The term Hispanic (Spanish: hispano) refers to people, cultures, or countries related to Spain, the Spanish language, or Hispanidad broadly. The term commonly applies to Spaniards and Spanish-speaking (Hispanophone) populations and countries in Hispanic America (the continent) and Hispanic Africa (Equatorial Guinea and the disputed territory of Western Sahara), which were formerly part of the Spanish Empire due to colonization mainly between the 16th and 20th centuries. The cultures of Hispanophone countries outside Spain have been influenced as well by the local pre-Hispanic cultures or other foreign influences.
There was also Spanish influence in the former Spanish East Indies, including the Philippines, Marianas, and other nations. However, Spanish is not a predominant language in these regions and, as a result, their inhabitants are not usually considered Hispanic.
Hispanic culture is a set of customs, traditions, beliefs, and art forms in music, literature, dress, architecture, cuisine, and other cultural fields that are generally shared by peoples in Hispanic regions, but which can vary considerably from one country or territory to another. The Spanish language is the main cultural element shared by Hispanic peoples.
The term Hispanic derives from the Latin word Hispanicus, the adjectival derivation of Hispania, which means of the Iberian peninsula and possibly Celtiberian origin. In English the word is attested from the 16th century (and in the late 19th century in American English).
The words Spain, Spanish, and Spaniard are of the same etymology as Hispanus, ultimately.
Hispanus was the Latin name given to a person from Hispania during Roman rule. The ancient Roman Hispania, which roughly comprised what is currently called the Iberian Peninsula, included the contemporary states of Spain, Portugal, parts of France, Andorra, and the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. In English, the term Hispano-Roman is sometimes used. The Hispano-Romans were composed of people from many different Indigenous tribes, in addition to colonists from Italia. Some famous Hispani (plural of Hispanus) and Hispaniensis were the emperors Trajan, Marcus Aurelius, Hadrian, Theodosius I and Magnus Maximus, the poets Marcus Annaeus Lucanus, Martial and Prudentius, the philosophers Seneca the Elder and Seneca the Younger, and the usurper Maximus of Hispania. A number of these men, such as Trajan, Hadrian and others, were in fact descended from Roman colonial families.
Here follows a comparison of several terms related to Hispanic:
- Hispania was the name of the Iberian Peninsula/Iberia from the 3rd century BC to the 8th AD, both as a Roman Empire province and immediately thereafter as a Visigothic kingdom, 5th–8th century.
- Hispano-Roman is used to refer to the culture and people of Hispania.
- Spanish is used to refer to the people, nationality, culture, language and other things of Spain.
- Spaniard is used to refer to the people of Spain.
Hispania was divided into two provinces: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. In 27 BC, Hispania Ulterior was divided into two new provinces, Hispania Baetica and Hispania Lusitania, while Hispania Citerior was renamed Hispania Tarraconensis. This division of Hispania explains the usage of the singular and plural forms (Spain, and The Spains) used to refer to the peninsula and its kingdoms in the Middle Ages.
Before the marriage of Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon in 1469, the four Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula—the Kingdom of Portugal, the Crown of Aragon, the Crown of Castile, and the Kingdom of Navarre—were collectively called The Spains. This revival of the old Roman concept in the Middle Ages appears to have originated in Provençal, and was first documented at the end of the 11th century. In the Council of Constance, the four kingdoms shared one vote.
The terms Spain and the Spains were not interchangeable. Spain was a geographic territory, home to several kingdoms (Christian and Muslim), with separate governments, laws, languages, religions, and customs, and was the historical remnant of the Hispano-Gothic unity. Spain was not a political entity until much later, and when referring to the Middle Ages, one should not be confounded with the nation-state of today. The term The Spains referred specifically to a collective of juridico-political units, first the Christian kingdoms, and then the different kingdoms ruled by the same king. Illustrative of this fact is the historical ecclesiastical title of Primate of the Spains, traditionally claimed by the Archbishop of Braga, a Portuguese prelate.
With the Decretos de Nueva Planta, Philip V started to organize the fusion of his kingdoms that until then were ruled as distinct and independent, but this unification process lacked a formal and juridic proclamation.
Although colloquially and literally the expression "King of Spain" or "King of the Spains" was already widespread, it did not refer to a unified nation-state. It was only in the constitution of 1812 that was adopted the name Españas (Spains) for the Spanish nation and the use of the title of "king of the Spains". The constitution of 1876 adopts for the first time the name "Spain" for the Spanish nation and from then on the kings would use the title of "king of Spain".
The expansion of the Spanish Empire between 1492 and 1898 brought thousands of Spanish migrants to the conquered lands, who established settlements, mainly in the Americas, but also in other distant parts of the world (as in the Philippines, the lone Spanish territory in Asia), producing a number of multiracial populations. Today, the term Hispanic is typically applied to the varied populations of these places, including those with Spanish ancestry.
Definitions in ancient Rome Edit
The Latin gentile adjectives that belong to Hispania are Hispanus, Hispanicus, and Hispaniensis. A Hispanus is someone who is a native of Hispania with no foreign parents, while children born in Hispania of Roman parents were Hispanienses. Hispaniensis means 'connected in some way to Hispania', as in "Exercitus Hispaniensis" ('the Spanish army') or "mercatores Hispanienses" ('Spanish merchants'). Hispanicus implies 'of' or 'belonging to' Hispania or the Hispanus or of their fashion as in "gladius Hispanicus". The gentile adjectives were not ethnolinguistic but derived primarily on a geographic basis, from the toponym Hispania as the people of Hispania spoke different languages, although Titus Livius (Livy) said they could all understand each other, not making clear if they spoke dialects of the same language or were polyglots. The first recorded use of an anthroponym derived from the toponym Hispania is attested in one of the five fragments, of Ennius in 236 BC who wrote "Hispane, non Romane memoretis loqui me" ("Remember that I speak like a Spaniard not a Roman") as having been said by a native of Hispania.
