cup a total five times. The Spanish La Liga is one of the most popular in the world, known for FC Barcelona and Real Madrid. Meanwhile, the Argentine Primera División and Mexican Primera División are two of the strongest leagues in the Americas.
However, baseball is the most popular sport in some Central American and Caribbean countries (especially Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and Venezuela), as well as in the diaspora in the United States. Notable Hispanic teams in early baseball are the All Cubans, Cuban Stars and New York Cubans. The Hispanic Heritage Baseball Museum recognizes Hispanic baseball personalities. Nearly 30 percent (22 percent foreign-born Latinos) of MLB players today have Hispanic heritage.
Several Hispanic sportspeople have been successful worldwide, such as Diego Maradona, Alfredo di Stefano, Lionel Messi, Diego Forlán (association football), Juan Manuel Fangio, Juan Pablo Montoya, Eliseo Salazar, Fernando Alonso, Marc Gené, Carlos Sainz (auto racing), Ángel Nieto, Dani Pedrosa, Jorge Lorenzo, Marc Márquez, Marc Coma, Nani Roma (motorcycle racing), Emanuel Ginóbili, Pau Gasol, Marc Gasol (basketball), Julio César Chávez, Saúl Álvarez, Carlos Monzón (boxing), Miguel Indurain, Alberto Contador, Santiago Botero, Rigoberto Urán, Nairo Quintana (cycling), Roberto de Vicenzo, Ángel Cabrera, Sergio García, Severiano Ballesteros, José María Olazábal (golf), Luciana Aymar (field hockey), Rafael Nadal, Marcelo Ríos, Guillermo Vilas, Gabriela Sabatini, Juan Martín del Potro (tennis).
With regard to religious affiliation among Spanish-speakers, Christianity — specifically Roman Catholicism — is usually the first religious tradition that comes to mind. The Spaniards and the Portuguese took the Roman Catholic faith to Ibero-America and the Philippines, and Roman Catholicism remains the predominant religion amongst most Hispanics. A small but growing number of Hispanics belong to a Protestant denomination.
This section's representation of one or more viewpoints about a controversial issue may be unbalanced or inaccurate.December 2009)(
There are also Spanish-speaking Jews, most of whom are the descendants of Ashkenazi Jews who migrated from Europe (German Jews, Russian Jews, Polish Jews, etc.) to Hispanic America, particularly Argentina, Uruguay, Peru and Cuba (Argentina is host to the third largest Jewish population in the Western Hemisphere, after the United States and Canada) in the 19th century and following World War II. Many Spanish-speaking Jews also originate from the small communities of reconverted descendants of anusim — those whose Spanish Sephardi Jewish ancestors long ago hid their Jewish ancestry and beliefs in fear of persecution by the Spanish Inquisition in the Iberian Peninsula and Ibero-America. The Spanish Inquisition led to a large number of forced conversions of Spanish Jews.
Genetic studies on the (male) Y-chromosome conducted by the University of Leeds in 2008 appear to support the idea that the number of forced conversions have been previously underestimated significantly. They found that twenty percent of Spanish males have Y-chromosomes associated with Sephardic Jewish ancestry. This may imply that there were more forced conversions than was previously thought.
There are also thought to be many Catholic-professing descendants of marranos and Spanish-speaking crypto-Jews in the Southwestern United States and scattered through Hispanic America. Additionally, there are Sephardic Jews who are descendants of those Jews who fled Spain to Turkey, Syria, and North Africa, some of whom have now migrated to Hispanic America, holding on to some Spanish/Sephardic customs, such as the Ladino language, which mixes Spanish, Hebrew, Arabic and others, though written with Hebrew and Latin characters. Ladinos were also African slaves captive in Spain held prior to the colonial period in the Americas. (See also History of the Jews in Hispanic America and List of Hispanic American Jews.)
Among the Spanish-speaking Catholics, most communities celebrate their homeland's patron saint, dedicating a day for this purpose with festivals and religious services. Some Spanish-speakers syncretize Roman Catholicism and African or Native American rituals and beliefs. Such is the case of Santería, popular with Afro-Cubans, which combines old African beliefs in the form of Roman Catholic saints and rituals. Other syncretistic beliefs include Spiritism and Curanderismo.
While a tiny minority, there are some Muslims in Latin America, in the US, and in the Philippines. Those in the Philippines live predominantly in the province forming the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.
In the United States, some 65% of Hispanics and Latinos report themselves Catholic and 21% Protestant, with 13% having no affiliation. A minority among the Roman Catholics, about one in five, are charismatics. Among the Protestant, 85% are "Born-again Christians" and belong to Evangelical or Pentecostal churches. Among the smallest groups, less than 4%, are Jewish.