Definitions in Portugal, Spain, the rest of Europe Edit
Persons from Portugal or of Portuguese extraction are referred to as Lusitanians. In Portugal, Hispanic refers to something historical related to ancient Hispania (especially the terms Hispano-Roman and Hispania) or the Spanish language and cultures shared by all the Spanish-speaking countries. Although sharing the etymology for the word (pt: hispânico, es: hispánico), the definition for Hispanic is different between Portugal and Spain. The Royal Spanish Academy (Spanish: Real Academia Española, RAE), the official royal institution responsible for regulating the Spanish language defines the terms "hispano" and "hispánico" (which in Spain have slightly different meanings) as:
- 1. A native of Hispania [Roman region]
- 2. Belonging or relating to Hispania
- 3. Spanish, as applied to a person
- 4. Of or pertaining to Hispanic America
- 5. Of or pertaining to the population of Hispanic American origin who live in the United States of America
- 6. A person of this origin who lives in the United States of America
- 1. Belonging or relating to ancient Hispania or the people inhabiting the region
- 2. Belonging or relating to Spain and Spanish-speaking countries
The modern term to identify Portuguese and Spanish territories under a single nomenclature is "Iberian", and the one to refer to cultures derived from both countries in the Americas is "Iberian-American". These designations can be mutually recognized by people in Portugal and Brazil. "Hispanic" is totally void of any self-identification in Brazil, and quite to the contrary, serves the purpose of marking a clear distinction in relation to neighboring countries' culture. Brazilians may identify as Latin-Americans, but refute being considered Latinos or Hispanics because their language and culture are neither part of the Hispanic cultural sphere, nor Spanish-speaking world. In a similar way to Canadians, particularly from the French-speaking region, who do not regard themselves as American (from the US) but may identify as North Americans.
In Spanish, the term "hispano", as in "hispanoamericano", refers to the people of Spanish origin who live in the Americas and to a relationship to Hispania or to the Spanish language. There are people in Hispanic America that are not of Spanish origin, as the original people of these areas are Amerindians, other European, African, and also originating from other parts of the world.
Like in Portugal, in the rest of Europe (and wider world) the concept of 'Hispanic' refers to historical ancient Hispania (especially the term hispano-roman and Hispania during the Roman Empire) or the Spanish language and cultures shared by all the Spanish-speaking countries.
Definitions in the United States Edit
Both Hispanic and Latino are widely used in American English for Spanish-speaking people and their descendants in the United States. While Hispanic refers to Spanish speakers overall, Latino refers specifically to people of Latin American descent. Hispanic can also be used for the people and culture of Spain as well as Latin America. While originally the term Hispanic referred primarily to the Hispanos of New Mexico within the United States, today, organizations in the country use the term as a broad catchall to refer to persons with a historical and cultural relationship with Spain regardless of race and ethnicity. The United States Census Bureau uses Hispanic or Latino to refer to a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race  and states that Hispanics or Latinos can be of any race, any ancestry, any ethnicity.
Because of the technical distinctions involved in defining "race" vs. "ethnicity", there is confusion among the general population about the designation of Hispanic identity. Currently, the United States Census Bureau defines six race categories:
- White or Caucasian
- Black or African American
- American Indian or Alaska Native
- Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander
- Some Other Race
According to census reports, of the above races the largest number of Hispanic or Latinos are of the White race, the second largest number come from the Native American/American Indian race who are the indigenous people of the Americas. The inhabitants of Easter Island are Pacific Islanders and since the island belongs to Chile they are theoretically Hispanic or Latino. Because Hispanic roots are considered aligned with a European ancestry (Spain), Hispanic ancestry is defined solely as an ethnic designation (similar to being Norse or Germanic). Therefore, a person of Hispanic descent is typically defined using both race and ethnicity as an identifier—i.e., Black-Hispanic, White-Hispanic, Asian-Hispanic, Amerindian-Hispanic or "other race" Hispanic.
A 1997 notice by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget defined Hispanic or Latino persons as being "persons who trace their origin or descent to Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Central and South America, and other Spanish cultures." The United States Census uses the ethnonyms Hispanic or Latino to refer to "a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Hispanic culture or origin regardless of race."
The 2010 census asked if the person was "Spanish/Hispanic/Latino". The United States census uses the Hispanic or Latino to refer to "a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race." The Census Bureau also explains that "[o]rigin can be viewed as the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the person's ancestors before their arrival in the United States. People who identify their origin as Hispanic, Latino or Spanish may be of any race."
The U.S. Department of Transportation defines Hispanic as, "persons of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race." This definition has been adopted by the Small Business Administration as well as by many federal, state, and municipal agencies for the purposes of awarding government contracts to minority owned businesses. The Congressional Hispanic Caucus and the Congressional Hispanic Conference include representatives of Spanish and Portuguese, Puerto Rican and Mexican descent. The Hispanic Society of America is dedicated to the study of the arts and cultures of the Hispanic and Lusitanic world. The Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities, proclaimed champions of Hispanic success in higher education, is committed to Hispanic educational success in the United States, and the Hispanic and Lusitanic world.
The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission encourages any individual who believes that he or she is Hispanic to self-identify as Hispanic. The United States Department of Labor – Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs encourages the same self-identification. As a result, individuals with origins to part of the Spanish Empire may self-identify as Hispanic, because an employer may not override an individual's self-identification.
In a recent study, most Spanish-speakers of Spanish or Hispanic American descent do not prefer the term Hispanic or Latino when it comes to describing their identity. Instead, they prefer to be identified by their country of origin. When asked if they have a preference for either being identified as Hispanic or Latino, the Pew study finds that "half (51%) say they have no preference for either term." Among those who do express a preference, "'Hispanic' is preferred over 'Latino' by more than a two-to-one margin—33% versus 14%." 21% prefer to be referred to simply as "Americans". A majority (51%) say they most often identify themselves by their family's country of origin, while 24% say they prefer a pan-ethnic label such as Hispanic or Latino.
Hispanicization is the process by which a place or a person absorbs characteristics of Hispanic society and culture. Modern hispanization of a place, namely in the United States, might be illustrated by Spanish-language media and businesses. Hispanicization of a person might be illustrated by speaking Spanish, making and eating Hispanic food, listening to Spanish-language music or participating in Hispanic festivals and holidays - Hispanicization of those outside the Hispanic community as opposed to assimilation of Hispanics into theirs.