Cultural heritage according to UNESCOEdit
The Hispanic world, according to the United Nations World Heritage Committee, has contributed substantially more than any other ethnicity to the cultural heritage of the world. A World Heritage Cultural Site is a place such as a building, city, complex, or monument that is listed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as being of special cultural significance. Of a total of 802 Cultural World Heritage Sites recognized by the United Nations as of July 2015, 114 are located in Hispanic countries. Spain alone has 47 cultural sites.
- Spanish language
- Latin Americans
- Hispanic and Latino Americans
- Culture of Spain
- Spanish Filipino
- Ibero-America (Iberian Peninsula)
- Latin Union
- "Archived: 49 CFR Part 26". U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
'Hispanic Americans,' which includes persons of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race...
- "SOP 80 05 3A: Overview of the 8(A) Business Development Program" (PDF). U.S. Small Business Administration. 11 April 2008. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
SBA has defined 'Hispanic American' as an individual whose ancestry and culture are rooted in South America, Central America, Mexico, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, or Spain.
- Vega, Noé Villaverde (2001). Tingitana en la antigüedad tardía, siglos III-VII: autoctonía y romanidad en el extremo occidente mediterráneo [Tingitana in late antiquity, the III-VII centuries: the autochthonous and Roman world in the west end of the Mediterranean. Which answers the million dollar question. Portuguese people are considered to be Hispanic because of the origin of the famial background.] (in Spanish). Real Academia de la Historia. p. 266. ISBN 978-84-89512-94-8. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Bowersock, Glen Warren; Brown, Peter; Grabar, Oleg (1999). Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World. Harvard University Press. p. 504. ISBN 978-0-674-51173-6. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Corfis, Ivy A. (2009). Al-Andalus, Sepharad and Medieval Iberia: Cultural Contact and Diffusion. BRILL. p. 231. ISBN 90-04-17919-4. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Harper, Douglas. "Online Etymology Dictionary; Hispanic". Retrieved 10 February 2009. Also: etymology of "Spain", on the same site.
- Herbst, Philip (1997). The Color of Words: An Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Ethnic Bias in the United States. Intercultural Press. p. 107. ISBN 978-1-877864-97-1. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "Record No. 7448, Sepulchral inscription". Hispania Epigraphica Online Database. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Pohl, Walter; Reimitz, Helmut (1998). Strategies of Distinction: The Construction of the Ethnic Communities, 300-800. BRILL. p. 117. ISBN 90-04-10846-7. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Curchin, Leonard A. (2004). The Romanization of Central Spain: Complexity, Diversity and Change in a Provincial Hinterland. Routledge. p. 125. ISBN 1134451121.
- "Pre-Roman Peoples and Languages of Iberia: An ethnological map of the Iberian Peninsula after the 2nd Punic War" (PDF). Campo Arqueológico de Tavira. 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Dunstan, William E. (2010). Ancient Rome. Rowman & Littlefield Publishing, Inc. p. 312. ISBN 0742568342.
- Merivale, Charles (1875). A General History of Rome. D. Appleton and Co. p. 524.
- Grainger, John D. (2004). Nerva and the Roman Succession Crisis of AD 96-99. Routledge. p. 73. ISBN 0415349583.