One reason that some people believe the assimilation of Hispanics in the United States is not comparable to that of other cultural groups is that Hispanics have been living in parts of North America for centuries, in many cases well before the English-speaking culture became dominant. For example, California, Texas, Colorado, New Mexico (1598), Arizona, Nevada, Florida, and Puerto Rico have been home to Spanish-speaking peoples since the 16th century, long before the United States existed. These and other Spanish-speaking territories were part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, and later Mexico (with the exception of Florida and Puerto Rico), before these regions joined or were taken over by the United States in 1848 (Puerto Rico was in 1898). Some cities in the United States were founded by Spanish settlers as early as the 16th century, prior to the creation of the Thirteen Colonies. For example, San Miguel de Gualdape, Pensacola and St. Augustine, Florida were founded in 1526, 1559 and 1565 respectively. Santa Fe, New Mexico was founded in 1604, and Albuquerque was established in 1660. El Paso was founded in 1659, San Antonio in 1691, Laredo, Texas in 1755, San Diego in 1769, San Francisco in 1776, San Jose, California in 1777, New Iberia, Louisiana in 1779, and Los Angeles in 1781. Therefore, in many parts of the United States, the Hispanic cultural legacy predates English/British influence. For this reason, many generations have largely maintained their cultural traditions and Spanish language well before the United States was created. However, Spanish-speaking persons in many Hispanic areas in North America amounted to only a few thousand people when they became part of the United States; a large majority of current Hispanic residents are descended from Hispanics who entered the United States in the mid-to-late 20th and early 21st centuries.
Language retention is a common index to assimilation; according to the 2000 census, about 75% of all Hispanics spoke Spanish in the home. Spanish language retention rates vary geographically; parts of Texas and New Mexico have language retention rates over 90%, whereas in parts of Colorado and California, retention rates are lower than 30%. The degree of retention of Spanish as the native language is based on recent arrival from countries where Spanish is spoken. As is true of other immigrants, those who were born in other countries still speak their native language. Later generations are increasingly less likely to speak the language spoken in the country of their ancestors, as is true of other immigrant groups.
Spanish-speaking countries and regions Edit
Native and co-official language
Cultural or secondary language
Today, Spanish is among the most commonly spoken first languages of the world. During the period of the Spanish Empire from 1492 and 1898, many people migrated from Spain to the conquered lands. The Spaniards brought with them the Castilian language and culture, and in this process that lasted several centuries, created a global empire with a diverse population.
Culturally, Spaniards (those living in Spain) are Southern European, but they may also have small traces of DNA to peoples from the rest of Europe and elsewhere. This includes, for example, Germanic and Scandinavian Europe, France, the rest of Mediterranean Europe, or Western Asia and Northern Africa.
Language and ethnicities in Spanish-speaking areas around the world Edit
|Continent/region||Country/territory||Languages spoken||Ethnic groups||Image||Ref(s)|
|Europe||Spain||Spanish 81%, Catalan 8%, Galician 3%, Basque 1%
(Note: Spanish language is official nationwide, while the rest are co-official in their respective communities. The percentages shown mark the number of speakers that use each language as primary language at home.)
|88.0% Spanish, 12.0% others (Romanian, British, Moroccan, Hispanic American, German) (2009)
(See: Spanish people)
|Andorra||Catalan (official) 57.7%, Spanish 56.4%, French 14.5%, Portuguese 13.9%|||
|North America||Mexico||Spanish 92.7%, Spanish and other language 5.7%, native/indigenous only 0.8%, unspecified 0.8%; (Native/ Indigenous languages include Mayan languages, Mixtec, Nahuatl, Purépecha, Zapotec, and other) (2005)||Mestizo (Native mixed mostly with Spanish) 65-90%, Amerindian (or predominantly Amerindian) 21-23%, White 9-47%, Black 2.4%
(See: Mexican people)
|United States||English 78.1%, Spanish 13.5%, other Indo-European 3.7%, Asian and Pacific Islander languages 3.6%, other 1.2% (2018 census) (Hawaiian is an official language in the state of Hawaii).||White 79.96%, Black 12.85%, Asian 4.43%, Amerindian and Alaska Native 0.97%, Native Hawaiian and other Pacific islanders 0.18%, two or more races 1.61% (July 2007 estimate)
(Note: a separate listing for Hispanics is not included because the U.S. Census Bureau does not consider "Hispanic" to be a "race", instead they are classified as an ethnic group referring to a person of Hispanic American descent (including persons of Cuban, Mexican, or Puerto Rican origin) or Spanish descent living in the United States and may be of any "race" or pan-ethnic group (White, Black, Asian, etc.); in 2020 about 18.5% of the total U.S. population was Hispanic, not including estimates about alien residents).
|Central America||Belize||Spanish 43%, Belizean Creole 37%, Mayan dialects 7.8%, English 5.6% (official), German 3.2%, Garifuna 2%, other 1.5%||Mestizo 34%, Kriol 25%, Maya peoples 10.6%, Garifuna 6.1%, other 11% (2000 census)
|Costa Rica||Spanish (official)||White or Mestizo 83.6%, Black (including those of mixed ancestry or mulattos) 7.8%, Amerindian 2.4%, Other or unspecified 6.2%|||
|El Salvador||Spanish (official)||Mestizo 86%, White 12%, Amerindian 1%|||
|Guatemala||Spanish 59.4% (official), Amerindian languages 40.5% (23 officially recognized Amerindian languages, including Kʼicheʼ, Kakchiquel, Kekchi, Mam, Garifuna, and Xinca).||Mestizo 41%, Kʼicheʼ 9.1%, Kaqchikel 8.4%, Mam 7.9%, Q'eqchi 6.3%, other Maya peoples 8.6%, indigenous non-Mayan 0.2%, other 0.1%, White 18.5% (2001 census)|||
|Honduras||Spanish (official), (various Amerindian languages, including Garifuna, Lenca, Miskito, Ch’orti’, and Tol). English(on the Bay Islands)||Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) 90%, Amerindian 7%, Black 2%, White 1%|||
|Nicaragua||Spanish 97.5% (official), Miskito 1.7%, others 0.8% (1995 census) (English and indigenous languages on Atlantic coast).||Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) 69%, White 17%, Black 9%, Amerindian 5%|||
|Panama||Spanish (official), English 14% (bilingual: requires verification)||Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) 70%, Black 14%, White 10%, Amerindian 6%|||
|South America||Argentina||Spanish (official), other European and Amerindian languages||European Argentine (mostly Spanish and Italian descent) and Mestizo (mixed European and Amerindian ancestry) 97.2%, Amerindian 2.4%, African 0.4%.
(See: Argentine people)
|Bolivia||Spanish 60.7% (official), Quechua 21.2% (official), Aymara 14.6% (official), foreign languages 2.4%, other 1.2% (2001 census)||Quechua 30%, Mestizo (mixed White and Amerindian ancestry) 30%, Aymara 25%, White 15%, Black minority.|||
|Chile||Spanish (official), Mapudungun, other European languages||White 52.7%, Mestizo 44.1%, Amerindian 3.2%
(See: Chilean people)
|Colombia||Spanish (official), 68 ethnic languages and dialects. English also official in the San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina Islands.||Mestizo 49%, White 37%, Black 6.68% (includes Mulatto and Zambo), Amerindian 4.31%, Not stated 1.35%, other ethnic groups 0.8%.
(See: Colombian people)
| These proportions also vary widely among ethnicities.|
|Ecuador||Spanish (official)||Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and White; including Montubio or coastal mestizos) 79.3%, Amerindian 7%, Black (including mixed people) 7.2%, White 6.1%|||
|Paraguay||Paraguayan Guaraní, (official) Spanish (official)||Mestizo (mixed European and Amerindian) 95%, Other 5%|||
|Peru||Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara, and many minor Amazonian languages||Mestizo 60.2%, Amerindian 25.8%, White 5.89%, Black 3.57%, Nikkei (Japanese) or Tusán (Chinese) 0.16%.|||
|Uruguay||Spanish (official), Uruguayan Portuguese||White (mostly from Spanish and Italian ancestries) 87.7%, Black 4.6%, Amerindian 2.4%, Yellow (East Asian descent), Other/unspecified 5.1%|||
|Venezuela||Spanish (official), numerous indigenous dialects||Mestizo (mixed European and Amerindian ancestry) 49,9%, White 43,6%, Black 3,5% and Amerindians 2,7%
(See: Venezuelan people)
|Caribbean Islands||Cuba||Spanish (official)||White 64.1%, mulatto or mestizo 26.6%, black 9.3% (2012)(Cubans)|||
|Dominican Republic||Spanish (official)||Mestizo 30%, Mulatto 45%, White 16%, African 10%|||
| Puerto Rico
(Territory of the United States with Commonwealth status)
|Spanish 95% (official, spoken at home), English 5-20% (officiality and estimates of speakers greatly vary)||White 17.1%, Black 7.0%, Mixed 49.8%, Other (In combination with other categories) 74%, Other (Alone) 0.6% (2020)|||
(Note: Due to the inadequacy of the categories offered by the US census to adapt to Puerto Rican racial vocabularies, results have historically varied in apparently contradictory ways. For an explanation of the latest results, consult Centro's reports on the subject. ).
|Africa||Equatorial Guinea||Spanish 67.6% (official but not native), other 32.4% (includes the other 2 official languages - French and Portuguese, Fang, Bube, Annobonese, Igbo, Krio, and Pichinglis) (1994 census)
Note: Equatorial Guinea was the only Spanish overseas territory in Sub-Saharan Africa.
|Fang 85.7%, Bubi 6.5%, Mdowe 3.6%, Annobón 1.6%, Bujeba 1.1%, other 1.4% (1994 census)|||
Autonomous city of Spain
|Spanish (official), Moroccan Arabic, Ladino, Haketia, Hindi and Hebrew||Peninsulars, North Africans, Jews and Hindus.|
Autonomous city of Spain
|Spanish (official), Arabic, Tamazight languages, Hebrew and French||Peninsulars, Maghrebis, Jews|
| Canary Islands
Territory of Spain
|Polynesia|| Easter Island
Territory of Chile
|Spanish (official), Rapanui||Rapanui|||
|The CIA World Factbook is in the public domain. Accordingly, it may be copied freely without permission of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).|
Areas with Hispanic cultural influence Edit
|Continent/region||Country/territory||Languages spoken ||Ethnic groups ||Ref(s)|
|Africa||Western Sahara||Former Spanish colony. Arabic is the official language of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, while Spanish is still widely spoken as a second language.||The major ethnic group of the Western Sahara are the Sahrawis, a nomadic or Bedouin group speaking Arabic.|||
|Asia||Philippines||Spanish is still spoken in the Philippines by a minority of people, mostly Filipinos of ethnic Spaniard descent or from other Spanish-speaking regions. Spanish is the 3rd most studied foreign language in the Philippines by students after Filipino and English by non-Tagalog Filipinos, and 2nd by Tagalog Filipinos after English. Chavacano, a Spanish-based creole language is spoken by an ethnic minority in Zamboanga and Cavite. Hispanic influences have impacted several native languages, such as Tagalog, Cebuano, and Ilocano. Some aspects of Filipino culture exhibit Hispanic influences.||Tagalog 24.4%, Bisaya 33.7%, Ilocano 8.8%, Bikol/Bicol 6.8%, other local ethnicities 26.1%, other foreign ethnicities .1% (2010 est.). Small Spanish Filipino community, mainly Basque descent.|||
|Micronesia||Guam||Former Spanish territories in Asia-Pacific no longer recognize Spanish as an official language. The last of the majority of Spanish speakers died out after the Spanish Flu. The predominant languages used in Guam are English, Chamorro and Filipino. Also, in Guam – a U.S. territory – and the Northern Mariana Islands, a commonwealth in political union with the United States, a Malayo-Polynesian language called Chamorro is spoken, with numerous loanwords with Spanish etymological origins. However it is not a Spanish creole language.||Chamorro, Filipinos, other Asians, and others|||
|Federated States of Micronesia||Micronesia's official language is English, although native languages, such as Chuukese, Kosraean, Pohnpeian, Yapese, Ulithian, Woleaian, Nukuoro and Kapingamarangi are also prominent.||Micronesians, Asians, and others|||
|Northern Mariana Islands||In the Northern Mariana Islands, a commonwealth in political union with the United States, a Malayo-Polynesian language called Chamorro is spoken, with numerous loanwords with Spanish etymological origins. However it is not a Spanish creole language. The top four languages used in the Northern Mariana Islands are Filipino, Chinese, Chamorro and English.||Filipinos, Chamorro, other Asians, and others|||
|Palau||In Palau, Spanish is no longer used; instead, the people use their native languages, such as Palauan, Japanese, Sonsorolese and Tobian.||Palauan, Filipinos, other Asians, and others|||
|The CIA World Factbook is in the public domain. Accordingly, it may be copied freely without permission of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).|
Folk and popular dance and music also varies greatly among Hispanics. For instance, the music from Spain is a lot different from the Hispanic American, although there is a high grade of exchange between both continents. In addition, due to the high national development of the diverse nationalities and regions of Spain, there is a lot of music in the different languages of the Peninsula (Catalan, Galician and Basque, mainly). See, for instance, Music of Catalonia or Rock català, Music of Galicia, Cantabria and Asturias, and Basque music. Flamenco is also a very popular music style in Spain, especially in Andalusia. Spanish ballads "romances" can be traced in Argentina as "milongas", same structure but different scenarios.