- "Hispano-Roman". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Boyle, Leonard E. (1984). Medieval Latin Palaeography: A Bibliographical Introduction. University of Toronto Press. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-8020-6558-2. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "Hispanic". Merriam Webster Online. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "Definition of Hispanic in English". Oxford Dictionary. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "Are Filipinos Considered Hispanics?". LatinLife. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
- O'Callaghan, Joseph F. (31 August 1983). A History of Medieval Spain. Cornell University Press. p. 24. ISBN 0-8014-9264-5. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Rowe, Erin Kathleen (1 January 2011). Saint and Nation: Santiago, Teresa of Avila, and Plural Identities in Early Modern Spain. Pennsylvania State University Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-271-03773-8. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Ruiz, Teofilo F. (15 April 2008). Spain's Centuries of Crisis: 1300 - 1474. Wiley. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-470-76644-6. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Baruque, Julio Valdeón (2002). Las Raices Medievales de España [The medieval roots of Spain] (in Spanish). Real Academia de la Historia. p. 55. ISBN 978-84-95983-95-4. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Fernández, Luis Suárez; Baratech, Carlos E. Corona; Vicente, José Antonio Armillas (1984). Historia general de España y América [General History of Spain and America] (in Spanish). Ediciones Rialp. p. 87. ISBN 978-84-321-2106-7. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- María, María Paz Andrés Sáenz de Santa (1 January 2005). Homenaje a la Constitución Española: XXV aniversario [Tribute to the Spanish Constitution: XXV anniversary] (in Spanish). Universidad de Oviedo. p. 123. ISBN 978-84-8317-473-9. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Alcalá-Zamora, José N. (2005). Felipe IV: el hombre y el reinado [Felipe IV: The Man and the Reign] (in Spanish). CEEH. p. 137. ISBN 978-84-934643-0-1. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "Constitucion politica de la Monarquia Española : Promulgada en Cadiz á 19 de Marzo de 1812" [Constitution of the Spanish Monarchy: Promulgated in Cadiz on 19 March 1812]. Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes (in Spanish). Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Ruiz, Joaquín del Moral; Ruiz, Juan Pro; Bilbao, Fernando Suárez (2007). Estado y territorio en España, 1820–1930: la formación del paisaje nacional [State and Territory in Spain, 1820–1930: The formation of the national landscape] (in Spanish). Los Libros de la Catarata. ISBN 978-84-8319-335-8. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- The Gentleman's Magazine, and Historical Chronicle. E. Cave. 1820. p. 326. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Titus Livius. "The History of Rome, Vol. III 25.33". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- García Riaza, Enrique (2005). "Lengua y poder. Notas sobre los orígenes de la latinización de las élites celtibéricas (182–133 aC)" [Language and power: Notes on the origins of colonization of the Celtic elites (182–133 BC)]. Palaeohispanica (in Spanish). pp. 637–655. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Caba, Rubén. "España Y Los Españoles" [Spain and the Spanish]. Arbor (in Spanish). pp. 977–982. ISSN 0210-1963. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "Significado / definição de hispânico". Dicionário Priberam da Língua Portuguesa (in Portuguese). Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "hispano". Diccionario de la lengua española (in Spanish). Real Academia Española. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
- "hispánico". Diccionario de la lengua española (in Spanish). Real Academia Española. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
- Cobos, Rubén (2003) "Introduction," A Dictionary of New Mexico & Southern Colorado Spanish (2nd ed.); Santa Fe: Museum of New Mexico Press; p. ix; ISBN 0-89013-452-9
- "The Hispanic Population: 2010" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. May 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Passel, Jeffrey S.; Taylor, Paul (28 May 2009). "Who's Hispanic?". Pew Research Center. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Humes, Karen R.; Jones, Nicholas A.; Ramirez, Roberto R. (March 2011). "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity". The White House Office of Management and Budget. 30 October 1997. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
- "Hispanic Origin". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 19 January 2016. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The Museum at the Hispanic Society of America". hispanicsociety.org. Archived from the original on 21 December 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "Race and Ethnic Categories" (PDF). Federal Register. 70 (227): 71295. 28 November 2005. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "May an employer override an individual's self-identification of race, gender or ethnicity based on the employer's visual observation?". United States Department of Labor. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Crese, Arthur R.; Schmidley, Audrey Dianne; Ramirez, Roberto R. (9 July 2008). "Identification of Hispanic Ethnicity in Census 2000: Analysis of Data Quality for the Question on Hispanic Origin, Population Division Working Paper No. 75". U.S. Census Bureau.
- "Study: Most Hispanics Prefer Describing Identity From Family's Country Of Origin". CBS DC. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "When Labels Don't Fit: Hispanics and Their Views of Identity". Pew Research Center's Hispanic Trends Project. 4 April 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Arreola, Dan, ed. (2004). "14. "Hispanization of Hereford, Texas"". Hispanic Spaces, Latino Places: Community and Cultural Diversity in Contemporary America.
- Ramirez, Roberto R. (December 2004). "CENSR-18 Census 2000 Special Reports: We the People – Hispanics in the United States" (PDF). US Bureau of the Census. p. 10. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Haverluk, Terrence W. (1998). "Hispanic Community Types and Assimilation in Mex-America". The Professional Geographer. 50 (4): 465–480. doi:10.1111/0033-0124.00133.
- Dupanloup, Isabelle; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Chikhi, Lounès; Barbujani, Guido (24 March 2004). "Estimating the Impact of Prehistoric Admixture on the Genome of Europeans". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 21 (7): 1361–1372. doi:10.1093/molbev/msh135. PMID 15044595. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- McDonald, J. D. (2005). "Y Haplogroups of the World" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 July 2004. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Languages". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Ethnicity Notes". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Morgades, Lourdes (30 June 2009). "El catalán pierde peso como lengua habitual por la inmigración" [Catalan as an everyday language loses weight by immigration]. El País (in Spanish). Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "Avance del Padrón municipal a 1 de enero de 2009" [The Municipal Register of 1 January 2009] (PDF). Instituto Nacional de Estadística (in Spanish). 1 January 2009. Retrieved 22 September 2009.