On the other side of the ocean, Hispanic America is also home to a wide variety of music, even though Latin music is often erroneously thought of, as a single genre. Hispanic Caribbean music tends to favor complex polyrhythms of African origin. Mexican music shows combined influences of mostly European and Native American origin, while traditional Northern Mexican music—norteño and banda— polka, has influence from polka music brought by Central European settlers to Mexico which later influenced western music. The music of Hispanic Americans—such as tejano music—has influences in rock, jazz, R&B, pop, and country music as well as traditional Mexican music such as Mariachi. Meanwhile, native Andean sounds and melodies are the backbone of Peruvian and Bolivian music, but also play a significant role in the popular music of most South American countries and are heavily incorporated into the folk music of Ecuador and the tunes of Colombia, and in Chile where they play a fundamental role in the form of the greatly followed nueva canción. In U.S. communities of immigrants from these countries it is common to hear these styles. Rock en español, Latin hip-hop, Salsa, Merengue, Bachata, Cumbia and Reggaeton styles tend to appeal to the broader Hispanic population, and varieties of Cuban music are popular with many Hispanics of all backgrounds.
Spanish-language literature and folklore is very rich and is influenced by a variety of countries. There are thousands of writers from many places, and dating from the Middle Ages to the present. Some of the most recognized writers are Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (Spain), Lope de Vega (Spain), Calderón de la Barca (Spain), Jose Rizal (Philippines), Carlos Fuentes (Mexico), Octavio Paz (Mexico), Miguel Ángel Asturias (Guatemala), George Santayana (US), José Martí (Cuba), Sabine Ulibarri (US), Federico García Lorca (Spain), Miguel de Unamuno (Spain), Gabriel García Márquez (Colombia), Rafael Pombo (Colombia), Horacio Quiroga (Uruguay), Rómulo Gallegos (Venezuela), Luis Rodriguez Varela (Philippines), Rubén Darío (Nicaragua), Mario Vargas Llosa (Peru), Cristina Peri Rossi (Uruguay), Luisa Valenzuela (Argentina), Roberto Quesada (Honduras), Julio Cortázar (Argentina), Pablo Neruda (Chile), Gabriela Mistral (Chile), Jorge Luis Borges (Argentina), Pedro Henríquez Ureña (Dominican Republic), Ernesto Sabato (Argentina), Juan Tomás Ávila Laurel (Equatorial Guinea), Ciro Alegría (Peru), Joaquin Garcia Monge (Costa Rica), Juan León Mera (Ecuador) and Jesus Balmori (Philippines).
In the majority of the Hispanic countries, association football is the most popular sport. The men's national teams of Argentina, Uruguay and Spain have won the FIFA World Cup a total six times. The Spanish La Liga is one of the most popular in the world, known for FC Barcelona and Real Madrid. Meanwhile, the Argentine Primera División is one of the strongest leagues in the Americas.
However, baseball is the most popular sport in some Central American and Caribbean countries (especially Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela), as well as in the diaspora in the United States. Notable Hispanic teams in early baseball are the All Cubans, Cuban Stars and New York Cubans. The Hispanic Heritage Baseball Museum recognizes Hispanic baseball personalities. Nearly 30 percent (22 percent foreign-born Hispanics) of MLB players today have Hispanic heritage.
Several Hispanic sportspeople have been successful worldwide, such as Diego Maradona, Alfredo di Stefano, Lionel Messi, Diego Forlán (association football), Juan Manuel Fangio, Juan Pablo Montoya, Eliseo Salazar, Fernando Alonso, Marc Gené, Carlos Sainz Sr. and Carlos Sainz Jr. (auto racing), Ángel Nieto, Dani Pedrosa, Jorge Lorenzo, Marc Márquez, Marc Coma, Nani Roma (motorcycle racing), Emanuel Ginóbili, Pau Gasol, Marc Gasol (basketball), Julio César Chávez, Saúl Álvarez, Carlos Monzón (boxing), Miguel Indurain, Alberto Contador, Santiago Botero, Rigoberto Urán, Nairo Quintana (cycling), Roberto de Vicenzo, Ángel Cabrera, Sergio García, Severiano Ballesteros, José María Olazábal (golf), Luciana Aymar (field hockey), Rafael Nadal, Marcelo Ríos, Guillermo Vilas, Gabriela Sabatini, Juan Martín del Potro (tennis).
The Spanish and the Portuguese took the Catholic faith to their colonies in the Americas, Africa, and Asia; Catholicism remains the predominant religion amongst most Hispanics. A small but growing number of Hispanics belong to a Protestant denomination. Hispanic Christians form the largest ethno-linguistic group among Christians in the world, about 18% of the world's Christian population are Hispanic (around 430 millions).
In the United States, some 65% of Hispanics and Latinos report themselves Catholic and 21% Protestant, with 13% having no affiliation. A minority among the Catholics, about one in five, are charismatics. Among the Protestant, 85% are "Born-again Christians" and belong to Evangelical or Pentecostal churches. Among the smallest groups, less than 4%, are Jewish.
|Countries||Population Total||Christians %||Christian Population||Unaffiliated %||Unaffiliated Population||Other religions %||Other religions Population||Source|
Among the Spanish-speaking Catholics, most communities celebrate their homeland's patron saint, dedicating a day for this purpose with festivals and religious services. Some Spanish-speakers in Latin America syncretize Roman Catholicism and African or Native American rituals and beliefs. Such is the case of Santería, popular with Afro-Cubans, which combines old African beliefs in the form of Roman Catholic saints and rituals. Other syncretistic beliefs include Spiritism and Curanderismo. In Catholic tradition, Our Lady of the Pillar is considered the Patroness of the Hispanic people and the Hispanic world.
This section may be unbalanced towards certain viewpoints. (December 2009)
There are also Spanish-speaking Jews, most of whom are the descendants of Ashkenazi Jews who migrated from Europe (German Jews, Russian Jews, Polish Jews, etc.) to Hispanic America, particularly Argentina, Uruguay, Peru, and Cuba (Argentina is host to the third-largest Jewish population in the Western Hemisphere, after the United States and Canada) in the 19th century and following World War II. Many Spanish-speaking Jews also originate from the small communities of reconverted descendants of anusim—those whose Spanish Sephardi Jewish ancestors long ago hid their Jewish ancestry and beliefs in fear of persecution by the Spanish Inquisition in the Iberian Peninsula and Ibero-America. The Spanish Inquisition led to many forced conversions of Spanish Jews.
Genetic studies on the (male) Y-chromosome conducted by the University of Leeds in 2008 appear to support the idea that the number of forced conversions have been previously underestimated significantly. They found that twenty percent of Spanish males have Y-chromosomes associated with Sephardic Jewish ancestry. This may imply that there were more forced conversions than was previously thought.
There are also thought to be many Catholic-professing descendants of marranos and Spanish-speaking crypto-Jews in the Southwestern United States and scattered through Hispanic America. Additionally, there are Sephardic Jews who are descendants of those Jews who fled Spain to Turkey, Syria, and North Africa, some of whom have now migrated to Hispanic America, holding on to some Spanish/Sephardic customs, such as the Ladino language, which mixes Spanish, Hebrew, Arabic and others, though written with Hebrew and Latin characters. Ladinos were also African slaves captive in Spain held prior to the colonial period in the Americas. (See also History of the Jews in Hispanic America and List of Hispanic American Jews.)
See also Edit
- Spanish language
- Latin Americans
- Afro-Latin American
- Asian Latin American
- Criollo people
- White Latin American
- Isleño Americans
- Black Hispanic and Latino Americans
- White Hispanic and Latino Americans
- Hispanic America
- Hispanic Heritage Sites (U.S. National Park Service)
- Hispanic Paradox
- Cuban-American lobby
- Culture of Spain
- Spanish Filipino
- Ibero-America (Iberian Peninsula)
- Latin Union
- Lopez, Mark Hugo; Krogstad, Jens Manuel; Passel, Jeffrey S. "Who is Hispanic?". Pew Research Center. Retrieved 5 January 2023.
- "Hispanidad". www.filosofia.org. Retrieved 5 January 2023.
- "Archived: 49 CFR Part 26". U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
'Hispanic Americans,' which includes persons of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Central or South American, or other Spanish or Portuguese culture or origin, regardless of race;"
- "SOP 80 05 3A: Overview of the 8(A) Business Development Program" (PDF). U.S. Small Business Administration. 11 April 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 October 2016. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
SBA has defined 'Hispanic American' as an individual whose ancestry and culture are rooted in South America, Central America, Mexico, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, or the Iberian Peninsula, including Spain and Portugal.
- Harper, Douglas. "Online Etymology Dictionary; Hispanic". Retrieved 10 February 2009. Also: etymology of "Spain", on the same site.
- Herbst, Philip (1997). The Color of Words: An Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Ethnic Bias in the United States. Intercultural Press. p. 107. ISBN 978-1-877864-97-1. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "Record No. 7448, Sepulchral inscription". Hispania Epigraphica Online Database. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Vega, Noé Villaverde (2001). Tingitana en la antigüedad tardía, siglos III-VII: autoctonía y romanidad en el extremo occidente mediterráneo [Tingitana in late antiquity, the III-VII centuries: the autochthonous and Roman world in the west end of the Mediterranean. Which answers the million dollar question. Portuguese people are considered to be Hispanic because of the origin of the familial background.] (in Spanish). Real Academia de la Historia. p. 266. ISBN 978-84-89512-94-8. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Bowersock, Glen Warren; Brown, Peter; Grabar, Oleg (1999). Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World. Harvard University Press. p. 504. ISBN 978-0-674-51173-6. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Corfis, Ivy A. (2009). Al-Andalus, Sepharad and Medieval Iberia: Cultural Contact and Diffusion. BRILL. p. 231. ISBN 978-90-04-17919-6. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Pohl, Walter; Reimitz, Helmut (1998). Strategies of Distinction: The Construction of the Ethnic Communities, 300-800. BRILL. p. 117. ISBN 90-04-10846-7. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Curchin, Leonard A. (2004). The Romanization of Central Spain: Complexity, Diversity and Change in a Provincial Hinterland. Routledge. p. 125. ISBN 1134451121.
- "Pre-Roman Peoples and Languages of Iberia: An ethnological map of the Iberian Peninsula after the 2nd Punic War" (PDF). Campo Arqueológico de Tavira. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 January 2016. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Dunstan, William E. (2010). Ancient Rome. Rowman & Littlefield Publishing, Inc. p. 312. ISBN 978-0742568341.
- Merivale, Charles (1875). A General History of Rome. D. Appleton and Co. p. 524.
- Grainger, John D. (2004). Nerva and the Roman Succession Crisis of AD 96-99. Routledge. p. 73. ISBN 0415349583.