- "The World Factbook: Spain". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "Coneixements I Usos Lingüístics De La Població D'Andorra (1995-2014)" (PDF). Centre de Recerca Sociològica d’Estudis Andorrans (in Catalan). p. 24. Retrieved 19 January 2016.[permanent dead link]
- "Mexico". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Mexico". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS). "Language Spoken At Home: 2010 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". American FactFinder. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: The United States". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "Belize 2000 Housing and Population Census". Belize Central Statistical Office. 2000. Archived from the original on 20 December 2008. Retrieved 11 October 2008.
- "The World Factbook: Costa Rica". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: El Salvador". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Guatemala". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Honduras". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Nicaragua". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Panama". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Argentina". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Bolivia". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Lizcano Fernández, Francisco. "Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI". Convergencia. Centro de Investigación en Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México. 38 (May–August 2005). ISSN 1405-1435. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Bushnell, David; Hudson, Rex A. (2010). "Colombia: a country study" (PDF). The Society and Its Environment. Washington D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress (87).
- Herrera, Beethoven (1 March 2013). "Bienvenidas las diferencias: a celebrar la multiculturalidad" [Welcome the differences: a celebration of multiculturalism]. Portafolio (in Spanish). Bogotá. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "The World Factbook: Ecuador". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Paraguay". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The Socioeconomic Advantages of Mestizos in Urban Peru". Princeton University. pp. 4–5. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Uruguay". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "Resultados Básicos Censo 2011" (PDF). Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Caracas. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Cuba". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 23 September 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Puerto Rico". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Equatorial Guinea". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Chile (includes Easter Island)". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Copyright notice". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Philippines". CIA.gov. Archived from the original on 11 January 2010. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Lewis, M. Paul; Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D., eds. (2015). "Philippines". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (18th ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- There are 2,532 immigrants from Spain according to INE (1 January 2009)
- 1,816,773 Spanish + 1,200,000 Spanish creole: Antonio Quilis La lengua española en Filipinas (1996), p.234 Cervantesvirtual.com, Mepsyd.es Archived 24 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine (p.23), Mepsyd.es Archived 19 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine (p.249), Spanish-differences.com Archived 14 July 2010 at WebCite, Aresprensa.com. The figure 2,900,000 Spanish-speakers, we can find in Thompson, R.W., "Pluricentric languages: differing norms in different nations" (p.45), or in Sispain.org. More than 2 million Spanish-speakers and around 3 million with Chavacano speakers according to "Instituto Cervantes de Manila Archived 23 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine"
- "The World Factbook: Guam". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Federated States of Micronesia". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Northern Mariana Islands". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Palau". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "Annual Assessment: The Situation and Dynamics of the Jewish People" (PDF). The Jewish People Policy Planning Institute. 2015. p. 18. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "Global Jewish Populations". United Jewish Federations. Archived from the original on 31 May 2008.
- Wade, Nicholas (5 December 2008). "Gene Test Shows Spain's Jewish and Muslim Mix". The New York Times. p. A12. (Subscription required (help)). Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Ladino". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Espinosa, Gastón; Elizondo, Virgilio; Miranda, Jesse (January 2003). "Hispanic Churches in American Public Life: Summary of Findings" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 November 2006. Retrieved 27 December 2006.
- De la Garza, Rodolfo O.; Desipio, Louis (1996). Ethnic Ironies: Latino Politics in the 1992 Elections. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
- Maura, Juan Francisco (2011). "Caballeros y rufianes andantes en la costa atlántica de los Estados Unidos: Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón y Alvar Núñez Cabeza". Revista Canadiense de Estudios Hispánicos. 35 (2): 305–328.
- Maura, Juan Francisco (2009). "Nuevas aportaciones al estudio de la toponimia ibérica en la América Septentrional en el siglo XVI". Bulletin of Spanish Studies. 86 (5): 577–603. doi:10.1080/14753820902969345.
- Maura, Juan Francisco (2016). "Sobre el origen hispánico del nombre 'Canadá'" (PDF). Lemir: Revista de literatura medieval y del Renacimiento (20): 17–52.
- Montalban-Anderssen, Romero Anton (1996). "What is a Hispanic? Legal Definition vs. Racist Definition". andrew.cmu.edu.
- Price, Marie D.; Cooper, Catherine W. (May 2007). "Competing Visions, Shifting Boundaries: The Construction of Latin America as a World Region". Journal of Geography. 106 (3): 113–122. doi:10.1080/00221340701599113.