- "Hispano-Roman". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Boyle, Leonard E. (1984). Medieval Latin Palaeography: A Bibliographical Introduction. University of Toronto Press. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-8020-6558-2. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "Hispanic". Merriam Webster Online. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "Definition of Hispanic in English". Oxford Dictionary. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- O'Callaghan, Joseph F. (31 August 1983). A History of Medieval Spain. Cornell University Press. p. 24. ISBN 0-8014-9264-5. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Rowe, Erin Kathleen (1 January 2011). Saint and Nation: Santiago, Teresa of Avila, and Plural Identities in Early Modern Spain. Pennsylvania State University Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-271-03773-8. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Ruiz, Teofilo F. (15 April 2008). Spain's Centuries of Crisis: 1300 - 1474. Wiley. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-470-76644-6. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Baruque, Julio Valdeón (2002). Las Raices Medievales de España [The medieval roots of Spain] (in Spanish). Real Academia de la Historia. p. 55. ISBN 978-84-95983-95-4. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Fernández, Luis Suárez; Baratech, Carlos E. Corona; Vicente, José Antonio Armillas (1984). Historia general de España y América [General History of Spain and America] (in Spanish). Ediciones Rialp. p. 87. ISBN 978-84-321-2106-7. Retrieved 19 January 2016.[permanent dead link]
- María, María Paz Andrés Sáenz de Santa (1 January 2005). Homenaje a la Constitución Española: XXV aniversario [Tribute to the Spanish Constitution: XXV anniversary] (in Spanish). Universidad de Oviedo. p. 123. ISBN 978-84-8317-473-9. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Alcalá-Zamora, José N. (2005). Felipe IV: el hombre y el reinado [Felipe IV: The Man and the Reign] (in Spanish). CEEH. p. 137. ISBN 978-84-934643-0-1. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "Constitucion politica de la Monarquia Española : Promulgada en Cadiz á 19 de Marzo de 1812" [Constitution of the Spanish Monarchy: Promulgated in Cadiz on 19 March 1812]. Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes (in Spanish). Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Ruiz, Joaquín del Moral; Ruiz, Juan Pro; Bilbao, Fernando Suárez (2007). Estado y territorio en España, 1820–1930: la formación del paisaje nacional [State and Territory in Spain, 1820–1930: The formation of the national landscape] (in Spanish). Los Libros de la Catarata. ISBN 978-84-8319-335-8. Retrieved 19 January 2016.[permanent dead link]
- The Gentleman's Magazine, and Historical Chronicle. E. Cave. 1820. p. 326. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Titus Livius. "The History of Rome, Vol. III 25.33". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- García Riaza, Enrique (2005). "Lengua y poder. Notas sobre los orígenes de la latinización de las élites celtibéricas (182–133 aC)" [Language and power: Notes on the origins of colonization of the Celtic elites (182–133 BC)]. Palaeohispanica (in Spanish) (5): 637–655. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Caba, Rubén (2011). "España Y Los Españoles" [Spain and the Spanish]. Arbor (in Spanish). 187 (September=October 2011): 977–982. doi:10.3989/arbor.2011.751n5013. ISSN 0210-1963.
- "Significado / definição de hispânico". Dicionário Priberam da Língua Portuguesa (in Portuguese). Retrieved 19 January 2020.
- "hispano". Diccionario de la lengua española (in Spanish). Real Academia Española. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
- "hispánico". Diccionario de la lengua española (in Spanish). Real Academia Española. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
- "Définitions : Hispanique - Dictionnaire de français Larousse". Larousse.fr.
- "Was bedeutet Hispanic | Fremdwörter für Hispanic". Wissen.de.
- "Ispànico in Vocabolario". Treccani.it.
- "HISPANIC - svensk översättning - bab.la engelskt-svenskt lexikon". Sv.bab.la. Retrieved 25 July 2022.
- The American Heritage book of English usage. Houghton Mifflin. 1996. pp. 198–199. ISBN 978-0-395-76786-3. OL 7467919M.
- Cobos, Rubén (2003) "Introduction," A Dictionary of New Mexico & Southern Colorado Spanish (2nd ed.); Santa Fe: Museum of New Mexico Press; p. ix; ISBN 0-89013-452-9
- "The Hispanic Population: 2010" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. May 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Passel, Jeffrey S.; Taylor, Paul (28 May 2009). "Who's Hispanic?". Pew Research Center. Archived from the original on 4 March 2017. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Humes, Karen R.; Jones, Nicholas A.; Ramirez, Roberto R. (March 2011). "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity". The White House Office of Management and Budget. 30 October 1997. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
- "Hispanic Origin". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 19 January 2016. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The Museum at the Hispanic Society of America". hispanicsociety.org. Archived from the original on 21 December 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "Race and Ethnic Categories" (PDF). Federal Register. 70 (227): 71295. 28 November 2005. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "May an employer override an individual's self-identification of race, gender or ethnicity based on the employer's visual observation?". United States Department of Labor. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Crese, Arthur R.; Schmidley, Audrey Dianne; Ramirez, Roberto R. (9 July 2008). "Identification of Hispanic Ethnicity in Census 2000: Analysis of Data Quality for the Question on Hispanic Origin, Population Division Working Paper No. 75". U.S. Census Bureau.
- "Study: Most Hispanics Prefer Describing Identity From Family's Country Of Origin". CBS DC. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "When Labels Don't Fit: Hispanics and Their Views of Identity". Pew Research Center's Hispanic Trends Project. 4 April 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Arreola, Dan, ed. (2004). "14. "Hispanization of Hereford, Texas"". Hispanic Spaces, Latino Places: Community and Cultural Diversity in Contemporary America.
- Ramirez, Roberto R. (December 2004). "CENSR-18 Census 2000 Special Reports: We the People – Hispanics in the United States" (PDF). US Bureau of the Census. p. 10. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Haverluk, Terrence W. (1998). "Hispanic Community Types and Assimilation in Mex-America". The Professional Geographer. 50 (4): 465–480. doi:10.1111/0033-0124.00133.
- Dupanloup, Isabelle; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Chikhi, Lounès; Barbujani, Guido (24 March 2004). "Estimating the Impact of Prehistoric Admixture on the Genome of Europeans". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 21 (7): 1361–1372. doi:10.1093/molbev/msh135. PMID 15044595.
- McDonald, J. D. (2005). "Y Haplogroups of the World" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 July 2004. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Languages". CIA.gov. Archived from the original on 28 June 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Ethnicity Notes". CIA.gov. Archived from the original on 28 June 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "Europe :: Spain — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". Cia.gov. Retrieved 10 December 2020.
- "Avance del Padrón municipal a 1 de enero de 2009" [The Municipal Register of 1 January 2009] (PDF). Instituto Nacional de Estadística (in Spanish). 1 January 2009. Retrieved 22 September 2009.
- "The World Factbook: Spain". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "Coneixements I Usos Lingüístics De La Població D'Andorra (1995-2014)" (PDF). Centre de Recerca Sociològica d’Estudis Andorrans (in Catalan). p. 24. Retrieved 19 January 2016.[permanent dead link]
- "Mexico". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Mexico". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "Infographic: Afrodescendants in Mexico". wilsoncenter.org. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. 29 July 2022. Retrieved 15 July 2023.
- Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS). "Language Spoken At Home: 2010 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". American FactFinder. Archived from the original on 12 February 2020. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: The United States". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "Belize 2000 Housing and Population Census". Belize Central Statistical Office. 2000. Archived from the original on 20 December 2008. Retrieved 11 October 2008.
- "The World Factbook: Costa Rica". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: El Salvador". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Guatemala". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Honduras". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Nicaragua". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Panama". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Argentina". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Bolivia". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- Lizcano Fernández, Francisco. "Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI". Convergencia. Centro de Investigación en Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México. 38 (May–August 2005). ISSN 1405-1435. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "Geoportal del DANE - Geovisor CNPV 2018". geoportal.dane.gov.co. Retrieved 24 October 2021.
- Homburger, Julian R.; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Nelson, Dominic; Sanchez, Elena; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Acevedo-Vasquez, Eduardo; Miranda, Pedro; Langefeld, Carl D.; Gravel, Simon (4 December 2015). "Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America". PLOS Genetics. 11 (12): e1005602. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1005602. ISSN 1553-7404. PMC 4670080. PMID 26636962.
- "The World Factbook: Ecuador". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Paraguay". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "Perú: Perfil Sociodemográfico" (PDF). Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. p. 216.
- "The World Factbook: Uruguay". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "Atlas Sociodemografico y de la Desigualdad en Uruguay, 2011: Ancestry" (PDF) (in Spanish). National Institute of Statistics. p. 15. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 February 2014.
- "Resultados Básicos Censo 2011" (PDF). Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Caracas. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 December 2017. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Cuba". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". Cia.gov. Retrieved 23 September 2016.
- "Resultados del Censo de 2020 para Puerto Rico y sus Municipios". State Data Center of Puerto Rico (SDC-PR). Retrieved 8 August 2023.
- "Puerto Rico's 2020 Race/Ethnicity Decennial Analysis". Hunter College Center for Puerto Rican Studies. 13 October 2021. Retrieved 8 August 2023.
- "The World Factbook: Equatorial Guinea". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Chile (includes Easter Island)". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Copyright notice". CIA.gov. Archived from the original on 13 May 2013. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Philippines". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- De Borja, Marciano R. (2005). Basques in the Philippines. Reno: University of Nevada Press. ISBN 978-0-87417-891-3. OCLC 607715621.
- "The World Factbook: Guam". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Federated States of Micronesia". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Northern Mariana Islands". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "The World Factbook: Palau". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "Christians". Pewresearch.org. 18 December 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2022.
- Johnson, Todd M.; Zurlo, Gina A.; Hickman, Albert W.; Crossing, Peter F. (November 2017). "Christianity 2018: More African Christians and Counting Martyrs". International Bulletin of Mission Research. 42 (1): 20–28. doi:10.1177/2396939317739833. S2CID 165905763. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
- Espinosa, Gastón; Elizondo, Virgilio; Miranda, Jesse (January 2003). "Hispanic Churches in American Public Life: Summary of Findings" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 November 2006. Retrieved 27 December 2006.
- "Religious Composition by Country, 2010-2050". Pewforum.org. 2 April 2015. Archived from the original on 21 December 2019. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
- "Univision: Curanderos carry on traditions of Catholicism, African rites". mrt.com. 15 February 2005.
- Curtis, William (2004). Fodor's Spain. University of Michigan Press. p. 232. ISBN 9781400012701.
the Virgen del Pilar, the patron saint not only of peninsular Spain but of the entire Hispanic world.
- Espinosa, Gaston (2017). "Latino Muslims in the United States: Reversion, Politics, and Islamidad". Journal of Race, Ethnicity, and Religion. 8. Retrieved 31 July 2017.
- RP closer to becoming observer-state in Organization of Islamic Conference Archived June 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. (May 29, 2009). The Philippine Star. Retrieved 2009-07-10, "Eight million Muslim Filipinos, representing 10 percent of the total Philippine population, ...".
- "Annual Assessment: The Situation and Dynamics of the Jewish People" (PDF). The Jewish People Policy Planning Institute. 2015. p. 18. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 December 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "Global Jewish Populations". United Jewish Federations. Archived from the original on 31 May 2008.
- Wade, Nicholas (5 December 2008). "Gene Test Shows Spain's Jewish and Muslim Mix". The New York Times. p. A12.
- "Ladino". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- De la Garza, Rodolfo O.; Desipio, Louis (1996). Ethnic Ironies: Latino Politics in the 1992 Elections. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. Archived from the original on 22 August 2019. Retrieved 30 August 2023.
- Maura, Juan Francisco (2011). "Caballeros y rufianes andantes en la costa atlántica de los Estados Unidos: Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón y Alvar Núñez Cabeza". Revista Canadiense de Estudios Hispánicos. 35 (2): 305–328.
- Maura, Juan Francisco (2009). "Nuevas aportaciones al estudio de la toponimia ibérica en la América Septentrional en el siglo XVI". Bulletin of Spanish Studies. 86 (5): 577–603. doi:10.1080/14753820902969345. S2CID 192056139.
- Maura, Juan Francisco (2016). "Sobre el origen hispánico del nombre 'Canadá'" (PDF). Lemir: Revista de literatura medieval y del Renacimiento (20): 17–52.
- Price, Marie D.; Cooper, Catherine W. (May 2007). "Competing Visions, Shifting Boundaries: The Construction of Latin America as a World Region". Journal of Geography. 106 (3): 113–122. doi:10.1080/00221340701599113. S2CID 129773519.